the trail of holes essay

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The group of the Cherokee stayed at east of the Mississippi. Among 1815 and 1830, these tribes tried to live in tranquility beside the People in the usa. Some Indians tried to live like the settlers. Many Potawatomi in Indiana and Ohio had transformed into the Catholic faith. They will lived as farmers and fur traders. Some Choctaw in Mississippi also became Christians. They sent their children to a government-run school named the Choctaw Academy (Lowman, 1992).

The Cherokees

In the Southeast the Cherokee took the business lead in taking on the settlers’ ways.

A large number of Cherokee who stayed within their tribal gets in The state of alabama, Georgia and Tennessee bought land to become farmers. Other folks opened stores and generators. Wealthy Cherokee cotton maqui berry farmers even bought black slaves to work with plantations. A large number of Cherokee as well converted to Christianity.

An informed Cherokee called Sequoyah produced written buchstabenfolge for his people. An additional Cherokee called Elias Boudinot published the Cherokee Phoenix, arizona, a paper printed in both Cherokee and English language. Cherokee market leaders also build a federal government for their people.

They will wrote a constitution depending on the Constitution of the United States. During this period, the U. S. authorities did everything it could to make sure that the Indians were cared for fairly. In 1824, the government started the Bureau of Indian Affairs. This organization had the ability to make treaties and control trade with all the Indians. Simultaneously, the government recognized the peacefulness between the Indians and settlers could not last. People just like President John Quincy Adams were urging Indian tribes to move to the lands western of the Mississippi (Armento et al, 1991).

Loss and Defeat

Simply by 1830, the us government was no longer asking the Indians to maneuver away from their particular ancient tribal lands. It had been ordering all of them. Making the Indians push West was now official government insurance plan.

Removal treaties required that many Indians in the Southeast move to American indian reservations about what is now Oklahoma. States had been eager to take control of Indian gets. The Choctaw, Creek and Chickasaw, however decided to stay. They fought against the treaties in the process of law (Rico & Mano, 1991).

One particular case visited the Best Court. That ruled the government experienced no right to order the Indians with their lands. Getting the frontiersman and Of india fighter that he was, Jackson agreed that Indians ought to turn their land to whites intended for settlement. As President, this individual supported a plan of giving Indians gets farther West in exchangefor their area east from the Mississippi. Congress appropriated $500, 000 to help transfer Indians who were willing to accept the offer (Lipsitz & Speak, 1989).

The process of going Indians Western world continued through the entire Jacksonian Period. Unfortunately, the Indians weren’t always cured fairly. Many tribes, just like Black Hawk’s Sac and Fox in Illinois and Osceola’s Seminoles in Florida, resisted the federal government offer, although states approved laws stretching control over Indian lands within their borders, and essence, compelled the Indians to move West.

The Cherokee nation was especially remarkable in its capacity the confiscation of it is land. Cherokees tried to carry their land by taking up white gents ways. They farmed their very own land and raised cows. They created a drafted language. They will drafted a Constitution and attempted to establish a state in a state in northwestern Georgia. But the point out of Georgia refused to recognize Cherokee privileges. The Treaty of New Echota was the contract that enacted the procedures for this American indian Removal Action of 1830 (Wikipedia).

Anguish in the Trail of Tears

President Andrew Knutson ignored the Supreme Court and purchased the American army to move the Cherokee by force. Soldiers with guns marched more than 18, 000 Cherokee from their homes in the Southeast. Almost one-fourth of the Indians died of starvation, disease and harsh treatment along the way. The route the Cherokee implemented to Oklahoma became referred to as “The Path of Holes.  This kind of resulted in the deaths of around 4, 500 Cherokees. They refer to that in their dialect as “Nunna dual Isunyi or “The Trail Exactly where we Cried.  It was reported that during the removal, families were separated coming from each other.

Those who were ill and the older were pressured out of their homes by gunpoint. At that time, looters arrived and ransacked their homes. It was hard for the Indians who were transported in the most undesirable and severe conditions of crowding, poor sanitation and drought. There was about two-thirds of the Cherokees who were caught between the winter in Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers (The Cherokee Trail of Tears. 1838-1839). Other Indians were also involved in this removal and the path they will traveled had been characterized by the tears, and desperation in having shed their homes and royaume (Trail of Tears, Wikipedia). Certainly, treating American Indians in many cases may not be justified.





Armento, Beverly, Nash, Gary, Salter, Captain christopher, Wixson, Karen. America Will Be.

Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.

Lipsitz, Lewis and Speak David. American Democracy. St Martin’s Press Nyc, 1989.

Lowman, Michael. “United States Record.  Beka Book Guides. 1992.

Potentado, Barbara & Mano, Sandra. American Mosaic, Houghton Mifflin Business. 1991.

Trail of Tears. Wikipedia. Recovered Feb. 12, 2007 in:

The Cherokee Trail of Tears. 1838-1839 Federal Indian Removal Insurance plan. National Historical Trail. 1838-1839. Gathered Feb. twelve, 2007 in:

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