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ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2008. No 1 (56) COMMERCE OF ENGINEERING DECISIONS Theoretical Aspects of Product Positioning in the Market Ur ta Ostasevi i to Kauno technologijos universitetas E.
Donelai io g. 73, LT-44029, Kaunas The article involves fourteen parts, starting with the introduction the place that the novelty, the condition of the research, the object with the research, the objective of the research and the research strategies are defined.
The purpose of the article is systemization and complete description of the knowledge and information (found in a large numbers of sources) regarding the positioning concept, its position in the STP FOREX model, coherent description from the product placing process methods as tips for successful merchandise positioning process accomplishment. It really is obvious that to be successful a product or service must sit on an precise, distinct, and proper place, in the minds of potential and existing consumers, relative to other rival products in the marketplace. Product setting is the instrument to achieve the above mentioned result.
The article analyses the way the product ought to be positioned on industry. The second area of the artic ideas of item positioning in the market. Those include: Etzel, Walker, Stanton (1997), Ries and Trout (1986), Kotler (2006), Armstrong (2006), Bhat (1998), Fill (2006), Ferrel (1997), Lamb, Hair, McDaniel (2004), Boone and Kurz (2001). The third component defines the basement of product following parts: segmentation, targeting and positioning. Your fourth part describes product placing steps, interpreted by diverse scholars.
You will find two types of product setting process given (by Hooley (2004) and Hutt, Spech (2004)) and a model developed by the authors of this article. The seventh portion, identification and analysis of competitive items in the market, details the best means how to identify competitive products, different levels of competition. The eighth part, identification of determinant attributes and measuring all their significance towards the user, shows the tips for selection of determinant attributes and criteria intended for successful determinant attributes.
The ninth part, identification of current location of the product and other competitive products in respect to determinant attributes, displays possible ways of carrying out this product positioning process stage. The tenth component, composition with the positioning map, reveals the their creation and provides explanations why it is this sort of a powerful instrument for reviewing the positions of products. The eleventh component, the perseverance of the ideal position in the product, addresses about the perfect position of the product and where corporations want to put their products (the desired position).
The 12th paragraph, called the selection of placement or transfering strategy, uncovers possible setting strategies proposed by numerous authors, repositioning strategies, presented by Doyle, Stern (2006), possible reasons of inadequate positioning. The thirteenth portion, creation from the positioning assertion, discusses three models of creation of item positioning affirmation: X-Y-Z model, I-D-U version, and a-b-e model. The very last part includes conclusions in theoretical research of item positioning method. Keywords: product positioning, merchandise positioning teps, determinant features, positioning map, positioning and repositioning strategy, positioning assertion. Introduction There is absolutely no product in the world that does not have a position. Merchandise positioning is approximately visibility and recognition and what item represents for a buyer. In markets in which the intensiveness of rivalry and competition will be increasing and buyers possess a greater intrinsic values become critical. A great offering with a clear identity and alignment to a demands will not only be purchased, but can easily warrant a bigger margin through increased added value.
Several organizations making the effort to manage their positions entertained by their products and are using distinct positioning ways to move to new positions in consumers brains and so create an advantage more than their competition. Earlier placing was very important in marketplaces that are incredibly competitive and where range of motion barriers are relatively low. Nowadays these market features can be applied almost to each industry or business, and to any overall economy. No product, of those which have survived, may be imagined devoid of clear, specific and intensive positioning.
It really is vivid, that for a powerful product available in the market good quality and well known manufacturer are not enough. The product must occupy a great explicit, distinct, and right place, for potential and existing customers, relative to different rival products on the market. Reaching (or not really reaching) that desirable location in the minds of consumers is the reaction to successful (or not successful) positioning. This article analyses how the product must be positioned on the industry. The object of the research: merchandise positioning on the market.
Purpose of the research: to systemize and extensively describe the ability and details (found in a large number of sources) about the positioning strategy, its position in the STP unit, coherently describe the product setting process actions as recommendations for successful product positioning method accomplishment. Exploration methods employed: Conducting assumptive studies of positioning on the market, the method of comparative evaluation and classification of technological literature had been used.
Notion of product setting There is a large number of different explanations of setting in technological literature of promoting. The concept of placement seeks to set a product in a certain rspective buyers. Online marketers offerings coming from those of rivals and to make promotions that communicate the desired position. Boone and Kurz (2001) Researchers Etzel, Master and Stanton (1997) consider a product and differentiate (position) it in a favorable way from comparable products. Ries and Bass (1986) differentiate from all the other marketing theoretics, stating that positioning is usually not what is done to a product.
Positioning is what you do towards the mind from the prospect. A similar authors show that placing starts with a product or service. A piece of goods, a service, a business, an organization, or even a person. However , Kotler (2006) identifies positioning because the act of building the upies a distinct and valued situation in the goal consumers head. Scholars Kotler, Armstrong (2006) verify that market positioning is arranging for a product to occupy a, distinctive, and desirable place, in the minds of focus on consumers, in accordance with competing items.
Thus, internet marketers plan positions that separate their products by competing products and give them the very best strategic benefit in their focus on markets.
You read ‘Product Positioning inside the Market’ in category ‘Essay examples’ The goal of positioning is usually to create a one of a kind and good image for target customers, Bhat (1998). The author Complete (2006) declares, that placement, therefore , is the natural realization to the sequence of activities that constitute a main part of the online marketing strategy. Market segmentation and target marketing are prerequisites to successful placement.
Product setting refers to the decisions and activities intended to create and keep a certain strategy 1997). Setting is making a specific advertising mix to brand, production, or firm in general (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel 2004) perceptions of a goods attributes relative to the attributes of competitive products. Buyers produce a large number of obtain decisions each day. To avoid constant reevaluation of numerous products, customers tend to group, decisions. Instead of allowing consumers to position products independently, internet marketers must try to influence
The steps of STP model The inspiration of setting theory is made of one of the most significant postulates in the science of marketing. extremely various and that a the postulate it is simple to define the essence from the STP model: to present the product to those customers, who want it and are in a position to acquire it. The first two steps in the STP unit serve to find and determine the desired buyer, and placing serves to get placing the item in the desired position in the minds of target buyers.
Scholars Grancutt, Leadley and Forsyth (2004) thoroughly explain the STP FOREX model stages in the desk below Table 1 The STP style steps Segmentation * Select variables for segmenting industry * Make a profile from the segments (sub-segments) * Validate emerging sectors Targeting * Decide on concentrating on strategy * Identify which will and how various segments must be targeted Setting * Understand consumer perceptions * Placement products in the mind with the consumer * Design ideal marketing mix to talk positioning Origin: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004)
Product positioning steps Scholar Winner (2007) has a specific view on merchandise positioning decisions, he stresses customer making decisions process as the most important issue in product setting steps. Based on the scientist, internet marketers have to solution the following queries when placing the product What dimensions do consumers use to evaluate item offerings in the marketplace or category? How important can be each of these proportions is in the decision making process? How would you and competition compare for the dimensions? What decision techniques do the buyers use?
The writer Hooley (2001) determines these stages of product setting process: Desk 2 Merchandise positioning measures Identification of competitors Singling out decision making attributes Analysis out of decision making attribute significance Discover the determinant attributes and measure their significance to the user Merchandise positioning measures Identify and analyze competitive products available in the market Table some Identification of competitor location according to the most significant attributes Recognize the current placement of the merchandise and other competitive products in accordance to determinant attributes
Recognition of buyer needs Preparing of a client map Number of the desired placement Selection of placing strategy Supply: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) Compose the positioning map Determine the required position from the product Choose positioning or perhaps repositioning technique Create the positioning statement Scientists Hutt, Spech (2004) suggest the next steps in the merchandise positioning process: Table three or more Product setting steps Determine the relevant set of competitive products Identify the set of determinant attributes that customers value to differentiate among options and determine the most well-liked choice
Identification and research of competitive products on the market Drawing placement frames to get a product, category membership ought to be determined initial, i. electronic. other items that compete in the same market and will serve as substitutes. The best deemed means for willpower is allows collecting a large amount of useful data, which is very easily systemized, designed, processed statistically. One of the main advantages of consumer survey is the anonymousness. Deep interview can be also used to identify the rival products in the market, but as a result of larger some financial costs is used rarely.
Scientists Hooley, Saunders, Piercy (2006) suggest that competition usually takes place in the subsequent levels: Competition with products with analogous qualities Competition in the same product group Competition to products that satisfy the same or very similar consumer demand Competition in the same client demand level As mentioned above it can be vitally important not just in determine every products about the same shelf, nevertheless also decide the competition to the entire shelf. Recognition of determinant attributes and measuring their particular significance towards the user
Accumulate information via a sample of existing and potential customers regarding their scores of each product on the determinant attributes offerings for each marketplace segment Analyze the fit between preferences of market segments and current position of product Choose positioning or perhaps repositioning technique Source: Hutt, Spech (2004) Concentrating most discussed item positioning designs the authors of this article offer the following criteria of placement process steps.
After the recognition and research of competitive products available in the market, determinant attributes should be determined and their significance to the end user should be assessed. According to Aaker, (2005) determinant characteristics define not only the products benefits and worth to the user, but likewise associations with the product consuming process and with the consumer himself. The experts Hooley, Saunders, Piery (2006) consider a qualitative Determination of the desired situation of the product
Identification from the current position of the product and other competing products according to determinant attributes Selection of positioning or perhaps repositioning approach Composition from the positioning map It is important to note, that the previously discussed strategies are generally not discrete and usually are just senis of sophisticated hybrid strategies, used by marketers. Sometimes, modifications in our competitive environment force internet marketers to repositi position it keeps in the minds of buyers relative to the positions of competing products.
Scientists Doyle, Stern (2006) suggest the following repositioning alternatives (the first two happen to be real repositioning strategies, the others can be considered psychological): Introduce a brand new brand Transform existing company Alter beliefs about the brand name Alter beliefs about competitive brands Adjust attribute importance weights Expose new or neglected qualities Find a new market segment Not only changes on the market cause a demand to get a new repositioning strategy.
Usually the product fails because of marketers initial positioning mistakes. Brooke (1994) declares that a product may be improperly positioned for three reasons: The segment by which it is targeted might have turn into unattractive because it is too small , and declining, too competitive or perhaps unprofitable. Placement might be insufficient because the quality and features that the item offers tend not to appeal to the segment that it is targeted. igh to let it to get priced competitively. Scientists Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004), Kotler (2006) indicate four main risky product positions on the market: underpositioning, overpositioning, confused placement and uncertain positioning: Table 5 Dangerous positions Potential risk Underpositioning Comment Some companies find that buyers have got only a vague concept of the brand and the features/benefits of that brand.
Consumers may not be mindful of anything specifically special about the brand Clients may possess too narrow a view of the brand. Therefore a consumer may possibly think that a specific glass business, for example , just produces luxury items that selling at high prices. However , it may develop a variety of cheaper standard glassware. Customers could possibly be confused about the positioning of the brand within the marketplace. This kind of confusion may result from the organization making lots of positioning too frequently.
Customers may find it hard to think the statements made by the business about the brand consideringg benefits, the purchase price and the name of the manufacturer. Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) This process is probably the the majority of laborious and hard element setting implementation steps. Scholars Capon, Hulbert (2001) define the creation of positioning assertion as a complicated, creative, and highly fun process, frequently involving many cut-and-try efforts, before the sufficient result is achieved.
Crystal clear positioning assertions have major value. For example , one of the most prevalent complaints promoting companies help to make about their clientele is that they never have clarified their particular strategies. Although positioning transactions are not advertising and marketing messages, they provide excellent difficulty. According to Kalafatis, Tsogas, Blankson (2000) positioning claims play a huge role in helping to steer rts in the market, they are both crucial internally and externally.
Experts Rossiter, Piercy (1997) determine the following versions for product positioning statement creation: X-YZ macromodel I-D-U mezomodel A-b-e micromodel Creating positioning assertion according to the X-YZ model, a marketer should decide on the next issues: nded target audience (Y) product category (X) what benefit (benefits) does the merchandise bring to client (Z) Almost any advertising endeavors should highlight: the benefit towards the consumer, which needs to be unique emotions. he emphasized benefit has to be important to the full product category (I) not mention at all or forewarn consumer of possible product weaknesses (D). Conclusions Having completed the theoretical studies of product positioning available in the market the following a conclusion can be made: Positioning plays a key part when reaching the desired put in place the mindsets of potential and existing consumers. Most scientists with the field of promoting define product positioning because arrangements to get a product to occupy a definite, distinctive, and desirable put in place the brains of goal consumers, in accordance with competing products in the market.
The positioning of a system is formed simply by products features relative to the attributes of competitive products Merchandise positioning is definitely an partidario and most important part of the STP model. If the first two steps (segmentation and targeting) contain faults or are improperly or incompletely performed, powerful product placement is doomed to fail. Summarizing the judgment of various college students, it is evident that product positioning is a complex, Overpositioning Confused placing Doubtful setting
Creation with the positioning affirmation From the analysis data acquired in the initial steps of product placement process and the marketing strategy designed, it is necessary to produce a setting statement that is certainly in tune together with the promotional goals. continuing and chain procedure. While placing a product entrepreneurs should in least (there can be more) go through the following steps: 1 . identify and analyze competitive products available in the market, 2 . identify the determinant attributes and measure all their significance for the user, a few. select placement or repositioning strategy, four. ompose the positioning map, 5. decide the desired placement of the item, 6. identify the current placement of the merchandise and other competing products in accordance to determinant attributes, six. create placing statement. Referrals 1 . installment payments on your Aaker, G. A. Tactical Marketing Managing. New York: The Free Press, 2005. Arora R. Merchandise positioning based on search, experience and creedence attributes using conjoint analysis // Log of item and manufacturer management, Nr. 5, 06\. Bhat, H. Symbolic and functional placing of brands / S. Bhat, H. Reddy //Journal of Buyer Marketing, 98, No 1, p. 2-43. Boone, T. Contemporary marketing 10th edition/ L. Boone, D. Kurtz. Harcourt, 2001. Brooksbank R. The physiology of placing strategy. // Marketing intellect and planning. 1994, Number 4, Capon, N. Marketing Management as well as N. Fugitif, J. M. Hulbert. Top Saddle Water, 2001. Dik ius, V. Marketingo tyrimai: teorija irgi praktika. Vilnius, 2006. Doyle, P. Promoting management and strategy Fourth edition. as well as P. Doyle, Ph. Strict, Harlow, 06\. Etzel, Meters. Marketing eleventh edition / M. Etzel, B. Walker, W. Stanton. New Jersey, 1997. 24. cleverness and organizing, No . your five, 2002. 25. Pranulis, V.
Marketingo tyrimai / Vilnius, 1998. twenty six. Ries, A. Positioning: The Battle to your Mind / A. Ries, J. Trout. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986. 28. Rossiter, T. Advertising Communications and Advertising Management / J. Rossiter, L. Piercy. New York: McGraw hill, 97. 28. Sheinin, D. A. Positioning manufacturer extensions: effects for morals and attitudes // Journal of Item , Manufacturer Management, 98, No installment payments on your 29. Winer, R. T. Marketing Management. Third release / Higher Saddle Lake, 2007. Ur ta Ostasevi i capital t Prek t pozicionavimo rinkoje teoriniai aspektai Santrauka Pasaulyje nerasime prek s, kuri netur big t pozicijos.
Prek s pozicija yra tai, kaip pirk jas suvokia prek pagal tam tikrus apsisprendimo tos pa ios kategorijos preki. Prek identitetu ir orientacija potenciali kvadratmeter esam pirk j norus ne tiktai bus noriai perkama, guess ir gali garantuoti didesnius pelnus, kadangi yra sukuriama didesn prid tin vert. Dauguma organizacij bando disponuoti savo preki vairias pozicionavimo strategijas, idant patekt naujas (norimas) pozicijas potenciali fladem?l esam pirk j galvosenose ir taip susikurt ias prekes. Anks iau pozicionavimas buvo laba jimo barjer charakteristikos gali b verslui. N usted ir ansia intensyvaus pozicionavimo.
Tyrimo caso: savaime suprantama, kad s kmingai prekei rinkoje geros kokyb turi ir tinkam viet esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. Norimos pozicijos vartotoj galvosenoje pasiekimas (arba nepasiekimas) yra s kmingo (ar nes kmingo) pozicionavimo rezultatas. tur t m ti pozicionuojama rinkoje. Tyrimo objektas: prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje. Tyrimo tikslas: iai informacij apsuk prek t pozicionavimo koncepcij viet s i9000 rinkoje, kaip rekomendacijas t kmingai gyvendinti prek h pozicionavim rinkoje. Tyrimo metodai: atliekant teorin prek s i9000 pozicionavimo rinkoje tyrim, naudota sistemin c/o lyginamoji mokslin s literat ros analiz.
Prek h pozicionavimo koncepcija: Mokslin je marketingo literat roje galima rasti labai daug skirting prek h pozicionavimo rinkoje apibr. Boone ir Kurtz (2001) pozicionavimo koncepcij apib dina kaip prek h traukim w tamtym miejscu tikr viet potenciali pirk j galvose. Autoriai Etzel, Walker ventosear Stanton (1997) marketing apib dina kaip vadybinink sugeb jim atkreipti vartotoj deb mes prek ir palankiai diferencijuoti (pozicionuoti) j tarp kit preki. Jungtini Amerikos Valstij mokslininkai Ries marchar Trout (1986) kit marketingo teoretik, teigdami, kad pozicionavimas vertinti marchar suprasti savo ir konkurent preki pozicij prek s rinkoje.
Pozicionavimas n ra tai, e darome prekei, tai , kaip veikiate potencialaus pirk laiko ventosear k rybiniu s, paslaugos, mon s ar iau pozicionuojant nedaroma Tuo tarpu Kotler (2006) teigia pinimas, kad prek, atskir ir norim viet i preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. Apibendrinant , prek s pozicija rinkoje yra vartotojo suvokimas apie prek s atributus, palyginant juos su konkuruojan ios prek s atributais. Kiekvienas pirk jas kasdien daro daug ir vairi apsisprendim pirkti. nuolatinio preki jai paprastai prekes grupuoja, arba pozicionuoja savo meters stysenoje, w tamtym miejscu, kad supaprastint ir sutrumpint savo sprendimo pirkti pri mimo proces.
Kad pirk jai nepozicionuot preki m?ginti veikti pirk j suvokim apie prek. 3. four. 5. 6th. 7. almost 8. 9. 15. Ferrel, L. Marketing tenth edition as well as Boston, 1997. 11. Complete, Ch. Marketing communications: engagement, tactics and practice / Harlow, 2006. 12. Grancutt, M. Marketing: vital principles, new realities as well as J. Grancutt, P. Leadley, P. Forsyth. London, 2005. 13. It, G. Marketplace -Focused solutions, competitive positioning and firm performance / G. It, G. Greenley, J. Fahy and J. Cadogan //Journal of Marketing Supervision, 2001, Simply no 5/6, p 503-520. 18. Hooley, G. Marketing strategy and competitive placement / G. Hooley, J.
Saunders, Farrenheit. N. Piercy. Prentice Corridor, 2005. 15. Hutt, M. D. Business marketing managing. 8th edition /M. D. Hutt, T. W. Spech. Prentice Hall, 2004. 16. Janonis, V. Brand Photo Formation as well as V. Janonis, R. Virvilait // 78-90. 17. Kalafatis S. G., Positioning strategies in business marketplaces / T. P. Kalafatis, M. H. Tsogas, C. Blankson // Journal of business and industrial marketing. No 6th, 2000 p. 416-437. 18. Knox S. Positioning and branding your business // Log of Item and Manufacturer management, Nr. 2, 2004. 19. Kotler, Ph. Promoting management 12th edition / Ph. Kotler, K. T. Keller. Uppr Saddle Water, 2006. twenty. Kotler, Ph.
Principles of marketing: 6th edition / Ph. Kotler, Armstrong, G. Nj, 1994. 21 years old. Kotler, Ph level. Rinkodaros principai / Ph level. Kotler, G. Armstrong, M. Saunders, Sixth is v. Wong. Kaunas, 2003. 22. Kotler, Ph level. A construction for marketing management. Third edition. as well as Ph. Kotler, K. D. Keller. Top Saddle River, 2007. 3. Lamb, T. Jr. Promoting. 7th model / Watts. Lamb, Jr., W. Hair. Jr., C. McDaniel. Thompson south Traditional western, 2004. Pozicionavimo pagrind postulat sudaro vienas svarbiausi marketingo s skirtingi, ir prek absoliu iai vardyti STP FOREX modelio naudojimo prasm potencialiai jo norintiems ir l galintiems vartotojams prek pasi lyti?
Tam naudojami pirmieji du STP modelio t rinkos nustatymas. Tik po to prek gali w ti pozicionuojama , nustatoma jos pozicija tikslini vartotoj galvosenoje. tai nuomoni apie konkuruojan ias prekes (preki pozicij pasirinktos grup s asmen t mon u schema (Pajuodis, 2000). stymo pozicionavimo strategijas, mon nustato savo viet rinkoje vartotoj ir konkurent sti d l vartotoj grupi (segment ), kurioms bandys daryti poveik, marchar kartu g l savo veiklos profilio, kuris patenkint min capital t vartotoj section reikalavimus (tikslin s rinkos strategija). h irstomas etapais.
Skirtingi autoriai pateikia skirting etap skai i, skiriasi ir l daugelio mokslinink si lomus prek straipsnio autor s i9000 pateikia tok j skai i konkuruojan i preki, apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas marchar j vertinimas, esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas, lapio suk rimas, norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas, pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas, pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. Konkuruojan i preki pozicionavimo l mus prekei, pirmiausia reikia nustatyti nario kategorij, kitas prekes, speziell konkuruoja tu preke ventosear gali n ti jos pakaitalai.
Geriausias b ias prekes yra kiekybinis tyrimo apklausa, nes, kuris paprastai respondent ias prekes, galima naudoti irgi giluminio interviu metod, konstruera laiko h naudas irgi efektyvum, patogiau atlikti vartotoj apklaus. G. J. Hooley, J. A. Saunders ventosear N. F Piercy (2006) teigia, trot iomis prek mis, Rivalizacija preki adunare je, poreik Konkurencija su kitomis big t pat tenkinan iomis prek mis, Rungtis to paties poreikio lygmenyje. Taigi nustatant konkurentus svarbu ne tik identifikuoti visas prekes, esan ias toje pa ioje parduotuv s lentynoje, wager ir nustatyti, kas konkuruoja su australian visa lentyna. teikiami naudos aspektai yra tinkami vartotojams. Anot D. A. Aaker (2005), atributas h savybes irgi naud vartotojui, bet ir asociacijas su prek s vartojimu ir vartotoju. Set up mokslinink , (G. T. Hooley, J. A. igimu, atributus geriausia yra adunare. Pasak tolyginti naudojant kokybin tyrimo procedur V. Dik iaus (2006) tam gali b usted naudojamos tokios projekcin t asociacijos, testas, temos suvokimo testas, vaidmen vaidinimas. Atrinki atributai shuttle bus vertingi tik t pozicionavimo instrumentas, nevienodas tiksliai vizualiai apibr vietoje pagal psichologinius veiksnius yra mon t prek h, palyginti tu prek los.
Norint nustatyti, kaip skirtingi preki pasi lymai yra suvokiami rinkoje, turi n ti numatomi pagrindiniai prek s atributai, pagal kuriuos suvokiama prek kaip tokia. Labai didel rezultatas) turi b casing. Tolesn t kes ius bei pirmum, ir kaip j airplane atrodo prek su savomis savyb mis. Tam tikslui pasiekti irgi sudaromas lapis. lapyje yra tas, kuris reprezentuoja labiausiai apsisprendimo atribut kombinacij ideali prek. wednesday s pasirenka norim savo prek t pozicij kuo ar iau idealios prek s pozicijos. augelis mokslinink (Fill, 06\, Kotler, 2007, Armstrong, 2004, Doyle, Stern, 2006) t pozicionavimo rinkoje Pagal prek s savybes, Pagal prek s teikiam naud, Palei vartojimo n d kvadratmeter situacij, Palei vartotoj, Pagal konkurent, Pagal preki adunare, Pagal kokyb ar kain, Pagal kult rinius simbolius ar kilm. Svarbu pamin ra diskre tiesiog dalys sud ting hibridini strategij, kurias pozicionuodami prekes rinkoje, naudoja marketologai. 1 . X-YZ makromodelis, 2 . I-D-U mezomodelis, 3. a-b-e mikromodelis.
Juose nurodoma, kas yra pozicionuojama, kam tai yra skiriama, kas turi b ti pabr Atlikus teorin prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje studij, Pozicionavimas yra svarbiausias instrumentas norint i?kovoti norim prek s pozicij esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. Dauguma marketingo srities mokslinink prek s pozicionavim rinkoje apibr pinim, jogei prek, atskir ir norim viet we preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. Prek s i9000 pozicija formuojama per prek s atribut suvokim, lyginant su konkuruojan iomis prek mis. Prek s pozicionavimas yra neatskiriama ir pati svarbiausia STP modelio dalis.
Jei pirmi STP setting ar nepilnai, s kmingai pozicionuoti prek s rinkoje nepavyks. Apibendrinant daugelio mokslinink nuomones, akivaizdu, kad prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje yra sud tingas ir to stinis procesas. Pozicionuodami prek gali n 1) Konkuruojan i preki, 2) Apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir m vertinimas, 3) Esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas, 4) lapio suk rimas, 5) Norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas, 6) Pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas, 7) Pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. prek s pozicionavimas, prek h pozicionavimo etapai, lapis, pozicionavimo ir perpozicionavimo strategija, pozicionavimo teiginys. rieinamumas, pelningumas. Svarbu pateikti atribut, kurio nesi lo konkurentai, arba atribut pateikti specialia forma. nusta ius vartotoj apsisprendimo atributus, reikia numatyti, kaip pagal juos vartotojai vertina prek ir konkurent prekes. W tamtym miejscu geriausiai tinka kokybiniai vertinti prek marchar konkurent prekes pagal svarbiausius apsisprendimo technikas, kurias Sixth is v. Pranulis (1998) rio matavimo vertinimo skal s, Likerto (sumini vertinim ) vil, semantin diferencialin skal, Stapel skal vertinimo skal, fiksuotos sumos vil r, durante pasirinkimo skal. The article has been reviewed.