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Accounting

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ISSUE: Discuss the challenges of harmonization of accounting program. Accounting Specifications are the assertions of code of practice of the regulating accounting systems that are to be observed in the preparation and presentation of financial statements. The commonly Accepted Accounting Principles is definitely comprised of a huge group of individual accounting criteria.

Accounting Requirements in other words can be stated while rules which will govern the preparation of financial statements. These are the generally accepted accounting rules (GAAP). Whereby accounting procedures are the genuine used practices by accountants.

They are inspired by Accounting Standards, which govern the preparation of economic reports. Harmonization of accounting standards can be explained as the ongoing process of making sure the Generally Approved Accounting Guidelines (GAAP) happen to be formulated, in-line and up-to-date to international best practices (GAAPs in other countries) with appropriate modifications and fine tuning taking into consideration the domestic conditions. Harmonization is the process of raising compatibility of accounting methods by establishing bounds prove degree of variance.

Harmonization can be explained as “the procedure for bringing foreign Accounting Standards into some kind of agreement so that the monetary statements from different countries are prepared relating to a common set of guidelines of measurement and disclosure (Haskins ain al. mil novecentos e noventa e seis: 29). Relating to Wolk et ing. described harmonization of Accounting Standards as “the co-ordination or likeness among the numerous sets of national Accounting Standards and methods and formats of economic reporting. (Kleekamper et approach., 2002) Kleekamperet al. xplain, that the purpose of the international harmonization procedure for Accounting Specifications is to reduce or conquer differences around the world, in order to reach a better foreign Comparability of economic statements. Foreign accounting harmonization can be defined as “the process of bringing international Accounting Standards into some sort of agreement in order that the financial claims from several countries are prepared according to a common pair of principles of measurement and disclosure (Haskins et approach. 1996: 29).

This harmonization is needed as a result of globalization of companies and solutions and increase in cross-border investments and borrowings and academicians, regulators and governments have already been constantly striving to balance the local/domestic Accounting Standards(AS), also referred to as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), with the Intercontinental Accounting Requirements (IAS) issued by the UK based Intercontinental Accounting Criteria Board (IASB) (formerly the International Accounting Standards Committee-IASC).

The IASB has been trying to harmonize intercontinental accounting principles since 1973. Further, the IASB plus the International Organization of Investments Commissions (IOSCO) have been jointly working on harmonization since July 1995, in addition to May 2150 the IOSCO finished many people of the IAS and recommended usage of certain IAS, supplemented with reconciliation, disclosure and interpretations. Several benefits of harmonization of accounting practices is as follows 5. It guarantees reliable and high quality economic reporting and disclosures. In a few cases, it might prove to be crucial to the economic and economical development of a rustic * This enables a scientific review and evaluation in the performance of any multinational company having subsidiaries and associates in various countries wherein every single country has its own set of GAAP * It makes the a comparison of the performance of a organization against their domestic and international peers easier and more meaningful 5. It is a precursor for getting at international capital markets that may, in turn, reduce the capital cost and consequently, enhance the performance of the company 2. Multinational firms, the international companies take advantage of closer harmonization for this reasons a) Access to international finance is a lot easier, the international financial marketplaces understand the monetary information offered to all of them more easily. In case the information is usually provided on a consistent basis between businesses irrespective of their particular country of origin. b) Improved supervision control, in a business operating in several countries management control is improved. Inner financial info is more easily prepared about consistent basis if outwardly required financial information is essential on a standard basis. c) Consolidation of economic statement is simpler ) A discount of auditing cost because of harmonized accounting practices and standards. e) A copy of accounting staff throughout national borders would be simpler f) It could be easier to abide by reporting requirements of overseas stock exchanges. g) Appraisals of overseas entities intended for take over and mergers will be more straightforward. * Intercontinental economic groupings, international groups like EU (European Union) could function more effectively in the event that there were intercontinental harmonization of accounting procedures. Part of the function of international groupings is definitely go generate cross-border operate easier. Just like accounting rules would help this process. Authorities of producing countries could save time if they can adopt foreign standards and, if just read was used internally, governments of developing countries could try to control the activities of overseas multinational businesses in their own country. These firms could not hide behind foreign accounting practices which are difficult to understand. 2. Tax specialists, it will be easier to calculate the tax legal responsibility of shareholders, including multinationals who receive income via overseas resources. * Huge accounting and auditing companies would benefit as accounting and auditing would be much easier if related accounting techniques existed throughout the world.

Despite the importance of harmonizing accounting standards, there still issues facing harmonization of accounting standards involving the member countries using IFRS (international financial reporting standard) and also between United States using US GAAP. These difficulties are brought about different taxes laws, distinct culture, distinct legal necessity, nationalism and various needs of economic statements. Speaking of harmonization we should put in thought of Foreign accounting regular board (IASB) based in UK and Financial accounting normal board (FASB) based in US. TheInternational Accounting Standards Board(IASB) is the 3rd party, accounting standard-setting body of theIFRS Foundation.

The IASB was founded on April you, 2001 since the replacement, beneficiary to theInternational Accounting Criteria Committee(IASC). It truly is responsible for developingInternational Financial Reporting Standards(the new name forInternational Accounting Standardsissued after 2001), and promoting the use and application of these types of standards. TheFinancial Accounting Criteria Board(FASB) is actually a private, not-for-profit organizationwhose main purpose is always to develop generally accepted accounting principles(GAAP) within theUnited Statesin the public’s interest. TheSecurities and Exchange Commission(SEC) chosen the FASB as the corporation responsible for placing accounting requirements for community companies inside the U.

You read ‘Challenges of Harmonization of Accounting System’ in category ‘Essay examples’ S i9000.

It was made in 1973, replacing theCommittee on Accounting Procedure(CAP) and theAccounting Principles Board(APB) of theAmerican Commence of Accredited Public Accountants(AICPA). The FASB’s mission is definitely “to set up and boost standards of financial accounting and reporting pertaining to the advice and education of the general public, including issuers, auditors, and users of economic information. ” To achieve this, FASB has five goals. 5. Improve the usefulness of financial credit reporting by centering on the primary characteristics of relevance and trustworthiness, and on the qualities of comparability and consistency. 5. Keep requirements current to reflect changes in methods of conducting business and in our economy. Consider promptly any significant areas of insufficiency in financial credit reporting that might be improved through standard setting. 2. Promoteinternational convergence of accounting standardsconcurrent with improving the quality of financial credit reporting. * Improve common understanding of the nature and purposes info in financial reviews. The two planks have been attempting to balance the accounting principles, since September 2011, there was a push to harmonize, or perhaps integrate, the accounting specifications of the United States, which usually operates underneath Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), with International Accounting Standards (IAS).

The rationale is the fact it would level the playing field for global businesses by providing regulators, auditors and decision-makers (investors) uniform details based on precisely the same accounting strategies. Supporters believe this would boost accountability, lessen international transactional and exchange rate risks and improve information transfer to enhance economic policy decision-making. The difference among IAS and US GAAP is that the previous is more principle based plus the later is usually rule centered. The following are Issues to harmonization of accounting systems. License and Enforcement, Individual accountants, CPAs and tax legal representatives worldwide will need to comply with and get licensing through an internationally recognized rules-making human body. If he international physique lacks adjustment authority, you cannot find any prosecutorial specialist for breaking international laws. However , if the international body system does have prosecutorial authority on the U. T. citizen, right now there would come up jurisdictional and constitutional problems regarding the privileges of an intercontinental body’s privileges to prosecute an American underneath international rules. Finally, concerns arise in the perspective of U. S i9000. -only structured businesses with regards to forced conformity IASB criteria are principles-based. Thus the countries that contain rules-based criteria are expected to have considerable trouble harmonization of their standards with IFRS. You will discover challenges that IASB and nations using IFRS ought to address in the coming days.

One big challenge pertaining to countries using IFRS is a shortage of personnel and more especially, IFRS-trained manpower. For just to illustrate, with simply six months to look before China’s listed corporations adopt IFRS, demand for accountants is growing and could encounter millions in the coming years, if the fresh standards are rolled out for all of the country’s corporations and not just the listed ones. Accountants declare the challenge intended for China, since it scrambles in order to meet the accounting shift deadline, will sit in getting their over-1, 95 listed businesses to establish the proper financial confirming systems in addition to training enough qualified accountants by January. The risk is the fact some of these corporations may are not able to make the transition on time.

Estimations reveal that China has a shortfall of 300, 1000 qualified accountants and is likely to require a further three million over the arriving years to keep pace with its current level of economic growth Big difference purpose of monetary reporting, in some countries the idea is solely for duty assessment, while some it is pertaining to investor making decisions, Different legal systems, these kinds of prevent the development of certain accounting practices and restrict options available. The Accounting world could be divided into “those countries which may have a ‘legalistic’ orientation toward accounting and the ones with a ‘non legalistic’ orientation (Nobes et al., 97: 8). The non-legalistic procedure can be found in countries, which use prevalent law. In accordance law countries, Accounting will not depend upon rules. Accountants (professional organizations) organize accounting rules. Hence, it is the private sector, which determines Accounting and never the law (Choi et approach., 2002). The work of the legal system is to provide an answer to a unique case rather than to make general guidelines for the future (Choi et ing. 2002). The legalistic way can be found in countries, which use the so called code (or codified) law. In contrary to the prevalent law, the codified rules system needs to develop rules in detail intended for the Accounting and monetary reporting (Nobes, 1994). Because of this “Accounting guidelines are designed into nationwide law and tend to always be highly prescriptive and procedural (Choi et al., 2002: 43). During these countries the role of law is to describe patterns, which isconsidered to be acceptable in the world (Choi et al., 2002). Different customer groups, countries have different concepts about who have the relevant end user groups and the respective importance.

In UNITED STATES investor and credit groups are given popularity, while in Europe personnel enjoy a larger profile. Supplier of financial, there three main options for exterior capital will be shareholders, banking institutions and authorities (Hill, 1999). It varies from country to country, which of these 3 provides the majority of the financial capital to corporations. In countries like Australia and Italia banks present companies with capital. In countries like England as well as the United States investors provide corporations with capital. The government is the provider of capital in countries just like France and Sweden. (Hill, 1999) This kind of diversity of capital services means that Accounting Practices vary in order to meet needs of capital services.

In the case of aktionär ownership, (e. g. in the U. K. and the U. S. ), information disclosure will be more important than in countries, where capital is raised from banking institutions or governments. This is the result of the fact that in the second option countries data will be sent more immediately. (Radebaugh and Gray, 1997) It is impossible for a company to share with each aktionär with its specific information needs, because they are a huge and unorganized group. As a result financial transactions in the US and UK will be “oriented toward providing specific investors with the information they have to make decisions about purchasing or providing corporate shares and bonds (Hill, 1999: 593).

Duty laws, the main element question is to ask, just how much taxation restrictions determine Accounting measurements. In countries just like the U. T., U. E. and Holland there is no interaction between duty and Accounting law. Once Accounting Specifications are produced, the only concentrate is the right way to conduce the information function. Concerns about taxation are not considered in those countries (Achleitner, 2000). In contrary, in nations while France and Germany, tax and Accounting Systems are ruled similar (Nobes and Parker, 2000). There is the rule of decisiveness in continental European countries. This means that the profit from the balance sheet are at the same time the inspiration to breeze income taxes (Achleitner, 2000).

In Tanzania income tax act is within dis contract with some accounting procedures like computation of depreciation, Money owed and therefore argue on how documentalist compute firm profit and thus in Tanzania should put together to set of financial statement a single for tax purposes plus the other pertaining to other users of accounting info. Cultural variations result in aims for accounting systems varying from nation to country for example Islamic laws will not recognize the use of interest rate. Deficiency of strong accountancy bodies, various countries might not have strong independent accountancy or perhaps business systems which could press to get better criteria and better harmonization.

One of a kind circumstances, several countries may be experiencing uncommon circumstances which in turn affect all aspects of everyday activities an m impinge within the ability of companies to produce proper information, for example hyperinflation, civil conflict, currency limit. Nationalism can be demonstrated in an unwillingness to accept another country’s standard. The Financial Accounting Standards Panel (FASB) in the U. H. is responsible for establishing accounting requirements based mainly on “Federal securities laws and condition CPA guard licensing and training laws. inches All countries have particular securities laws, tax laws and bank and economic regulations that dictate accounting principles. Furthermore, in the United States, there are individual express laws that govern organization, banking and insurance activities. Adopting worldwide accounting specifications would not only conflict with U. H. tatute regulation, but as well constitutional legislation associated with “states’ rights. inch Stable System, Beginning in june 2006, all several, 000 EUROPEAN publicly traded businesses are required to apply IFRS in the preparation with their consolidated financial statements. This represents yet another challenge as preparers of economic statements by Latvia to Portugal and from Poland to Sweden grapple with unfamiliar requirements. In planning for this sweeping change, the IASB completed its “stable platform of standards in March 2004. New and revised standards included five new IFRSs and 17 amended IASs, resulting from the IASB’s Improvements Project and Phase I of its Organization Combinations Job.

Some of the more significant revisions to IFRS that resulted via these assignments include: * The LIFO method for being inventories has ceased to be allowed, 2. The ideas of “fundamental error and “extraordinary items are removed, * Trading securities have become included in a greater defined class of financial musical instruments “at good value through profit or perhaps loss and entities may well designate virtually any financial advantage or responsibility into its kind (commonly called “the reasonable value option), * Fair value hedge accounting may well now be employed more conveniently for a collection hedge appealing rate risk, * Guidelines for share-based payments have been added, The pooling-of-interests method for business blends is no longer allowed, * Goodwill is no longer amortized, and bad goodwill can be not documented in a organization combination Globally acceptance, National accounting requirements are highly politicized and there is normally a natural propensity to place the interests from the national overall economy ahead of those of the global economic climate. Private sector businesses and professional accounting bodies in addition have a vested interest in accounting procedures and financial reporting. Pressure from these types of groups to improve or reject certain requirements can carry a whole lot of pounds with personal decision makers. Adopting foreign financial standards is met with additional challenges in growing countries. They often times lack the time and system to adapt national legal and legislative frameworks through which to house the criteria, making appropriate implementation hard.

Training and Retraining, Each time a country chooses to harmonize with the intercontinental standards, its companies, accountants and auditors need to be retrained in the fresh standards and reporting methods for economic statements. School and college or university programs through this field also need to undergo significant changes in in an attempt to educate new comers entering the profession. Before any of this could happen, trainers and professors will require teaching so they can advise professionals and students. This will likely require the introduction of new learning materials and curricula, new examinations intended for professional licensing and new accounting computer software and credit reporting systems. To increase complicate concerns, the adoption of harmonized standards should be phased in, so for a number of years, two distinct systems will be in operation. Such a omplex transition needs a lot of protection mechanisms to make certain it accomplishes uniform results. To sum up with, Harmonization of economic statement is extremely crucial intended for accounting job and also to get the global business growth specifically for multinational companies which will at this point find very easily in prep of mother or father and additional financial statement since have to be prepared according to IFRS. IFRS Is vital to producing countries just like Tanzania such as increasing self-confidence of shareholders, reduce expense of doing business, aid smooth operation of foreign groupings just like EAC as well as the countries accountant become competitive worldwide. SOURCES WORD SIZE: 3517 words Arbnor, My spouse and i. Bjerke, M. (1997): Method for Creating Organization Knowledge, Sage Publications, Countless numbers Oaks, next edition. Ghauri, P., Gronhaug, K. (2002): Research Methods in Business Studies, Prentice Hall, London. Choi, F., Ice C., Whilst gary, K. (2002): International Accounting, Prentice Lounge, New Jersey, fourth edition. 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