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SEMANTICS THE NATURE OF SEMANTIC CHANGE Shown by group 9: Margine Nugraha Jiwa 0910733154 Alfi Nurhidayati 1010731008 Nadia Turrahmi 1010732014 ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF HUMANITIES ANDALAS UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION 75 years ago, Edward cullen Sapir launched a new idea of linguistics. This individual said that language moved on each and every time and then produced their own forms and never static. Every term, every grammatical element, proverbs, sounds and accents configured which was altered slowly which was the techniques how a dialect could long lasting.
This concept of dialect made the other language specialists interested. The change of meaning could happen because of some reasons, in respect to Millet a meaning could transform easily because of the discontinuous from generation for the other decades, the blur of which means, the dropped of inspiration, the appearance of polysemy, there are some unclear contexts, terminology structures, and so on. The nature of semantic change may be divided into a few categories, metaphor, metonymy, well-liked etymology, ellipsis, and also a few consequences alter of that means. SEMANTIC TRANSFORM A.
The size of semantic change Aksioma Leibniz said “natura non facit saltus which means the nature changed indirectly and slowly, this kind of sentence can also we applied in alter of meaning. Every changing had their particular each reason and always related and linked from the aged meaning into the new which means. One of semantics tradition looks up which means as “the interrelationship among name and meaning. Therefore , we can deduce that change of that means divide in to two types: alter of meaning based on relationship of meaning-meaning, and also name-name. Every type can be differs in to similarity advertisement contiguity.. Metaphor Metaphor is very important in vocabulary because it could make them more creative and aesthetics, it is common in literary field including poem. Metaphor has some functions in everyday routine, there are while the motivation, expression methods, as the cause of suggestions and polysemy, to complete the bare in terminology, and the way to communicate the feelings, etc . The structure of metaphor is easy, it usually said something is another thing. It will not use the term as, just like, and relative words and also other, this case make the reader try to find the commonalities.
For example: a) Her house is a jail, in this case her home have same feature of prison, we can suppose she cannot leave her home, she drawn on inside, and perhaps afraid of the outdoors. b) The police man let him off by a yellow greeting card, in this phrase ‘yellow card’ refers to caution, the original impression is in forward, attacker striker a yellow-colored card that the referee shows to the participant when cautioning them and offer the second probability to introspect themselves. c) in Indonesian language we could take the model Gonzales menanduk bola, we can say that Gonzales is a human and he do the work which can be did by simply an animal buffalo.
In this case, menanduk have same meaning while using other, as it refers to a task using a head, in individual we phone menyundul and buffalo all of us cal menanduk. * Anthropomorphic metaphor Anyone who is interested toward this sort of metaphor can be Giambattista Vico, he declared that in every terminology the most part of expression label inanimate, in contrast by copying from any part of body system, sense, and also the emotion of human being. One example is: a) in Indonesian terminology: jantung kota, bahu jalan, mulut sungai, etc . b) in The english language language muscle mass comes from Latin language muscle that means ‘little mouse’. Dog metaphor This category applied for dog or lifeless types, various plants employing animal’s brand to phone them. One example is: a) lidah buaya, kumis kucing, jambu monyet, and so forth b) in English there are some plants with animal’s brand goat’s-beard and dog’s tail. Beside that, there are animal’s name transferred into individual for explain humor, paradox, and other. One example is: si beo, the presenter use this word toward the other mainly because they have same characteristic or perhaps their actions refer to the pet itself. 2. From cement to summary
One of the trend in metaphor is outlining the abstract in to the concrete, when we try to find the abstract word at first we must know the concrete one particular. For example in English lumination ‘sinar, cahaya, lampu’ which is concrete, when ever this phrase close to the various other morpheme they sometimes become abstract like highlights ‘menyoroti’. If it even compares to Indonesian terminology the condition is definitely same, for example the concrete one is ‘sinar, cahaya’, it become subjective metaphor in sorot mata, hidupnya selagi bersinar, ajarannya menyinari lingkungan, harta yang menyilaukan, etc. Synaesthetic metaphor This metaphor based on the transferred of 1 sense for the other impression, for example coming from sense of hearing to sight, from touch to sound, etc . If we discuss the sound which can be warm and cool, you observe that there are the similarities among temperatures while using kind of sounds. The composition of metaphor begin in literary works if the raising of symbolism era. We can see from a single of Shakespeare’s work: I realize a voice, now will I to the chink To secret agent an I am able to hear my Thisby’s confront 2 . Metonymy
Metonymy consists of some sort of connection between concepts, but in this case there is absolutely no similarity together, but they are closely linked in some other approach. Metonymy can easily divide in to the association they will based on. Initial, metonymy transfer based on spots and places. The alter of meaning the Latin word coxa ‘pinggul’ into France language cuisse ‘pupu, paha’ this explained that pinggul and paha is definitely our part of body which can be close and do not have appropriate constraint. Second, metonymy transfer based on time or temporary.
The term of actions or celebration can be transmitted into something that predate and follow the transform. For example , in English, ‘collation’ now identified into diverse meaning ‘perbandingan’ and ‘makanan ringan’ where as both of them happen to be relates. Previously, in Catholic ceremony the reading coming from Collationes Patrum by Cassian usually read before the end of mass, it followed by snack which will called en-cas because the snack related with the reading. So , the term of book followed by the snack that also ingest in the close time in mass period.
Third, the connection can create the transform of metonymy, there are some part that is essential but sometime it divide into individual category, or perhaps we can call it up pars pro toto. By way of example in Indonesia, ‘pasukan baju kuning’ this refers to the group who also clean up the street. And the previous metonymy is easy and famous because we don’t need the worst and crucial conversation. We know that the majority of the founder known as something which they found by their name. For example , the terminology in electric power ampere, watt, ohm called by the president Andre Ampere, Count Allessandro Volta, and Georg Bob Ohm.. Popular Etymology Etymology is the subset of linguistics that studies the origin and development of words and other linguistic varieties. The instances of the areas that are studied are the earliest beginnings of a word, how its meanings and connotations possess changed, the meanings and origins of its part parts, if or how it has propagate to additional languages, and exactly how its meaning or make use of has been inspired by different words. A history of a expression also is known as its etymology.
For example , France language forain become English language foreign which come from Latin foranus, certainly one of derivative coming from Latin foris ‘tidak dengan, ke luar negeri, the type meaning is definitely the foreign even as used in English language. 4. Ellipsis Words which often occur side-by-side are work to have a semantic influence on each other. We have already perceives an example of this kind of in the great negation in French. The most common form which will this impact takes in ellipsis. In a collection phrase made up of two phrases, one of these that omitted and its meaning it transferred to it is partner.
For instance , in Jakarta’s dialect ‘tidak tahu’, sometimes just ful in ‘tahu’. B. The outcomes of the modify of meaning * The change in the region of which means Many old writer break down change of meaning in three types, there are: extension, restriction, plus the last that do not arranged into both of them. The division can named as “logical division additionally they has some weaknesses, although the section is simple and simple. The department does not provide clearly talking about about the formal form in causes or the backdrop how it could be changed.
After which, the third section just assembled because won’t be able to let in first and second division. Genuinely the basic is the meaning become wide or perhaps narrow and continuously when. 1). Limit This transform make the which means of selected word turn into restrict as well as the intense become more variable. For instance , English ‘poison’ means racun, first the phrase come from ‘potion’ that means ‘beer’ because ale can damage our body and sometimes make somebody die. Later toxin just value to refer the drink that could make an individual die, never to all of dark beer. 2). Expansion
In file format meaning, the term can be applied in significant contexts using the time the extreme become less strong and something that referred turn into smaller. For instance , arriver in France and arrive in English, this expression come from Latina arripare, it become ripa ‘tepi sungai, pantai’ because it refers to the coming of someone. * The alterations in evaluation: pejorative and ameliorative 1). Pejorative The change caused the word become lower or negative than previously, for example: ‘perempuan’ come from ’empu’ that means ‘ibu jari’ it should be has higher meaning.
Although nowadays, ‘perempuan’ is lower in the event compare to ‘wanita’. 2). Ameliorative The modify caused the term become higher and positive than previously, for example: ‘minister’ at first establish as ‘minus or slave’ but currently the meaning increase into ‘the person who slept in government system. CONCLUSION The Nature of Semantic Change, there may be must always always be some interconnection, some affiliation between the outdated and the new meaning, association is the important condition of semantic change.
Meaning is determined by 3 factors: the objective reference (the referent), the subjective apprehension (the subject, i. at the. the loudspeaker or the hearer) and the classic range (the word). Any kind of change provides as its quick cause a difference in one of these three relations. Types of semantic change: Likeness of the feelings (metaphor), Contiguity of the senses (metonymy), Likeness of the titles (folk etymology), Contiguity from the names (ellipsis), all of these types is alterations that happen with time. Guide: * Ullman, Stephen. 2011. Pengantar Semantik. Pustaka Pelajar: Yogyakarta