16038891

Category: Essay cases,
Words: 5817 | Published: 12.11.19 | Views: 319 | Download now

Integration of ICT in Education: Pedagogical Issues Doctor Anjali Khirwadkar Center of Advanced Study in Education Faculty of Education The M. S i9000.

University of Baroda India. Abstract The progress of any nation depends upon the standard of education offered and its procedures. Indian education was well known for its Gurukul system of education in the Vedic age. Education in India has undergone various levels and periods of creation starting inside the Vedic era to the post-independent period.

In any way stages of development there was clearly a concern for bringing in quality education highlighting on the useful aspects in education. The great Indian thinkers had highlighted on growing the inner potential of individuals by simply reflecting in unique potential of individuals. Receiving educated can be solely dependent upon the individual teacher’s role to set conditions and generate conditions for learning.

The the latest curriculum structure 2005 while proposed simply by NCERT (National Council of Educational Exploration and Training), India is targeted on the issues of, Connecting understanding to life outside Shifting by rote learning how to constructing expertise Providing a broad range experiences to get the overall advancement a child Getting flexibility inside the examinations The recent developments in technology have changed the world outside of the classroom, it can be more striking and interesting for a college student then the class setting. As a result, students discover classroom guidance as dull and devoid of life and do not interest all of them for learning.

The information technology has made novice WWW-afflicted. It is because technological advancements have brought developments in two ways: Initial, by improving human features by helping people to participate actively in social, eighty five economic, and political your life in a contemporary society at large. Second, by giving benefits to technological innovation as a means pertaining to human advancement due to financial progress and increased productivity. The power of information is such that almost all decisions made in different sectors like science, technology, economics, and business creation will be based in information which was generated digitally.

Information has become a key asset of the business for its progress. Therefore , entry to information are essential in the technology of wealth and there is a strong link among a country’s level of expansion and its level of technological development. Educators and policymakers believe that information and communication technologies are of supreme importance to the future of education and, in turn, for the country in particular. As ICT is becoming an important element intended for educational reforms and enhancements at extra schools, this example calls for an enhancement of pre-service education on ICT for potential teachers.

There is also a growing importance for ICT within the college curriculum. Not only it is utilized to support educating and learning within different curriculum subject matter, but it is usually a subject in its own right as a independent discipline. The objective is the fact developing skills, knowledge, and understanding inside the use of ICT prepares learners to use these kinds of technologies within their everyday lives. ICT tools enable pupils to access, discuss, analyze, and present information gained by a variety of resources and in numerous ways. The utilization of ICT provides opportunities intended for pupils to work equally collaboratively and independently.

As such, the position of ICT within the program is not only to boost the learning activities of learners but as well to help them develop the skills necessary to participate effectively in the world of affairs. It creates avenues for working in teams developing team spirit, cohesion, and cultural values. Here, a tutor plays a pivotal function in the process training learning. Hence, knowledge of ICT and expertise to use ICT in teaching/learning has gained enormous importance for present teachers. Teachers are expected to find out to successfully integrate ICT into his/her subject areas to create learning more meaningful.

This knowledge expansion during pre-service training provides gained much importance with all the notion that exposure to ICT during this time is useful in elevating student teachers’ willingness to integrate eighty six technology with classroom teaching. This daily news focuses on problems relating to ICT in education as a core component in pre-service tutor education as well as the different models to become adopted because of its integration. Review of studies done in the area of attitude, anxiety, and efficacy of teachers and development of computer skills Pre-service teachers ought to plan to make use of computers inside their classrooms.

Eye-sight is needed to stimulate and direct their instructing and learning with the help of technology and applying related training methods. There are many strategies utilized to make professors understand and implement the integration of ICT in various curricula. They should act as a basis for understanding computer procedures and programming along with assisting pre- service teachers to learn laptop concepts in developing a eye-sight, value, and use of pcs in learning. Many studies have been carried out on teachers’ attitude and the use of ICT skills.

It is found that teachers’ behaviour play a crucial role in the teaching learning process. It includes generally been found that pre-service educators have demonstrated their particular ability to get integrating technology into their teaching, but you don’t have clarity about how exactly far technology can be good for students. They are going to probably avoid teaching with technology when the requirement for the demonstration lessons is over. Consequently, a negative frame of mind about educating with approximately technology in a subject matter location could job against well-planned instruction in teacher preparation programs.

When, on the other hand, those teacher prospects who believe in the potential and utility of technology in the classroom and continue facing various challenges end up being the models intended for student educators to copy. Many studies have been completely conducted with regard to the attitude of educators towards employ and interations of technology have exposed the importance of attitudes to get learning to employ technologies (Cox, Rhodes , Hall, 1988, Davidson , Ritchie, year 1994, Hannaford, 1988, Kay, 1990).

These conclusions were further supported by Bandalos , Benson, 1990, Dupagne , Krendl, 1992, Francis-Pelton , Pelton, 1996, Loyd , Gressard, 1984a, Mowrer-Popiel, Pollard, , Pollard, year 1994, Office of Technology Assessment, 1995. ) Several research have discovered that individuals’ attitudes toward computers may possibly improve because of well-planned teaching (Kluever, Lam, 87 Hoffman, Green , Swearingen, year 1994, Madsen , Sebastiani, 1987, Woodrow, 1992). Like additional individual attributes that are hypothesized o be involved in the continuing growth of technology proficiency, behaviour and beliefs can’t be very easily taught and must be produced by an individual over a period of time. Another factor that is certainly noted to possess a profound effect on the student teacher’s learning technology and its the usage is computer anxiety. Pc anxiety, as defined by Rohmer and Simonson (1981), is “the mixture of fear, apprehension, and hope that individuals feel when planning to communicate or although actually interacting with a computer” (p. 151).

Research has proven that there is normally a negative romance between the sum of preceding computing knowledge and the degree of computer anxiousness exhibited by individuals. Reed and Overbought (1993) and Hackney (1994) found substantially reduced levels of computer anxiousness following instruction whereas Chu and Boucle (1991) seen a significant decrease in computer anxiousness for only the most troubled quartile of subjects. McKiernan et al. (1994) reported that a lot of students skilled reduced amounts of computer stress at the end of your computer training class whilst other students experienced ongoing anxiety.

The degree of anxiety could possibly be reduced with additional experience in using and working with computers and thereby succeeding in reaching desired goals. Over and above the attitude of teachers, self-efficacy is also a significant aspect to consider. Research workers have mentioned that even though teachers may well have great attitudes toward technology (Duane , Kernel, 1992, Office of Technology Assessment, 1995), they may nonetheless not consider themselves qualified to teach with it or perhaps comfortable utilizing it. If professors are to combine technology to their teaching, they need to feel self-efficacious about utilizing it (Decorum , Kingie, 93, Remer ou. l., 93, Office of Technology Evaluation, 1995). Ense?a (1986) identified perceived self-efficacy as “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and implement courses of action required to obtain designated types of shows. It is concerned not with the skills one has but with the judgments of what one can perform with whatsoever skills one particular possesses” (p. 391). According to Bandura (1982), persons acquire info on efficacy by four options: performance attainments, vicarious experiences of watching the activities of others, 88 erbal persuasion, and physical states that people to some extent judge their very own capability, strength, and weakness (p. 126). This information could help an individual assess his or her performance and then generate self-appraisals of his/her ability. If the concept of computer-efficacy is placed on the domain name of learning how to use pcs in teaching, hands-on laptop experience becomes an important part in successful instruction at the pre-service level. Research has shown a high relationship between efficacy judgments and subsequent performance (Bandura , Adams, 1977, Bandura, Adams , Beyer, 1977, Schunk, 1981).

This kind of link between self-efficacy and subsequent activities is significant in growing an idea for a teacher whom continues to discover how to teach with technology in addition to instruction in teacher prep (Ashton, 1985). Self-efficacy was originally developed as using a high domain-specific component instead of one with high generalizability (Lennings, 1994), and this has led to recent study interest in the spot of pc self-efficacy (Delcourt , Kinzie, 1993, Ertmer, Evenbeck, Cennamo, , Lehman, 1994). Computer system self-efficacy signifies the essential components of self-efficacy as applied to the domain of computer learning.

Several research have found the positive associated with instruction in computer self-efficacy (Ertmer, Evenbeck, Cennamo , Lehman, 1994, Gist, Schwoerer , Rosen, 1989, Russon, Josefowitz , Edmonds, year 1994, Torkzdeh , Koufteros, 1994). There is small doubt that today’s potential teachers will be expected to educate with technology in the sessions of the next day. However , the time available to instructors in terms of equipment, software, networking, and specialist development fluctuate greatly at the school level. Hence, it is imperative that teachers turn into directors that belongs to them learning with regard to using information technologies in their classroom.

Through finding out how to teach with technology, tutor preparation courses have a distinctive place at the start of this tough process. The development of a pedagogically-based framework of constructs which might be related to finding out how to use computer systems and an approach for its app in teacher preparation reveals promise to get meeting these types of challenges because discussed over. 89 One more challenge to get pre-service education is obtaining classrooms where pre-service professors could notice teacher educators using technology appropriately and understand in which and how to include technology inside their lessons.

The computer has moved from a subject to be researched to a teaching and learning tool pertaining to teachers and students. Therefore, teacher planning programs can no longer count on an introductory course. All of us can’t merely bolt on the technology in teacher education curriculum, we should take aggressive steps due to its integration in teaching learning. Teacher education and technological competence should involve most aspects of the preparation of teachers, we. e., introductory competencies, utilization of technology in methods classes, school placements, and student teaching.

Pre-service teachers ought to develop a vision from the very beginning of their professions for employing computers inside their classrooms. Just for this, student educators must appreciate computer functions and programming, leading them to develop a vision of the value and make use of computers in learning. Therefore , it is crucial that educator preparation courses should develop the intellectual, social, and physical conditions that will help instructors feel suitable and in power over learning to instruct with technology, a domain that is certainly often frustrating even for experienced teachers.

Another concern of preparing teachers to show with technology is that due to knowledge generation, our information about computer technology is continually changing. Furthermore factor, there are many other sizes like frame of mind, motivation, computer system anxiety, and computer self-efficacy which enjoy an important part in developing skills and competencies between prospective instructors. Pedagogy is usually primarily connected with formal institution education.

There are significant distinctions between the two concepts of pedagogy and “webogogy, specially in terms of independence/dependence of the learners, helpful learning, motivation, and the role of the tutor. The framework of learning is significant because learning is contextually and situationally specific. The teacher’s function in web-based teaching had been identified as being very different in the teacher’s part in formal education, with terms just like facilitator talking about the person who will be on-line and interacting with college students in various techniques. It may be precisely the same person who makes the training course materials.

Likewise, the on- 90 series teacher will need to arrange a range of activities in which he / she will engage students, and a range of roles that she or he will match. In web-affiliated teaching, the teacher will be engaged in preparing and business of educational materials depending on the same kind of presumptions about learners that are placed by book authors. The net provides a wide range of scope to get integrating diverse learning experiences and making learning healthy. All of the methods developed by someone teacher could possibly be shared within a web forum for further refining the lesson plans.

The various abilities and expertise to be designed on the part of scholar teachers would be: Surfing the Internet and tracking down useful data from the Internet pertaining to the development of lesson plans. Developing lessons plans adding student make use of technology inside the learning process. Evaluating and selecting appropriate software for a subject and per pupil needs. Making printed papers like student assignments, ezines, communication, etc . utilizing a variety of applications application like phrase processing and desktop posting.

Managing college student data, employing data managing tools pertaining to efficiently taking care of learning. Applying technology to assemble, organize, and report details about student efficiency like Exceed and Access for database management. Developing equipment to evaluate technology-based student assignments including multi-media, word finalizing, database, schedule, PowerPoint, computer system publishing, and Internet/telecommunications. 91 Using the Internet to back up professional expansion including tracking down professional companies, communicating with different teachers in electronic format, and playing on-line specialist development training courses nd seminars. Developing projects and project work for learners, giving them larger and deeper knowledge in a field of study, developing critical considering and infusing creativity among students. Laptop Education with the Secondary Level Recognizing the growing need for ICT in the education place, policy manufacturers in the university education sector have taken proper care to incorporate computer education at the school level. The Curriculum Guidebook and Syllabus for Information Technology in Colleges developed by NCERT, India, gets the following targets for the secondary college level: 1 .

Selecting appropriate IT products for a given task, producing his/her individual informed choice of browser and search engines, trouble-shooting for peripherals. 2 . Figuring out specific strengths and weaknesses of technology resources, showing legal and ethical behavior regarding the usage of technology and information. a few. Communicating to a variety of people using IT tools, using a variety of technology equipment for data collection and analysis, employing tools to present and post information with interactive multiple media features, using tools to make designs and ruse, manipulating pictures.. Using online information helpful collaboration and communication, collaborating with other folks to build content-related knowledge bases. 5. Producing strategies to get relevant and appropriate electronic information options. 6. Checking out technology-based alternatives for ongoing learning, using productivity equipment, communication tools and exploration skills. ninety two IT competency standards at the conclusion of Class Back button to be designed in students are: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Capacity in and understanding of fundamental computer procedures and principles. Using a number of programs to accomplish learning responsibilities.

Exhibiting expertise in the use of communication networks. Exhibiting abilities in the assortment and use of technology to assemble, process, and analyze data and preparation of reports. The targets from the university sector with regards to established pupil objectives and expected expertise to be created demonstrate the requirement to develop required knowledge and skills between teachers with positive behaviour and the right inclination. Techno-Pedagogy a Skill The aim of teacher education is to develop skills and appropriate know-how among tutor trainees intended for using and integrating the proper technology in an appropriate fashion.

Every teacher should know using technology, pedagogy and subject area content efficiently in their daily classroom educating. It is crystal clear that simply introducing technology to the educational process is definitely not enough. One must ensure scientific integration since technology on its own will not cause change. Somewhat, it is the way through which teachers integrate technology that has the potential to create change in the training process. Consequently, attitude and self-efficacy to technology play an important position.

For educators to become progressive in the usage of educational technology means heading beyond simply competence together with the latest equipment to growing an understanding from the complex world wide web of human relationships among users, technologies, techniques, and tools. Teachers need to understand their job in technologically-oriented classrooms. Therefore, knowledge about technology is important itself, but not as a separate and unrelated body system of knowledge single from the circumstance of teaching, it is not just about what technology can carry out, but most likely what technology can carry out for them while teachers. several In techno-pedagogy, there are three areas of know-how, namely: content, pedagogy, and technology. Articles (C) is definitely the subject matter that may be to be taught. Technology (T) encompasses modern technologies including computer, Internet, digital video and common technologies including overhead projectors, blackboards, and books. Pedagogy (P) describes the collected practices, processes, strategies, procedures, and techniques of teaching and learning. Additionally, it includes know-how about the is designed of instruction, assessment, and student learning.

Speaking truthfully, technology incorporation entails the understanding and negotiating from the relationships among the list of aforementioned 3 components. Very good teaching is definitely not simply adding technology for the existing teaching and content domain. Somewhat, the introduction of technology causes the representation of recent concepts and requires developing sensitivity to the powerful, transactional marriage between all three components recommended by the TPCK framework. (Koehler, M. L. and Problem, P. 2005) Technological Content Knowledge C P Pedagogical Content Scientific, Pedagogical understanding (TPCK)

Capital t Technological Pedagogical Knowledge Based on the nature of content, scope of content, and level of college students, appropriate technology integration should be sought. Technology as a help enhances the process of learning and helps in attaining higher level aims. 94 Approaches to ICT the usage in Educator Education Make use of ICT inside teacher schooling programs around the world is being approached in a number of different ways with different degrees of accomplishment. These methods were consequently described, refined and combined into pursuing approaches: 1 .

ICT skills development approach: Here importance is given to providing training in use of ICT in general. College student teachers are expected to be experienced users of ICT for his or her daily activities. Information about various software, hardware and the use in educational process is provided. 2 . ICT pedagogy approach: Emphasis is in integrating ICT skills in a respective subject. Drawing on the principles of constructivism, pre-service professors design lessons and actions that direct attention to the use of ICT tools which will foster the attainment of learning effects.

This approach is advantageous to the extent that the abilities enhance ICT literacy abilities and the underlying pedagogy allows students to increase develop and keep these skills in the context of designing classroombased resources. a few. Subject-specific way: Here ICT is stuck into a person’s own area of interest. By this method, teachers/subject professionals are not only exposing students to new and innovative methods of learning tend to be providing these a practical knowledge of what learning and educating with ICT looks and feels like.

In this way, ICT can be not an , add on’ but an important tool that may be accessed by teachers and students around a wide range of the curricula. 5. Practice powered approach: Below emphasis can be on featuring exposure to the utilization of ICT in practical facets of teacher teaching. Focus is usually on producing lessons and assignments. Applying ICT and implementing this in their work experience at various levels gives students a way to assess the services available at their particular school and effectively employ their own skills. Thus, ICT in educator training will take many forms. Teachers may be trained to discover how to use ICT tools.

ICT can be used being a core or maybe a complementary way to the teacher 95 teaching process (Collis , Jung, 2003). The various ways in which ICT teacher schooling efforts could be classified in to four groups are proven below in Figure 1 . ICT AS PART OF CONTENT ICT AS A KEY COMPONENT IN TEACHER EDUCATION AND ITS APPLICATION ICT SINCE CORE ARTICLES ICT WHILE FACILITATOR ICT AS PRIMARY DELIVERY From the above suggested approaches, regarding ICT as a main component at the preservice level, integration coming from all approaches would help in producing proper qualities among prospective teachers.

There ought to be joint efforts of teachers and possible teachers in implementing and sharpening ICT skills. Whatever approach is definitely followed in educational institutions to produce knowledge about ICT, it has inherent limitations. Coupled with other reasons, were not making student professors fully assured in employing ICT within their daily class room activities. As reported by Larose F. in their study, the degree of computer literacy of the teaching staff can be satisfactory although there is very little transfer of those competencies to teaching methods (Larose F. et al. 1999). Efforts are required for teachers to employ the available facilities to find the best use in teaching /learning. ICT in Education Course Scenario at the Pre-Service Level The syllabi for ICT in education programs offered by a number of the universities in India had been analyzed with regards to the objective of the course, weight given to theory and practice, and other syllabus components. The Curriculum Guide and Syllabus for Information Technology in Colleges developed by NCERT, India, provides the following objectives 96 bout basic competencies of professors to achieve the aims of ICT education at the secondary level: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Understanding the role of technology in change and the implications of technology-mediated changes for education. Creating affinity for learning between students through unique programs like movement, simulation, the world wide web, etc . Demonstrating a audio understanding of standard IT principles and operations. Planning and designing successful learning conditions with important technology support. Making the best use of technology-enhanced lessons to complement student learning.

Adopting assessment strategies to assess (a) pupil competencies in IT expertise and (b) student learning in the fresh environment. Using technology to improve our own creativity and professional practices. Showing understanding of social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in universities. Fashioning a climate of values that provide questioning, pursuit, problemsolving, decision-making, and group co-operation. Striving for education to emerge from the disciplinary narrowness. Identifying valuable learning material from numerous sources.

The teacher must take a working part in developing his own checklist for analysis of learning materials and employ it in the circumstance of (a) the spanish student profile, (b) the learning environment, and (c) the specialized strength from the computer clinical of the college. Moreover, the duties of the instructor are: 1 ) Design your own directory. 2 . Assessment software to be procured or perhaps on the World Wide Web several. Report his/her assessment of courseware to the principal and so a purchase decision can be produced. 97 ICT is released in secondary teacher online classes at different levels as being a compulsory subject or a special field subject.

Sometimes, it is also introduced among the subjects to get studied within course entitled ‘Educational Technology’. Various objectives/rationales for bringing out the program are the following: 1 . Understanding the scope and importance of ICT in modern-day society. installment payments on your Developing powerful perspectives and attitude toward emerging solutions. 3. Developing skills in handling, maintaining and safeguarding different types of equipment and tools in the establishments of learning. 4. Acquiring a assumptive basis of ICT and to develop an awareness regarding recent developments in the area of ICT. 5. Acquiring adequate understanding bout the fundamentals of computers and operating systems. 6. Acquiring the necessary skills of managing software packages with regards to education inside the institutions of learning. several. Acquiring knowledge regarding new Net technologies and their place in the field of education. Regarding the weight given to the subject, different approaches will be followed. Overall the excess weight given to theory and practice is 60/40 (60% intended for theory and 40% to get practice). Generally the content areas regarding theory/practice include: a. Introduction to Personal computers b. Summary of Operating Systems c. Application of Computer systems in Instructing d.

Capabilities of Pcs ” Understanding of M. S. Office and other related packages and Pc languages elizabeth. Application of computer systems in Education f. Fresh Trends and Techniques in Laptop education (EDUSAT etc . ) g. Knowledge of Internet, World-wide-web, etc . 98 In the many teacher education institutions, the syllabi exhibit less fat to useful than theoretical aspects. Since the nature of ICT themes is more useful and application-oriented, there has to be more functional than theoretical input. This aspect seems to be neglected in designing and framing curricular objectives.

The current approach intended for ICT the use is depressing as an “add on approach to get ICT course is used: ICT essentials are educated to tutor trainers concentrating on technical concerns, but little emphasis is given to the pedagogical aspects Educational technology courses are taught in a rather traditional approach and show little evidence of using new technology to back up instructional innovative developments Students can’t say for sure how to use new technology in their classroom instruction if they go to colleges Technology type is not integrated in the curriculum courses, especially technique courses.

These are certain simple problems linked to the integration facets of technology. They are major obstacles in the integration of ICT in the teaching/learning process. This scenario shows that the objectives of introducing ICT at the pre-service level will be developing technological know-how and awareness concerning various other systems and software applications. Further, the time spent for practical sessions is less, while more time is usually spent to get theory periods. The total approach of launching ICT with the pre-service level is not so serious.

It is rather clear that student educators will not obtain much opportunity in order to integrate ICT in curriculum or maybe the teaching/learning method. In instructor training programs at the supplementary level, the ICT education scenario is struggling with the following problems: ¢ ¢ Just at the understanding development level are targets being obtained, but increased thinking expertise regarding the make use of ICT usually do not be taking place. Technology, pedagogy and articles area incorporation is a unusual feature. components are addressed separately which will creates distress for students. Almost all 99 ¢

There is a critical discrepancy among syllabi of teacher schooling institutions and secondary colleges. Syllabi in various corporations are not over a par with school level curriculum. ¢ Time life long the classes related to ICT education is too short to formulate knowledge and necessary expertise among college students to achieve higher order thinking abilities. ¢ ¢ ¢ There is a lack of accessibility to proper infrastructural facilities at most of the of the organizations. There is a mismatch between offered hardware and software to develop required learning resources. Support from technological taff for maintenance is definitely dismal. The aim at the pre-service level is not to put together technocrats, but for develop technopedagogues. Teachers must be in a position to combine technology into teaching as well as learning as well as develop the art and skill of “webogogy (i. e., to make use of Internet technology, exploring it, accessing details from this to use in educating learning, and so forth ). So , objectives should be set in the attainment of application and skill levels rather than just in the knowledge and understanding levels. The professional development of teachers needs to be given importance.

There must be congruence between your school curriculum and educator training curriculum at the second level. In any other case, teachers are not ready to use their know-how to effectively design teaching/learning processes, task work, and assignments. Moreover to offering ICT being a compulsory and special program, integrated approaches need to be researched along with methods training. This will help scholar teachers to develop the concept of ‘techno pedagogy’ into a greater level. Thus, management of difference in teacher education is a complicated and challenging task regarding comprehension, concern, caution, and contemplation.

Planners and facilitators of educator education have to provide educational leadership to organize reflective educators who can take care of the educational system efficiently in various periods of education at the pre-primary, primary, elementary, secondary, and higher extra levels. Powerful change in schools is possible only if there are matching changes in the managing of teacher education applications. 100 Recommendations: Ashton, G. (1985). Determination and the teacher’s sense of efficacy. In C. Ames, , L. Ames (Eds. ), Study on motivation in education, 2, 141-171.

Orlando, FLORIDA: Academic Press Inc. Bandalos, D. and Benson, J. (1990). “Testing the element structure invariance of a laptop attitude level over two grouping conditions, Educational Psychology Measurement, 50, 49-60. Bandura, A. (1982). “Self-efficacy components in man agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of believed and action: A social-cognitive view. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. and Adama, And. E. (1997). Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioural change., Intellectual Therapy and Research, one particular, 287-308.

Bandura, A., Adams, N. At the., , Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive techniques mediating behavioral change, Record of Persona and Cultural Psychology, thirty five, 125-139. Chu, P. C., , Crochet, E. Electronic. (1991). Validating the computer stress rating size: Effects of cognitive style and computer classes on computer system anxiety, Pcs in Human being Behavior, 7, 7-21. Collis, B., and Jung, I. S. (2003). Uses of information and connection technologies in teacher education. In B. Robinson , C. Latchem (Eds. ), Teacher education through available and distance education, London: RoutledgeFalmer, 171-192.

Cox, M. L, Rhodes, Sixth is v. , Area, J. (1988) The use of Computer Assisted Learning in major schools: several factors affecting the subscriber base. Computers and Education, 12(1), 173-178. Davidson, G. Sixth is v. and Ritchie, S. G. (1994). Just how can attitudes of parents, teachers, and students affect the integration of technology into schools?: An instance study. Offered at the Countrywide Convention from the Association intended for the Educational Communications and tips Technology 16th Nashville, TN, (Eric Doc Reproduction Support No . ED. 373 710) Delcourt, M. A. W , Kinzie, M. B. (1993). Laptop Technologies In Teacher Education: The Dimension Of Perceptions And Self-Efficacy. ” Record Of R and d In Education. 27 (1). 35-41. Dupange, M. and Krendl, T. A. (1992). Teachers’ frame of mind towards computers: A review of materials, Journal of Research On Computing in Education, twenty-four, 3, 420-429. Ertmer, S. A. and Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivim, constructivism: assessing critical features from an instructional style perspective, Efficiency Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72. Ertmer, L. A., Evenbeck, E., Cennamo, K. S i9000., and Lehman, J. D. (1994).

Enhancing selfefficacy intended for computer technologies through the use of confident classroom experiences. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42, 45-62. Francis-Pelton, L., , Pelton, Capital t. W. (1996). Building thinking: How a technology course affects preservice teachers’ attitudes about technology. [Online]: http://www. math. byu. edu/~lfrancis/tim’s-page/attitudesite. code Gist, M. E., Schwoerer, C., , Rosen, B (1989). Associated with alternative methods to train on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training. Journal of Applied Mindset, 74 (6), 884-891.

Hakkinen, P. (1994). Changes in computer anxiety within a required laptop course. Record of Analysis on Computer in Education, 27(2), 141-153. Hannaford, Meters. E. (1988, March 24 , 25). Teacher behaviour toward pc use in the classroom. Paper presented on the Annual Western Research and Evaluation Meeting, Washington Educational Research Relationship, Seattle, WA. Key, Ur. H. (1990). Predicting pupil teacher commiment to the utilization of computers, Log of Educational Computing Reasearch, 6, 299-309. 102 Kluever, R. C., Lam, A. C. M., Hoffman, Electronic. R., Green, K. Elizabeth. Swearingen, M. L. (1994). The computer frame of mind scale: Determining changes in teachers’ attitudes towards computers. Log of Educational Computing Study, 11(3), 251-261. Koehler, Meters. J., Mishra, P. (2005). What Happens When Teachers Style Educational Technology? The Development of Technological Pedagogical Articles Knowledge, L. Educational Calculating Research, 32(2) 131-152. Kohler M. T. and Mishra P. (2004). Teachers learning technology by design, Log of computer in tutor education, 21, 3.. Larose F., David R., Dirand J,. Karsenti T, Grenon V.,. Lafrance S , Cantin M. T 1999) Information and Communication Systems in College or university Teaching and in Teacher Education: Journey in a Major Quebec, canada , University’s Reality, Electronic Diary of Sociology ISSN: 1198 3655 Lennings, C. L. (1994). An evaluation of a general self-efficacy range. Personality and Individual Variations, 16 (5), 745-750. Loyd, B. They would. and Gressard, C. (1984 a). Reliability and factorial validity of computer frame of mind scale, Educational and Mental Measurement, 44, 501-506. Madsen, J. Meters., , Sebastiani, L. A. (1987). The effect of pc literacy instruction on teachers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward microcomputers.

Diary of ComputerBased Instruction, 14(2), 68-72. McInerney, V., McInerney, D. Meters., , Sinclair, K. E. (1994). College student teachers, pc anxiety and computer knowledge. Journal of Educational Calculating Research, 11 (1), 27-50. Mowrer-Popiel, Electronic., Pollard, C., , Pollard, R. (1994). An evaluation of the perceptions of preservice teachers toward technology and its use in the classroom. Diary of Training Psychology, twenty one (2), 131-138. Office of Technology Analysis. (1995). Professors and Technology: Making the connection. (OTA-EHR-616). Wa, DC: U. S. Authorities Printing Business office. 103 Reed, W.

Meters., , Overbaugh, R. C. (1993). The consequences of prior knowledge and instructional format in teacher education students’ laptop anxiety and gratification. Computers in the Schools, 9(2/3), 75-89. Rohner, D. M., , Simonson, M. L. (1981). Progress an index of computer anxiousness. Paper shown at the annual convention from the Association of Educational Sales and marketing communications and Technology, Philadelphia, PA. Russon, A. E., Josefowitz, N., , Edmonds, C. V. (1994). Making computer system instruction available: Familiar analogie for feminine novices. Pcs in Human being Behavior, 10(2), 175-187. Schunk, D. L. (1981).

Modeling and attributional effects upon children’s achievement: A self-efficacy analysis. Diary of Educational Psychology, 73, 93-105. Torkzadeh, G. and Koufteros, By. (1994). Aspect validity of the computer self-eficacy scale plus the impact of computer schooling. Educational and Psychological Way of measuring, 54(3), 813-821. Woodrow, T. (1990) Locus of Control and college student teacher pc attitudes. Pcs Education, 16, 4, 421-432 Woodrow, M. E. J. (1992). The influence of programming schooling on the computer literacy and thinking of preservice teachers. Journal of Study on Computer in Education, 25(2), 200-219. 104

< Prev post Next post >