Qualitative research Essay
PREPARING A CASE STUDY: Helpful tips for Creating and Conducting a Case Analyze for Analysis Input By simply Palena Neale, PhD, Elderly Evaluation Relate Shyam Thapa, PhD, Mature Monitoring and Evaluation Expert Carolyn Boyce, MA, Evaluation Associate May possibly 2006 G AT H F We N M E L I And T Electronic R D AT I actually O N A M T Um O M S Elizabeth R I E T Monitoring and Evaluation 1 PREPARING A CASE STUDY: A Guide pertaining to Designing and Conducting an instance Study intended for Evaluation Input By Palena Neale, PhD, Senior Evaluation Associate Shyam Thapa, PhD, Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor Carolyn Boyce, MUM, Evaluation Connect. May 06\ Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following Pathfinder employees and companions for their specialized inputs in this file: Emmanuel Boadi (Pathfinder/Ghana), Anne Palmer (Futures Group International), Ugo Daniels (African Youth Alliance (AYA)), Veronique Dupont (Pathfinder/Extending Support Delivery (ESD)), Cathy Solter, Lauren Dunnington, and Shannon Pryor (Pathfinder headquarters).
Jenny Wilder and Mary Burket are also thanked for their advices and assistance in croping and editing and making this record. 2 PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL: PUBLISHING A CASE STUDY. What is a Example?
A case analyze is a tale about something unique, exceptional, or interestingstories can be about individuals, agencies, processes, programs, neighborhoods, establishments, and even situations. 1 The case study shows the story lurking behind the result by simply capturing so what happened to bring that about, and is a good possibility to highlight a project’s achievement, or to bring attention to a particular challenge or difficulty in a project. Cases2 might be selected since they are highly effective, not effective, agent, typical, or of special interest.
A number of examples of example topics are offered belowthe circumstance studies might describe what happened when, who, and using what consequences in each case. Case Study Cases Shifting Thinking of Youth-Serving Service Providers Uniqueness/Point of Interest Your program surely could change service providers’ thinking towards working with Adolescent Sex and Reproductive : Health (ASRH) needs in an environment wherever provider’s behaviour have been a barrier to young people being able to access SRH companies. Your software was effective in introducing YFS to the MOH in addition to institutionalizing an YFS subjects in a establishing where the MOH did not give YFS.
The program could integrate HIV prevention in a number of FBO service delivery details in an environment that normally does not include or perhaps welcome HIV prevention activities. Your plan built the leadership potential of youngsters to endorse, promote, and participate in making decisions around ASRH. This happened in a setting that would not include ASRH on the schedule nor motivate youth participation in general or in decision making in particular. Adding Youth-Friendly Providers (YFS) inside the Ministry of Health (MOH) Integrating HIV Prevention in Faith-Based Business (FBO) Health Services Delivery. Developing Children Leadership in Tanzania 1 2 Yin, Robert K. (2003).
Example Research: Design and style and Strategies. Thousand Oakds: Sage Journals. Case identifies the unit of research or theme chosen intended for study (i. e., the person, organization, or program). PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL: PRODUCING A CASE ANALYZE 3 What is a Case Study Appropriate?
Case studies are appropriate when there is also a unique or interesting account to be advised. Case research are often used to present context to other data (such while outcome data), offering a much more complete picture of what happened in the system and so why. What are the Advantages and Restrictions of a Example? The primary good thing about a case research is that it provides much more detailed information than what is available through other strategies, such as research. Case studies also enable one to present data gathered from multiple methods (i. e., surveys, interviews, document review, and observation) to provide the complete tale.
There are a few constraints and stumbling blocks however , every single of which is definitely described under. Can be lengthy: Because they offer detailed advice about the case in narrative contact form, it may be challenging to hold a reader’s curiosity if as well lengthy. In writing the case analyze, care must be taken to supply the rich details in a comestible manner.
Matter that circumstance studies lack rigor: Case studies have been viewed in the evaluation and research fields as significantly less rigorous than surveys or other methods. Reasons for this kind of include the fact that qualitative analysis in general is still considered unscientific by some and in many cases, example researchers never have been methodical in their data collection or have allowed opinion in their studies. In doing and publishing case research, all engaged should use care in being methodical in their data collection and take steps to assure validity3 and reliability4 inside the study. Not really generalizable: One common complaint regarding case research is that it is difficult to extend from one circumstance to another.
Although case research have also been susceptible to overgeneralization, which will comes from deciding on a few illustrations and presuming without proof that they are normal or associated with the population. Yin, a prominent researcher, suggests case study experts to generalize findings to theories, being a scientist generalizes from trial and error results to theories. 5 three or more 4 Quality refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or analyzes the specific principle that the specialist is attempting to measure. Stability is the extent to which a great experiment, test out, or any computing procedure yields the same end result on repeated trials.
5 Yin, Robert K. (2003). Case Study Study: Design and Methods. Thousands of Oaks: Sage Publications. 5 PATHFINDER FOREIGN: WRITING A CASE STUDY.
What is the Process pertaining to Conducting a Case Study? The process for conducting case study analysis follows precisely the same general process as is followed for study: plan, accumulate data, assess data, and disseminate studies. More detailed measures are given below.
1 . Strategy Recognize stakeholders who will be involved. Brainstorm a case study matter, considering types of situations and how come they are unique or appealing. Determine what info is needed and from to whom (see What are Potential Sources of Info? and What will be the Elements of an instance Study? ). Recognize any paperwork needed for review. List stakeholders to get interviewed or surveyed (national, facility, and beneficiary levels) and determine sample if necessary. Ensure research follows international and national honest research requirements, including assessment by ethical research committees.
For more information, you should see the Worldwide Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Concerning Human Subject matter, available at http://www. cioms. ch/frame_guidelines_nov_2002. htm. 2 . Develop Devices Develop interview/survey protocolsthe rules that guide the supervision and implementation of the interview/survey. Put simply, these are the guidelines that are adopted to ensure regularity across interviews/surveys, and thus improve the reliability in the findings.
The next instructions pertaining to the ought to be included in the process: Points to say to interviewees when preparing the interview/survey; What things to say to interviewees when start the interview/survey, including making sure informed consent of the respondent (see Appendix 1 for an example); Points to say to surveys takers in finishing the interview; How to proceed during the interview (Example: Take notes? Audiotape? Both? ); and What to do following interview (Example: Fill in remarks?
Check audiotape for quality? Summarize important information for every? Submit written findings? ). Develop an interview guide/survey that prospect lists the inquiries or problems to be investigated and comes with an informed agreement form. Please note that you will most likely need interview guides/surveys for every group of stakeholders, as queries may differ. Where important, translate courses into neighborhood languages and test translation.
PATHFINDER FOREIGN: WRITING AN INSTANCE STUDY a few 3. Teach Data Lovers Determine and educate data hobbyists (if necessary). (See Training Tips for Data Collectors6. ) Where necessary, use interviewers that speak the local terminology. Training Tips for Data Hobbyists Staff, youth program individuals, or professional interviewers may be involved in data collection. No matter what experience info collectors have, training should include: An intro to the evaluation objectives, A review of info collection approaches, An intensive review of the information collection items and devices, Practice in the utilization of the tools, Skill-building exercises on interviewing and interpersonal communication, and Discussion of ethical issues. four. Collect Data Gather all relevant documents.
Set up interviews/surveys with stakeholders (be sure to explain the idea, why the stakeholder have been chosen, and the expected duration). Look for informed permission of each respondent (written or perhaps documented oral). Re-explain purpose of interview, why the stakeholder has been selected, expected duration of, whether and how the information will probably be kept secret, and the usage of a note taker/tape recorder. If the surveys takers has agreed, conduct the interview/survey. five.
Analyze Info Review all relevant documents. Review most interview/survey data. 6. Share Findings Write survey (see What are the Elements of a Case Research? ). Solicit opinions.
Change Disseminate 6 Adamchak, S., ainsi que. al. (2000). A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs. Available at http://www. pathfind. org/site/PageServer? pagename=Publications_FOCUS_Guides_and_Tools. 6 PATHFINDER FOREIGN: WRITING AN INSTANCE STUDY What are Potential Types of Information?
Case studies commonly rely on multiple sources of information and techniques to provide since complete a picture as possible. Information sources may include: Project documents (including appointment minutes) Project information, including quarterly reports, midterm reviews Monitoring appointments Mystery client information Facility assessment studies Interviews Questionnaire/survey results Evaluation studies Remark Additional What are the Elements of a Case Study? Case studies you don’t have set components that need to be included; the portions of each will be different depending on the circumstance or tale chosen, your data collected, as well as the purpose (for example, to illustrate an ideal case versus a typical case).
However , circumstance studies commonly describe an application or involvement put in place to cope with a particular problem. Therefore , we offer the following elements and case on which you could draw: 1 ) The Problem i. Identify the condition ii. Clarify why 55 important 3. How was the problem recognized? iv.
Was the process pertaining to identifying the situation effective? installment payments on your Steps delivered to address the challenge 3. Effects 4. Difficulties and how these were met 5. Beyond Outcomes 6. Lessons Learned. PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL: PRODUCING A CASE STUDY 7 1 . The Problem: You have to identify the actual problem was. Specifically: i. Identify the situation. For example , certain FBO leadership was against including HIV prevention activities within their programming. Specifically, they felt that prevention activities would showcase sex among youth and thereby raise the incidence of HIV.
Additionally , the FBO felt the promotion of condoms as being a form of elimination was morally wrong. ii. Explain for what reason the problem is crucial. Following the same example, to realise a comprehensive respond to HIV/AIDS, reduction activities could be an important a part of HIV encoding, in addition to care and support. Addressing moral and religious problems and arguments of FBO leaders in order to incorporate this component considerably expands the prevention work and offers a better breadth and depth in HIV development. iii.
How was the trouble identified? It is likely that program personnel will have a thought of what general challenges exist. For example , YFS can be not integrated in the MOH, FBOs usually do not include reduction activities, youth involvement will not occur, and so forth What was very likely missing and required exploration were the main points around this basic problem. Regarding working with FBOs, an initial job planning getting together with was held to talk about the particulars behind the problem. It was exposed during this method that certain FBOs who executed care and support actions did not provide prevention actions, specifically condom promotion.
The main reason presented was spiritual objections; another reason identified but not explicitly explained was stigma. iv. Was your process pertaining to identifying the challenge effective? After additional one on one discussions with FBO leaders, it was established that the commanders had worries based on meaning and faith based grounds relating to prevention work, particularly endorsing condoms.
Furthermore, discussions revealed that a number of market leaders had limited and/or incorrect information with regards to transmission and prevention choices. 8 PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL: WRITING A CASE ANALYZE 2 . Measures Undertaken to Address the Problem: What was done (activities/ interventions/ inputs), where, simply by whom, intended for whom? In the case of integrating avoidance in FBOs, an illustrative outline of steps carried out to address 55 given below: The fact that was done?
Period 1: Sensitization Sensitization of leadership: actions included reviewing FBO guidelines and bylaws by plan staff in order to demonstrate to leadership that there were no constitutional objections to prevention activities. Project personnel engaged open-handed FBO market leaders to supply quotations from the Holy bible to build their evidence-based discussion to influence other leaders that there was clearly in fact simply no biblical basis for the preclusion of prevention activities. Sensitization of facility managers: meet with managers to discuss management approval and present evidence-based arguments about why integration activities can be included.
Sensitization of community: work with groups to explain that these activities have been approved by the FBO management and in which they can head to receive companies. Phase two: Integration Facility assessments Selected facilities Job Staff, FBO representatives Local Implementing Partners (IPs) Job Staff, Facility Managers Contractor FBOs, Job Staff Facility Staff District/ National Job Staff FBO leaders Exactly where? By Whom? For Which?
Facilities Project Staff Service Managers Community catchment areas Project Personnel Community people Training of service providers Chosen facilities Execute staff orientations Facilities Service Staff Physical infrastructure increased Phase three or more: Outreach Recognize peers that you would like to work with Training Provide Tools Supervision Phase 4: M&E Reassessments Services Facility Picked facilities Facilities Facility Staff IPs Job Peer supervisors Beneficiaries Peers Peers Colleagues Sample of selected facilities Project Staff, Facility Managing, Youth Educated mystery customers Project Personnel, Peer Administrators. Facility, Project Staff Secret client selection interviews Monitoring trips Facilities Features, Peers Service staff, Task Staff PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL: PUBLISHING A CASE RESEARCH 9 three or more.
Results: What were the results of the intervention, specially the significant or unique benefits? For example: your activities led to the FBO including HIV prevention actions in their coding, which written for an increase in condom distribution. Or perhaps, your actions resulted in youth-serving service providers using a youth-friendly attitude which in turn contributed to improved services and an increase in youngsters visits. Cathedral leadership may well have made a commitment and modified plans to include ASRH activities, leadership talking about the difficulties publicly.
Center managers will make financial obligations to refurbishments, training, etc . 4. Difficulties and how we were holding met: This focuses on what challenges or perhaps difficulties you encountered and what you do to defeat them. Among the challenges in working with FBOs may have been working with Catholic FBOs and your response could have been to negotiate with them to include certain reduction activities like continence, and/or offering a referral point to youth whom may want to get information about condoms. Another likely challenge is that not all FBOs who you possessed hoped to do business with were happy to come on plank and this needed additional interest. 5. Past Results: Will be the results stated earlier sustainable? Why or really want to?
For example , an integrated approach to programming (which included a strong insurance plan and advocation component) produced an allowing policy environment with strong stakeholder support that can be nurtured and leveraged beyond the project period. 6. Lessons Learned: What lessons were learned: programmatic, technical, economic, process, and so forth? For example , the ability showed it turned out imperative pertaining to project personnel to have a extremely solid comprehension of government guidelines to speak to problems with essential stakeholders. In addition , it was essential to have a fantastic understanding of the various religious beliefs in addition to their respective plans and by-laws for producing and delivering advocacy fights. How are Circumstance Studies Presented?
Case studies are flexible in that they could be presented in several waysthere is not a specific format to follow. Yet , like most evaluation results, justification and methodology of the study ought to be provided, and also any helping information (i. e., copies of musical instruments and guides used in the study). Case studies may stand alone or perhaps be a part of a larger evaluation report. In the event presented being a stand-alone statement, the following report outline is suggested: 1 . Launch and Reason 2 . Strategy a. Just how was the method carried out? (Describe the process of picking the case and data collection sources, along with how info was collected. ) n. What assumptions are there (if any)? twelve PATHFINDER INTERCONTINENTAL: WRITING A CASE STUDY three or more.
4. your five. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. c. Are there any restrictions with this technique? d. What instruments had been used to accumulate data? (You may want to consist of some or all in the appendix. ) e. What sample(s) is/are being used? n. Over which time frame was this data collected? The Problem Things Taken to Addresses the Problem The Results The Challenges and just how They were Met Beyond Results Lessons Discovered Conclusion Bout Where May More Information in Case Studies be Found? Information about Case Study Exploration Adamchak, S., et. approach. (2000). Strategies for Monitoring and Evaluating Teenagers Reproductive Wellness Programs.
Offered at http://www. pathfind. org/pf/pubs/focus/guidesandtools/PDF/Part%20II. pdf. Patton, Michael jordan Q. (2002). Qualitative Study & Analysis Methods. Thousands of Oaks: Sage Publications.
Stake, Robert Electronic. (1995). The Art of Case Study Study. Thousand Oaks: Sage Guides. United States Basic Accounting Business office, Program Evaluation and Technique Division. (1987). Case Study Assessments.
Available at http://161. 203. sixteen. 4/t2pbat22/132683. pdf file. Yin, Robert K. (2003). Case Study Exploration: Design and Methods. Birmingham: Sage Journals. Examples of Case Studies Cornwall, A. and Welbourn, A. (2002). Noticing Rights: Transforming Approaches to Sex and Reproductive : Well-Being. Birmingham: Zed Literature. Population Council. Quality/Calidad/Qualite series. Available at http://www. popcouncil. org/publications/qcq/default. htm. SRI International. (2001). The Organization of Learning in Community Technology Centers: Learning with Technology in Half a dozen Communities. Offered by http://www. americaconnects. net/research/SRI_case_study_report. pdf file.
PATHFINDER INTERCONTINENTAL: WRITING A CASE STUDY 14 Appendix 1: Sample Up to date Consent Kind Key Components: Many thanks Your name Purpose Privacy Length Just how interview will be conducted Opportunity for concerns Unsecured personal of approval I want to i want to thank taking the time in order to meet with me today. My name is ________________________ and I would want to talk to you about your activities participating in the African Junior Alliance (AYA) project. Particularly, as one of the pieces of our general program analysis we are evaluating program efficiency in order to get lessons which you can use in future interventions. The interview should take less than an hour. We are taping the session since I don’t want to miss any of your comments.
Even though I will be a little notes during the session, We can’t quite possibly write fast enough to get it every down. Mainly because we’re in tape, please be sure to speak up to ensure that we don’t miss the comments. All responses will probably be kept confidential. This means that your interview reactions will only become shared with analysis team members and we will ensure that details we include in our record does not discover you as the respondent. Remember, you don’t have to talk about anything you don’t need to and you might end the interview anytime.
Are there any queries about what I use just explained? Are you willing to take part in this interview? __________________ Interviewee __________________ Observe __________ Time ______________________________________