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Excerpt via ‘Literature Review’ chapter:
“Egyptian Project Management got over 2 hundred years of experience with pyramid building which did find a clear advancement in learning. The approach was based on learning from mistakes, or prototyping. This is exemplified by the Curved Pyramid at DAHSHUR, obviously experimental, with two different slope gradient for the sides on the lower and upper levels. This knowledge gave them the self confidence to take on the Giza project” (Miroslav, 1997).
“The Parthenon is known as a temple in the Athenian Beachhead, Greece, committed to the Ancient greek language goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their particular protector. Their construction commenced in 447 BC and was designed in 438 BC, although adornments of the Parthenon continued right up until 432 BC. It is the most critical surviving building of Traditional Greece, generally considered to be the culmination from the development of the Doric buy. Its ornamental sculptures are considered some of the excessive points of Ancient greek language art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy and one of many world’s best cultural typical monuments. The Ancient greek Ministry of Culture happens to be carrying out a system of selective restoration and reconstruction to guarantee the stability of the partially ruined structure” (Venieri, 2007).
The Parthenon is simply an octostyle Doric temple. Most of the aspects of the Parthenon are inspired by the Ionic architectural styles and the chryselephantine statue of Athena Parthenon that was originally sculpted by Phidias. The interior natural stone work was also depictive of the Ionic design as it had a number of colors and styles (Tarbell, 2004). Phidias dedicated the brow in 436 B. C. To Athena. The construction from the temple although had not been completed till 432 B. C. And would not finish right up until the early waves of the Peloponnesian War. “By the year 438, the sculptural decoration with the Doric metopes on the frieze above the outdoor colonnade, along with the Ionic frieze about the upper portion of the walls from the cella, had been completed. The richness of the Parthenon’s frieze and metope decoration is in agreement with the function with the temple as a treasury. Inside the opisthodomus (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary contributions of the Delian Group, of which Athens was the leading member” (Tarbell, 2004).
There have been a total of ninety-two metopes that had been toned in the bigger relief from the structure that was a style reserved only for the treasuries at the time as that was obviously a place committed for the gods. These types of metopes have lasted for a long period i. at the. since the 446 B. C. And were primarily designed and toned by the creative designer primarily i. at the. Kalamis. The Ionic influence is very visible even through this design particularly in the exterior surfaces design. “The bas-relief frieze was designed in situ; it is old in 442 BCE-438 BCE. One meaning is that that depicts a great idealized type of the Panathenaic procession in the Dipylon Door in the Kerameikos to the Hold. In this retraite held yearly, with a unique procession occurring every four years, Athenians and foreigners were taking part to exclusive chance the goddess Athena, supplying sacrifices and a new peplos (dress stiched by picked noble Athenian girls named ergastines)” (Barringer, 2008).
Caesar’s Rhine Bridge
Caesar’s Rhine Bridge is definitely the first of the twin bridges that is created for the purpose of traversing the Rhine River. These types of bridges were built by simply Julius Caesar and his huge army through the years 53 B. C. And fifty-five B. C. while these were engaged in the Gallic Conflict. The use of the military services for the development of these links was evidently visible inside the construction as the bridges did not only prove to be logically the correct move but the connect also demonstrated quite a crystal clear military engineering inclination too (Nebel, 2010). The technique behind the construction of these links was to allow Caesar great armies a chance to travel throughout large aspects of land and also travel everywhere they desired. The amazing aspect here is that the use of the regional army, that comprised of more than 40, 1000 soldiers, allowed Caesar ti get the first bridge finished and looking forward to use in only 10 days (Nebel, 2010).
“The actual structure of Caesar’s first connection took place probably between Andernach and Neuwied, downstream of Koblenz within the Rhine Riv. Book 5 (Liber IV) of his commentaries gives technical information on this wood beam bridge. Double hardwood pilings had been rammed in the bottom of the river by winching up a large natural stone and publishing it, thus driving the beam into the riverbed. The most upstream and downstream pilings were slanted and properly secured by a light, and multiple segments of those then associated up to constitute the basis of the bridge. Inconsistant models have already been presented based upon his description” (Voggenreiter, 2009).
The Romans were the masterminds behind one of the most beautiful amazing things of the world – the Coliseum, they plainly had specific technologies and information that helped all of them attain the architectural and visual achievement with the Coliseum that still inspires various up-and-coming can be.
The most important element to note below that the Aventure utilized these bricks that had been really solid yet quickly flexible; this is just what made much of the construction practically possible in the end. The main tool used for the development was concrete floor because of its versatile nature and we can see which the Romans widely used concrete floor because it could be easily shaped into any kind of shape required and would harden quickly without triggering any main constructional worries in terms of the speed and power of the walls, of course the strength would change depending upon the other mixes they would use with concrete. Perhaps the many popular and useful mixture was making use of the finely ground volcanic lava with concrete floor instead of applying clay, this they used to develop Portland cement. The development of the arches and vaults was very simple with the use of concrete, plus the many impressive component was the utilization of mathematics to create the building and its particular design. “Each entrance and exit was numbered, since was each staircase. The northern primary entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his supports, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All axial entrances were abundantly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the initial outer entrances have faded with the fall of the edge wall, but entrances XXIII (23) to LIV (54) still endure (Claridge, 1998). ” The dynamics in the Coliseum were:
First floor: 14 foot wide and 23 foot tall
Second floor: 16 feet large and twenty one feet taller
Third flooring: 14 toes wide and 21 ft tall
“The Colosseum’s big crowd capacity made it vital that the area could be filled or evacuated quickly. It is architects implemented solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with a similar problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by simply eighty entrances at walk out, 76 of which were employed by ordinary spectators” (Roth, 1993).
Tarbell, F. M. 2004. A History of Ancient Greek Art. Ellopos. net. Accessed on November 13, 2010 from: http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-greece/history-of-ancient-greek-art-12.asp
Voggenreiter. a. 2009. Historischer Ruckblick. Aged from the first on 2010-11-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20061016094500/http://www.biw.fhd.edu/alumni/2002/voggenreiter/fachbeitrag/rueckblick.htm
Nebel, B. 2010. Julius Casars Brucke uber den Rhein. Accessed in November 13, 2010 coming from: http://www.bernd-nebel.de/bruecken/3_bedeutend/caesar/caesar.html
Barringer, J. Meters. (2008). Art, myth, and ritual in classical Greece. Cambridge. p. 78.
Campbell, J. (1991). Masks of God. Penguin Group Incorporation.
Claridge, a. (1998). The italian capital: An Oxford Archaeological Information (First education. ). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 276 – 282
Sollberger, E. (1972). Mr. Taylor in Chaldaea, Diary of Anatolian Studies.
Create, K. S. (1998). Backyards of Eden: Flora and Fauna inside the Ancient Around East. Changes of Middle section Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons. New Dreamland: Yale University or college. pp. 320 – 329. Accessed in November 11, 2010 coming from: http://environment.yale.edu/documents/downloads/0-9/103foster.pdf.
Jones, G. E. K. (1990) Looking at Structures. Harry D. Abrams Creating, p8.
Venieri. I. 3 years ago. Acropolis of Athens. Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Utilized on The fall of 11, 2010 from: http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/eh351.jsp?obj_id=2384
Rohl, D. Legend: The Genesis of Civilization, 1998.
Rossella, L. 2008. Were the Pyramids Made With Cement? Discovery News. Discovery Funnel. Accessed in November eleven, 2010 coming from: http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2006/12/08/pyramids_arc.html
Roth, L. Meters. 1993. Understanding Architecture: The Elements, Background Meaning (First ed. ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Miroslav. V. 1997. The Pyramids: The Mystery, Traditions, and Research of Egypt’s Great Typical monuments, Grove Press. 2001.