18th 100 years european enlightenment essay

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The Enlightenment is actually a name provided by historians to the

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perceptive movement that was main in the Western world during

those days. Strongly motivated by the go up of modern research

and by the aftermath of the extended religious conflict that adopted

the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophes

in France) were committed to seglar views depending on reason or human

understanding just, which they wished would provide a basis for

helpful changes impacting every area of life and thought.

The more extreme and radical philosophesDenis Diderot, Claude

Adrien Helvetius, Junker dHolbach, the Marquis para Condorcet, and

Julien Offroy entre ma Mettrie (1709-51)advocated a philosophical

rationalism deriving its methods by science and natural idea

that would replace religion as the means of understanding nature and destiny

of humanity, these men were materialists, pantheists, or atheists.

Various other enlightened thinkers, such as Pierre Bayle, Voltaire, David

Hume, Blue jean Le Rond Dalembert, and Immanuel Margen, opposed fanaticism

but were either agnostic or left space for some kind of religious

All of the philosophes saw themselves as continuing the work of

the truly great 17th century pioneersFrancis Sausage, Galileo, Descartes

Leibnitz, Isaac Newton, and Ruben Lockewho acquired developed productive

ways of rational and empirical request and had proven the

probability of a world remade by the using knowledge to get

individual benefit. The philosophes assumed that scientific research could disclose

nature as it genuinely is and show how it could be controlled and

altered. This idea provided a motivation to extend scientific

methods into every discipline of inquiry, thus laying the research for

the development of the modern social sciences.

The educated understanding of human nature was one which

emphasized the right to self-expression and individual fulfillment, the

directly to think freely and exhibit ones sights publicly with no

censorship or fear of repression. Voltaire admired the liberty he

found in England and fostered the propagate of The english language ideas on the

Country. He and his followers compared with the intolerance of the

established Christian churches of their day, as well as the European

government authorities that controlled and under control dissenting opinions. For

example, the social disease which Pangloss caught from Paquette was

traced to a incredibly learned Franciscan and later into a Jesuit. Also

Simple reminisces that his interest for Cunegonde first designed

at a Mass. Even more conservative enlightened thinkers, concerned

generally with performance and management order, preferred the

enlightened despotism of these kinds of monarchs as Emperor Joseph II

Frederick II of Prussia, and Catherine II of Russia.

Educated political thought expressed needs for equal rights and

justice as well as for the legal changes had to realize these kinds of goals. Collection

out by Grande de Montesquieu, the changes had been more strongly urged by

the contributors for the great Encyclopedie edited in Paris simply by Diderot

among 1747 and 1772, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Cesare Beccaria, and

finally by simply Jeremy Bentham, whose utilitarianism was the culmination of

a long debate on delight and the method of achieving it.

The political writers with the Enlightenment built on and extended

the rationalistic, republican, and natural-law theories that had been

advanced in the previous hundred years as the bases of law, cultural peace, and

just order. As they did so, in addition they elaborated new doctrines of

well-liked sovereignty the 19th century would enhance into a kind

of nationalism that contradicted the individualistic view of the

philosophes. Amongst those who were important from this development were

historians such as Voltaire, Hume, William Robertson, Edward cullen Gibbon

and Giambattista Vico. Their particular work showed that though all individuals

distributed a common being human, each region and every era also had

unique characteristics that made it exceptional. These paradoxes were

explored by early romantics such as Johann Georg Hamman and Johann

Just about everywhere the Enlightenment produced restless men rapide for

change nevertheless frustrated by popular ignorance and official repression.

This kind of gave the enlightened the literati an interest in popular education.

They promoted educational ventures and sought in witty, entertaining, and

actually titillating methods to educate and awaken their particular contemporaries. The

reports of Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle or Dernier-né Franklin, the

broadly imitated works of Paul Addison and Richard Steele, and many

dictionaries, handbooks, and encyclopedias produced by the enlightened

were written to popularize, simplify, and promote a more reasonable

view of life among the list of people of their time.

The Enlightenment came to an end in western Europe after the

upheavals of the French Innovation and the Napoleonic era (1789-1815)

unveiled the costs of its politics program and the lack of determination

in those whose rhetoric was often more liberal than their actions.

Nationalism undercut their cosmopolitan values and presumptions about

human nature, as well as the romantics assaulted its belief that clear

intelligible answers could possibly be found to every question asked by people

who also sought to be free and happy. The skepticism of the philosophes

was hidden away inside the religious resurrection of the 1790s and early 1800s

and the social leadership in the landed aristocracy and specialist

males who had reinforced the Enlightenment was eroded by the regarding a

new prosperous educated category of business men, products with the industrial

revolution. Only in North and South usa, where sector came

later and revolution hadn’t led to reaction, did the Enlightenment

linger in the 19th century. Its long-term heritage have been its

contribution to the literature of human liberty and some organizations

through which its principles have been put. Included in the second option are

many areas of modern govt, education, and philanthropy.



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