road accident essay

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Background: Traffic incidents rank fifth among the leading cause of deaths in Malaysia. The country can be burdened exceeding ten billion ringgit of losses as a result of traffic mishaps every year. Inspite of implementation of numerous intervention procedures over the years, the amount of traffic mishaps continues to surge. For instance, the amount of traffic injuries in the year 2007 was approximately twice the quantity of accidents noted in 1997.

Objectives: The essence this conventional paper is to provide an initial knowledge of the crash exposure regarding the flexibility level in several states of Malaysia.

It is of interest to explore the relationship from the exposure design and crash risk ahead of planning powerful countermeasures. Method: Travelling data based on odometer reading was obtained through Postcard Survey. 40, 000 postcards had been sent randomly to fresh vehicle owners registered with the Street Transport Division. Results: An overall total of 6, 681 drivers responded to the survey. Off their odometer blood pressure measurements, it was noted that guys travelled 99. 06 billion km although their feminine counterparts travelled only 49.

69 billion dollars km. The results also indicated that male individuals were nearly three times even more at risk of being involved in highway accidents as compared with female motorists. Significance: The findings are extremely useful to the kind of authorities because intervention countermeasures in relation to the different characteristics and demographics in the states may be designed. The results as well serve as a reference point pertaining to state decision makers to adjust their countermeasures for the betterment of road protection. Keywords: Exposure; Survey; Risk


Malaysia shares similar profiles of crash patterns with other expanding

countries in the world before decade. The tremendous enhance of motorised vehicles on the roads provides invariably resulted in significant within the number of traffic accidents. The amount of traffic injuries in 2007 almost bending occurred in 1997. as compared to the number of traffic accidents that

60 % of total fatalities reported over the years involved motorcyclists. This high crash rate has resulted in road mishaps being the 5th leading cause of loss of life in Malaysia (Department of Statistics, 2008) and caused 9. three or more billion ringgit of loss to the country in the year 2003 (ADB-ASEAN, 2003). In the list of world search positions, Malaysia is definitely ranked forty sixth of 172 countries regarding occurrence of deaths in registered automobiles due to road accients (WHO, 2009). Determine 1 displays the rate of occurrence of accidents among 2001 and 2010.

Number 1 Incident Records by 2001 to 2010

Many road protection studies have led to the convergence a measure of risk exposure is very important for a complete analysis of causal elements (Joly ou al., 1993). By classification, “exposure to risk means the weeknesses of a new driver or a program that may lead to an accident (Chapman, 1973).

Elements of publicity can be the miles driven, the quantity of trips, the number of registered vehicles, fuel intake or the range of driver hours. Risk however, is the rate of injuries over the exposure parameters.

Direct exposure analysis has been widely used to describe the variant or to rationalise how a certain group or perhaps person might be exposed to high risk of accidents than others. One of the the more common guidelines is the range of kilometres went (KT). Persons argue that the risk of accidents goes up with the quantity of travelperformed. Studies by Janke (1991) and Maycock (1997) confirmed that while length driven increased linearly while using risk of road accidents, it was not the case for those drivers who clocked decrease mileage. Motorists who went shorter distances but who also travelled upon busy tracks

even at reduced speeds were exposed to just as many targeted traffic conflicts which could consequently increase their risk of accidents. Chu (2003) in his analyze concludes that merely comparing the risk of accidents with contact with driving above long ranges can be over or below representing when the differences in travelling speed and environmental factors were not taken in consideration. As a result, there are many different influencing factors, but car kilometre travelled (VKT), a great indicator associated with the number of automobiles and total distance travelled, is one of the leading factors influencing the road protection performance inside Malaysia or perhaps neighbouring locations.

The aim of this paper is always to provide an first understanding of the crash exposure pertaining to the mobility level in the various states of Malaysia. It truly is of interest to explore the relationship of the exposure habits and crash risks prior to planning effective countermeasures.


In Malaysia, the number of accidents and fatalities in 2007 was extracted from the MIROS Road Incident Analysis and Database Program (M-ROADS) which was compiled from the original data kept by the Royal Authorities of Malaysia (RPM). The data regarding the registered vehicles and motorists in Malaysia had been obtained from the trail Transportation Division Malaysia (RTD). The Population info for each express in Malaysia was extracted from the Department of Stats Malaysia. Every one of the secondary info were after that used to estimation the death per 75, 000 populations and death per 15, 000 vehicles.

Information on travel around based on odometer readings was obtained from the Postcard Study conducted in 2007 and has been reported elsewhere (Nurulhuda, 2010) although briefly identified as follows:

The sampling in this study can be random sampling, stratified simply by type of listed vehicle in the states of Malaysia. Fourty thousand post cards were provided for new vehicle owners and 6681 respondents completed the set of questions.

The Postcard Survey got 4 concerns: purpose of travel and leisure, income, odometer reading and date odometer reading was taken. The private information with the driver (age, gender, etc . ) and vehicle information (type of vehicle, engine size, and so forth ) was obtain in the JPJ Repository. Figure 2 shows an example of the filled Postcard delivered to the specialist. Estimates of Average Annual Kilometers Travelled (AAKT) had been classified simply by state and type of vehicle.

Figure 2 Example of Postcard Survey went back


Stand 1 reveals the number of deaths by point out in Malaysia and its affiliated fatality level. A total of 6282 individuals were killed in road accidents in the year 3 years ago. Selangor and Johor registered the highest range of fatalities with 16% every single. Perlis reported the least volume of fatalities with 41 fatalities.

Table you: Fatalities and Death amongst vehicles signed up with RTD in 12 months 2007 Point out Perlis Kedah Pulau Pinang Perak Selangor WP KL Negeri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan Sabah Sarawak TOTAL Fatalities 41 492 376 811 1025 234 320 227 1023 437 374 290 316 316 6282 Death every 100, 1000 population 17. 7 25. 6 twenty-four. 8 thirty five. 0 twenty. 7 13. 6 32. 7 40. 7 31. 6 twenty nine. 5 thirty-five. 0 18. 6 12. 3 13. 1 twenty two. 8 Loss of life per 15, 000 cars registered 6th. 20 a few. 84 installment payments on your 10 5. 21 a few. 24 0. 62 4. 74 a few. 98 four. 39 6th. 54 10. 10 a few. 47 4. 70 several. 04 a few. 73

When the population and number of new vehicles authorized were regarded, the outcomes show that the highest fatality rate every 100, 500 population was reported in Perak and Terengganu, with recording thirty-five. 0 deaths per 100, 000 human population. Sabah rated ninth among the states, with 4. several deaths per every 12, 000 vehicles registered. It is interesting to make note of here that the use of a unique denominator brings a different point of view of road safety.

The comparison of contact with risk of accidents also took into account the amount of motor traffic, land work with and connected traffic conditions in each state. (IRTAD, 2010). However, in the year 3 years ago, for every twelve, 000

vehicles registered in Terengganu there were 10. 1 fatalities reported. More suitable risk of highway accidents between road users in Terengganu needs serious interest from the relevant parties.

Table 2 reveals the total populace, registered volume of vehicles, accident data, car kilometres went (VKT) by state in Malaysia pertaining to year 3 years ago. Al-Haji (2005), defines the population size, quantity of vehicles, and VKT while indicators of exposure to risk of accidents. VKT is a more accurate exposure evaluate than human population or range of vehicles since it is also linkd to the differences in socio-economic circumstances in every state.

Motorcars nationwide clocked 247, 045 km in the year 2007, although motorcycles clocked 25 percent fewer in car kilometres travelled. Selangor reported the highest AAKT for motor bikes while Negri Sembilan had the highest record of AAKT for motorcars.

Table two: Total inhabitants, number of listed vehicles, and Accident info by Point out for year 2007 Populace (‘000) 231. 9 1918. 7 1518. 5 2314. 6 4961. 6 1604. 4 978. 2 738. 8 several, 240. being unfaithful 1483. 6 1067. 9 1560. five 3063. 6th 2404. a couple of 27087. some Registered Cars Motorcars 13, 502 212, 866 728, 493 510, 013 869, 169 2, 271, 722 236, three hundred 218, 568 953, 439 247, 491 123, 193 182, 768 379, 878 472, 241 7, 419, 643 Motorcycles 49, 240 572, 614 979, 853 948, 255 886, 970 1, 108, 324 389, 453 320, 657 one particular, 205, 058 368, 294 220, 222 312, 293 134, 129 448, 017 7, 943, 364 Injuries AAKT Motorcars 15008 17661 15857 18144 19135 19228 21322 18924 17003 18033 19344 16524 14938 15926 247045 Motorbikes 11626 14323 14234 12902 15637 14066 13924 12957 13798 13196 12989 12074 12340 10469 184534 Motorcars (In Billion) 202, 634, 047 three or more, 759, 459, 781 eleven, 551, 861, 268 being unfaithful, 253, 639, 738 16, 631, 402, 097 43, 681, 185, 702 your five, 038, 475, 520 5, 136, 232, 397 16, 211, one hundred forty five, 110 some, 462, 690, 665 2, 382, 994, 003 a few, 019, 990, 257 your five, 674, 458, 001 7, 520, 858, 755 VKT Motorcycles (In Billion) 572, 271, 266 8, 201, 469, 535 13, 946, 948, 551 12, 234, 471, 808 13, 869, 290, 422 15, 589, 979, 983 5, 422, 705, 095 4, 154, 713, 743 16, 627, 083, 780 4, 860, 167, 228 2, 860, 469, 727 3, 770, 619, nine hundred 1, 655, 096, 320 4, 690, 149, 830


Perlis Kedah Pulau Pinang Perak Selangor WP KL Negri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan Sabah Sarawak TOTAL

you, 364 of sixteen, 172 33, 881 up to 29, 203 99, 157 49, 454 16, 079 11, 720 46, 584 13, 982 almost 8, 155 eight, 116 12-15, 196 18, 256 363, 319

133, 527, 027, 342 108, 455, 437, 190

Since year 3 years ago, there were 6. 2 million active male drivers and 3. almost eight million energetic female individuals registered with RTD (see Table 3). “Active drivers here refers to those with valid terms of license throughout this survey. Based on Stand 3, it was noted that on average there is not much big difference between feminine and man drivers within their annual common distance went. In terms of VKT, female motorists recorded fifty eight. 69 billion dollars vehicle kilometres travelled, which was 40% reduced as compared to their very own male counterparts. Translating the deaths registered into VKT, it was predicted that men drivers had been nearly three times more at risk than female drivers.

Table 3: Crash rate (fatality) and publicity data disaggregated by gender Active Motorists 6, 168, 238 3, 804, 872 Driver kilometres (billion) 99. 06 58. 69 Risk (per billion dollars driver km) 53. 1 17. 5




Male Female

16, 059. eighty 15, 425. 35

5, 258 you, 024

Further analysis for the risk of bikers being involved in a traffic accident was also done to check the safety performance of motorcyclists as compared to drivers of motorcars in Malaysia.


The objective of this kind of paper is always to shed some light on road safety efficiency in the country. The results showed that the total number of accidents required coverage data to evaluate the road protection performance. For example, the deaths records in Terengganu had been 374 fatalities but when the people and quantity of vehicles registered were regarded as, the risks were known to increase.

The kilometres travelled is the calculate of direct exposure identified inside the study and obtained from odometer survey via postcard approach. It should be noted it turned out based on agent sample and influenced by simply certain level of bias.

The results in this paper are not free from limitation and disagreement. The data shown in this research can be grouped into two categories: major data and secondary info. The primary data were gathered from the interview survey in which the initial focuses on were bikers and car drivers. The choice to focus on those two groups was due to the fact that they were overrepresented either in the incident data or perhaps the vehicle inhabitants. However , concerns were experienced during the extrapolation of second data procured from RTD and the targeted traffic police databases.

The creators acknowledge their shortcomings, whilst due effort was put in refining the findings. Consequently , the trade-off in the richness of data ought to be interpreted with care. At this stage, it will not fully illustrate the picture of exposure and risk patterns of the population in the country. Even so, the experts believed that this paper features the direct exposure and risk elements in explaining street safety by another point of view.


[1] Department of Statistics Malaysia, Sebab Kematian Utama Malaysia, Statistik Perangkaan 2008, Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, 2008. [2] G. Maycock. Incident liability ” the human point of view, Traffic and Transport Mindset. Theory and Application, pp. 65 ” 76, Amsterdam: Pergamon, 97. [3] Hutchinson, T. L., Wundersitz, L. N., Anderson, R. W. G. and Kloeden, C. N., (2009). Exposure to risk on the highways, Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Seminar, Sydney pp. 190-200, The fall of, 2009. [4] International Traffic Safety Info and Analysis Group (IRTAD), Road Protection 2010 Twelve-monthly Report, Rome, 2010. [5] K. T. C. Mani, M. F. M. Yusuff, R. Umar, The Cost of Road Traffic Accident in Malaysia, ADB-ASEAN Regional Highway Safety System, Accident Costing Report: AC5, 2003. [6] M. E. Janke, Incidents, mileage and the exaggeration of risk. Incident Anlaysis and Prevention, Vol. 23, No . 2/3, pp. 183 ” 188, 1991. [7] M. Nurulhuda and M. Meters Jamilah. Progress Exposure Directories for Different Types of Vehicle in Malaysia, MIROS Highway Safety Seminar 2010, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 108-116, December, 2010 [8] Road Transportation Department Malaysia, Report of Registered Automobiles by Kind of Vehicle in Malaysia, 3 years ago. [9] Regal Malaysia Law enforcement, Road Crash Statistics Malaysia 2007. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur, 3 years ago. [10] Community Health Firm (WHO), Global Status Report on Road Protection, 2009. [11] X. Chu. The fatality risk of strolling in America: A time-based relative approach, In Walk21 Meeting: Health value and the environment, Portland, the year 2003.

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