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52 SJWEH Suppl 2008, simply no 6 Quality and dependability of the work content customer survey in formal and simple jobs in Brazil by Tania Maria para Araujo, PhD, 1 Robert Karasek, PhD 2 de Araujo TM, Karasek R. Validity and reliability in the job content material questionnaire in formal and informal jobs in Brazil. SJWEH Suppl.

2008, (6): 52″59. Objectives This kind of study assessed the job content material questionnaire (JCQ) in computing work mindset aspects regarding formal and informal job in Brazilian occupational groups.

Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out within a random test of 1311? 15-year-old occupants in the metropolitan area of the associated with Feira sobre Santana, Caleta, Brazil. The Portuguese JCQ version included the suggested 49-item in the original edition. The JCQ performance analysis included detailed analysis, discriminant analysis, inner consistency, and construct quality. Results Averages of the JCQ scales were similar to get the formal and casual workers, apart from decision specialist (formal work: c=31., relaxed jobs: c=34. 5). The averages of the Portuguese JCQ scales did not differ greatly from these obtained in other European, United states, and Japanese people studies, even though they were slightly lower in the Brazilian case. In general, Cronbach’s alpha rapport revealed performance similar to additional large-sample studies, showing satisfactory internal persistence. The coefficients were comparatively similar pertaining to formal and informal careers. Factor examination revealed excessive consistency with the theoretical unit.

Conclusions This can be the first research to evaluate JCQ performance assessing formal and informal opportunities in a growing country. The work content questionnaire presented a great global overall performance, and this did not differ substantially coming from those observed in other research. These findings suggest that the work content customer survey can be used in studies carried out in growing countries in addition to situations through which informal jobs are common. Key terms decision latitude, demand”control model, occupational anxiety, psychological require, psychological relax. Health Office, State University or college of Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. 2 Office of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts by Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, Usa. Reprint demands to: Doctor TM para Araujo, KILOMETERS 03, BAYERISCHER RUNDFUNK 116 Campus Universitario, Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil, 40110 one hundred and eighty. [E-mail: araujo. [email, protected] br ] There is a significant amount of scientific literary works on the psychological aspects of work in developed countries. However , exploration addressing the measurement of those aspects in developing countries is new and hard to find.

In growing countries, function organization aspects are usually thought to be a less relevant issue than other important problems, just like unemployment, mishaps, and other occupational hazards that threaten lifestyle and put worker’s physical health at risk. Additionally, there is an assumption that instruments utilized to measure psychological aspects in developed countries are not relevant in growing countries due to different social contexts. However , these arguments have been criticized because farrenheit, at least, the following three factors: (i) the the positive effect process”many multinational companies have been completely operating in growing countries under job specifications and solutions that are a lot like those utilized in developed countries (1), (ii) social and economic structural heterogeneity in developing societies”which include, inside the same region, areas which has a high level of development (industrialized areas) and incredibly poor areas, and (iii) the elevating rates of occupational disorders and problems related to work organization conditions shown by simply some developing countries.

These types of three operations, acting collectively, reveal that psychosocial aspects at work can be a relevant injury in different social and economic contexts. The impacts upon mental and physical overall health are already obvious in developing contexts (2, 3), and in addition they indicate the value of investigating work mindset aspects in both developed and developing countries. A few models possess aimed at considering psychosocial qualities at work and the effects upon worker well being.

The demand”control model has worldwide work with and is a strong influence about this research field (4, 5). It focuses on two important work dimensions, decision latitude and mental demands. Decision latitude SJWEH Suppl 2008, (6): 52″59 SJWEH Suppl 2008, no 6 53 de Araujo , Karasek refers to to be able to make decisions about their work as well as the possibility of becoming creative and using or perhaps developing additional skills. It includes two dimensions, skill discretion (opportunity to use skills) and decision authority (opportunity to make decisions).

Psychological demand refers to work load, mental requirements, organizational restrictions put on the worker, and conflicting requirements. The job content questionnaire (JCQ) is a standard instrument proposed to measure the dimensions from the demand”control unit (6). In the last two decades, the job content customer survey has been intensively used in created countries, as well as performance has become tested in populations coming from these countries (7″15). Yet , performance at work content customer survey in developing countries is still a significantly less studied concern.

In our books review we all identified just three research conducted in “developing countries to evaluate performance on the job articles questionnaire, performed in Mexico (16), Taiwan (17) and China (18). Specific occupational groups were studied: in Taiwan, employees from 4 companies, which include men and women, in Mexico only women from two maquiladora microelectronic plants, in China and tiawan, male and female health care staff. In Brazil, the Swedish version of the job content questionnaire (17 questions) was tested within a sample from the technical and administrative personnel of a Brazilian university.

The global performance from the scales to get decision latitude, psychological require, and social support was very good (3). The primary objective on this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the task content customer survey in calculating work psychological characteristics to get workers in formal and informal jobs in Brazil. Examine population and methods Study design A cross-sectional analyze was performed in a arbitrary sample of workers 12-15 years or older through the city of Feira de Santana in 2002.

It is the second largest city in the Express of Caleta, in the northeast region of Brazil, with around half a million inhabitants. Meaning of formal and informal jobs In Brazil, the Labor Ministry has adopted an instrument to define formal and simple jobs: the position Card (“Carteira de Trabalho). This card establishes the task contract between employees and employers. It is regulated by national laws and provides all kinds of benefits, including placing the employee in a cultural security system.

You read ‘Validity and Reliability of the Task Content Questionnaire’ in category ‘Essay examples’ The job greeting card establishes an official job for the worker.

Casual jobs are generally not regulated by law, there is no social security system, neither any other kind of social or perhaps economic rights. Among different varieties of informal careers, selling products on the street is the most common type. One other type which has increased, due to the unemployment situation, is definitely the family retail store (stores which can be constructed in the living place of a person’s own home). Study human population The study areas were picked using randomly procedures, based on population info from the national census.

The sampling techniques were executed using the subsequent steps: (i) selection of the sectors within just each subdistrict, by a unique procedure, (ii) random number of streets within each selected sector, (iii) visitation of houses for the selected roads, and (iv) interview of all people 15 years or older simply by well-trained interviewers using common procedures. Conditions field manual helped to standardize methods in the interview and avoid biases in the data collection. Up to three visits were made to a person’s property, in an effort to perform an interview.

We all visited 1479 residences and interviewed 3190 people. To judge JCQ performance, we reviewed information only from people who had been working during the time of the interview. Altogether 1311 workers were included in this research. Sixty-six percent of the goal population proved helpful in an casual job. The percentage of formal and simple jobs was similar relating to gender (49. 1% for the women and 40. 4% for the men). No relevant differences were found throughout the age groups inside the informal jobs.

However , inside the formal jobs, the proportion of employees increased from the beginning of worklife to the middle of it, however it decreased greatly after 4 decades of age (from 46. seven percent among the personnel 26″34 years of age to 25. 5% among the workers? forty one years of age). The workers in formal careers had a degree than those in informal jobs. Workers with the graduate level were three or more. 1 moments more likely to maintain formal careers than in relaxed jobs. Commercial activity (retail sales) employed the highest quantity of workers (38. 8%), followed by services generally speaking (27. %), private home services (11. 2%), education (6. 9%), manufacturing (6. 6%), travel (4. 3%), and structure (4. 1%). The structure according to formal and informal careers showed crystal clear job low self-esteem in some particular sectors. Among the workers employed in the construction sector, 87. 0% had an relaxed job, for private household services the proportion was 86. five per cent, and it was 70% pertaining to commercial activity, 64. 2% for transportation workers, and 62% for the workers on the whole services. However, 67. % of the people working in education and 57. 1% of those in manufacturing had formal jobs. 54 SJWEH Suppl 2008, no six Job content questionnaire in jobs in Brazil Considering the place where persons worked, all of us observed more variety pertaining to informal careers. The highest portion of relaxed workers was found intended for working on the street (23. 6%), followed by company (22. 8%), another person’s residence (20. 8%), and in their own house (18. 3%). Among the list of formal workers, 66. 8% worked in companies (private enterprise), and 21. 9% were used in public structures.

Portuguese translation process pertaining to the job articles questionnaire The translation process took into consideration aspects just like conceptual assent, item equivalence, semantic equivalence, operational equivalence, measurement equivalence, and useful equivalence (19). The recommended procedures to build a cross-cultural translation in the job content questionnaire were followed. 1st, the customer survey was converted independently into Portuguese by simply two Brazilian translators. Clear solutions were clarified to guide the translation process.

According to these instructions, the emphasis in the translation was given to the that means of the conditions rather than to literal translation, reinforcing them meaning in the Brazilian occupational context. The translation, produced in this first step, was reviewed in meetings with the analysis team and translators right up until a consensual version was drawn up. This kind of consensual Portuguese version was translated back to English (back translation) by simply two additional translators, who were native English speakers and in addition fluent in Portuguese. The Portuguese type of the task content questionnaire and the again translation ere sent to the JCQ Center to be assessed by the Centre researchers. After this evaluation, a few modifications were suggested for the initial translation, plus they were rapidly accounted for. A pretest was conducted to check the quality of issue formulation, complications found in responding to specific questions, and conceptual equivalence among both different languages (English and Portuguese). Based upon the pretest results, a new version was clarified (including a new again translation). The JCQ Center approved the ultimate version in December 2001. Scales and subscales from the job content questionnaire

The Portuguese edition of the job content set of questions included this recommended structure (6): 49 questions (scales of decision latitude”skill acumen and decision authority, emotional demand, physical demand, cultural support”supervisor and coworker support, and job insecurity). To be able to build indicators, for each scale of the questionnaire, a total of the weighted item score was worked out according to the customer’s guide in the job articles questionnaire (6). Statistical analysis All of the studies were carried out separately to get the formal and relaxed workers.

Imply values and standard deviations were worked out for each level and subscale. The performance analysis included a discriminant analysis, interior consistency (reliability indicators), and construct quality (factor analysis). Discriminant analysis. This study included staff from different job sectors. Discriminant quality was assessed by evaluating the way of the weighing scales and subscales of the task content questionnaires gathered from workers in each sector. An research of difference (ANOVA) was performed to compare the observed variations. Internal persistence.

Cronbach’s first coefficient was calculated to assess the internal persistence or homogeneity of the concerns aimed at testing the same construct. Alpha ideals above zero. 65 were considered suitable (12, 14). Construct quality (factor analysis). The analysis was developed in three steps. 1st, an educational analysis using a correlation matrix for all of the parameters was computed. In the second step, a principal element method utilized to remove the factors (eigenvalues? you criterion). A rotation varimax (orthogonal) was conducted to make the factors even more interpretable (20).

Factors loading values of &gt, 45 were deemed indicators of significant factorial contribution (10). Measurement of mental health outcome. To gauge performance at work content questionnaire in determining work conditions involving a risk to mental overall health, we examined the frequency of emotional distress in line with the demand”control version. The self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), a structured device designed by the earth Health Corporation to assess psychological stress in producing countries, utilized. The scales for decision latitude and psychological demand were dichotomized.

The indicate values were used to dichotomize both scales. Based on the combination between the levels of demand and control, four classes were founded for the demand”control unit. A multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results The means and standard deviations of the scales of the job content customer survey were identical for the formal and SJWEH Suppl 2008, zero 6 fifty five de Araujo , Karasek informal jobs (table 1). The most important difference was discovered for “decision authority because there was an increased mean for informal jobs (34. 6) than pertaining to formal jobs (31. 99). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were relatively similar for the formal and casual jobs, however the coefficients were higher pertaining to the formal jobs”the rapport ranged from 0. 65 to 0. 79. The internal consistency for psychological demand was low intended for the relaxed jobs (0. 55). The subscale “conflicting demands provided poor consistency with the various other subscales, it is correlation pourcentage was below 0. 12. For skill discretion, the internal consistency was also relatively low for informal careers (0. 6029).

The subscale “variety showed low consistency with the additional subscales, the correlation agent with the additional items staying 0. 19. For the task insecurity range, the overall performance was poor for both equally types of jobs (but better for informal jobs). The research of the way of the weighing machines of the work content customer survey according to sector of activity demonstrated some significant differences. Stand 2 reveals the subscale means of the questionnaire relating to sectors. The indicate for skill discretion was lower intended for private home services (formal jobs: c=29. 18, relaxed jobs: c=32. 12) than for education (formal careers: c=35. 3, informal careers: c=34. 08). Similar differences were discovered for decision authority (note the high means for education for both equally formal and informal jobs). Psychological require revealed the same pattern around all of the industries. The opportinity for physical require were higher for development (formal jobs: c=12. 50, informal careers: c=14. 30) and manufacturing (formal careers: c=13. forty-five, informal jobs: c=12. 66) and lower for education (formal jobs: c=11. 84, informal jobs: c=11. 71), as expected. The very best job insecurity means were observed pertaining to the construction sector (formal jobs: c=7. 0, informal jobs: c=9. 78). Correlation pourcentage by sector No relationship was found between decision latitude and psychological require (formal staff: 0. 057, informal workers: 0. 010). This obtaining supports the hypothesis of relative independence between those two factors, because theoretically postulated. For almost all of the scales of the job content material questionnaire, the correlation rapport showed the same pattern pertaining to the areas. The pattern was comparable by sector with respect to the formal and simple jobs, following a predicted path, as recommended by Karasek’s demand”control unit.

Some little differences had been observed in the coefficient size, but not in the direction of the coefficients. However , a strong difference was observed involving the two sizes of decision latitude. In the sectors of education, manufacturing, private home services, construction, and standard services, a good correlation between skill discretion (SD) and decision power (DA) was observed”as expected. For the sectors of economic activity and transportation, we observed simply no correlation among skill discretion and decision authority, 0. 068 and 0. 077, respectively.

Create validity The factor research loaded ten factors intended for formal and informal jobs (tables a few and 4). Similar patterns were discovered for equally types of jobs. There is high Desk 1 . Means, standard deviations (SD), and Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the scales and subscales with the job content material questionnaire relating to formal and simple jobs. Scales Range Formal jobs Informal jobs Imply SD a Mean SD a conclusion latitude 24″96 64. 76 8. 44 0. 6576 65. 91 7. 84 0. 6211 Skill discernment 12″48 thirty-two. 76 4. 25 0. 6500 23. 39 four. 06 0. 6029 Decision authority 12″48 31. on the lookout for 6. twenty 0. 6869 34. 46 6. 01 0. 7194 Psychological require 12″48 40. 07 three or more. 63 0. 6627 up to 29. 89 3. 29 zero. 5588 Support 8″32 23. 07 2 . 09 0. 7103 3. 20 2 . 01 zero. 6588 Coworker support 4″16 11. 75 1 . 18 0. 6901 11. 97 1 . 25 0. 7009 Supervisory support 4″16 14. 28 1 ) 47 zero. 7900 eleven. 38 1 ) 30 zero. 6515 Physical demand 5″20 12. 30 2 . 18 0. 7584 12. 53 2 . 25 0. 7615 Job low self-esteem a 3″12 5. 25 1 . 12-15 0. 3613 5. 85 1 . 83 0. 5540 Age 15″82 33. 93 11. 59 ” 34. 94 13. 93 ” a Means intended for job insecurity (4 items): formal jobs: 6. 47 (SD 1 ) 44), casual jobs: six. 44 (SD 2 . 47). Table installment payments on your

Means of the subscales from the job articles questionnaire relating to sector of activity for the formal and informal jobs. (SD = skill discretion, DA = decision authority, DL = decision lat., PD sama dengan psychological require, PhyD = physical require, JI sama dengan job insecurity) Sector SECURE DIGITAL DA DL PD PhyD JI Formal jobs Construction 31. 67 33. 84 65. 71 28. 67 12. 55 7. 00 Manufacturing thirty-three. 09 31. 91 65. 07 23. 45 13. 45 6th. 32 Trade (retail activity) 32. eighty 31. 54 64. twenty-eight 30. 47 12. 45 6. 23 Transportation thirty-one. 78 29. 68 sixty one. 33 up to 29. 28 12. 74 6th. 20 Education 35. 06 35. 33 70. 56 30. 02 11. 4 4. 87 General companies 32. 13 32. forty-four 64. 79 30. 11 12. twenty nine 5. forty-four Private household services 40. 47 twenty nine. 18 fifty nine. 65 twenty nine. 50 12. 13 your five. 50 Informal jobs Development 31. 40 32. 41 63. ninety five 30. 79 14. 31 9. 79 Manufacturing 33. 10 thirty-three. 25 sixty six. 26 23. 03 doze. 66 several. 61 Commerce (retail activity) 31. 45 35. sixty six 67. 13 30. 01 12. 36 7. 00 Transportation 35. 94 thirty-six. 25 67. 25 thirty-one. 03 13. 35 six. 38 Education 35. twenty eight 34. ’08 69. 36 29. forty-four 11. 71 6. 31 General Providers 31. 94 34. sixty 66. sixty four 29. 66 12. 60 7. 07 Private home services twenty nine. 12 32. 12 sixty one. 34 twenty-eight. 98 doze. 07 six. 58 56 SJWEH Suppl 2008, zero 6

Job content questionnaire in job in Brazil uniformity with the theoretical model to get the weighing scales for remedies support, colliege support, skill discretion, decision authority, and physical require. The subscales related to mental demand packed on different factors. The subscale “conflicting demands did not weight on the mental demand scale, as expected. For both the formal and informal jobs, it crammed on one separate factor (factor 8). For the skill discretion size, the subscale “variety loaded on the factor related to the psychological require Table 4.

Factor (F) analysis making use of the principal component extraction method and varimax rotation together with the informal careers. Scale Simple job (N=780) F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Skill discretion Learn new pleasures zero. 661 Repetitive work a zero. 480 Requires creativity 0. 587 High capability 0. 644 Selection n 0. 502 Develop personal abilities zero. 724 Decision authority Enables own decisions 0. 809 Small decision liberty a 0. 822 Opinions powerfulk 0. 690 Mental demand Job fast 0. 430

Work hard 0. 479 Excessive operate a 0. 686 Insufficient period a 0. 599 Conflicting demands a 0. 774 Social support Director is concerned 0. 760 Supervisor will pay attention 0. 718 Helpful manager 0. 417 Manager good organizer 0. 774 Colliege support Coworkers competent 0. 722 Coworker affinity for me 0. 710 Friendly coworkers 0. 652 Coworkers helpful 0. 714 Physical require Much hard physical work zero. 706 Lift heavy loads zero. 59 Rapid physical activity 0. 756 Awkward body system position b zero. 874 Awkward arm”head position b zero. 855 Variance described (after rotation) (%) 12. 3 10. 3 7. 39 7. 06 six. 17 5. 90 some. 23 3. 89 Total variance described (%) 56. 3 a Item formulated in a negative path, the rating was corrected before the aspect analysis. b Item crammed on a several factor. Desk 3. Element (F) analysis using the main component extraction method and varimax rotation with the formal jobs. Size Formal work (N=403) F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Skill discretion

Master new things 0. 639 Repetitive function a w “0. 481 Requires creativeness 0. 687 High skill level zero. 650 Variety 0. 577 b Develop individual abilities 0. 653 Decision expert Allows very own decisions 0. 780 Little decision freedom a 0. 674 Opinions influential 0. 737 Mental demand Work fast 0. 477 Work hard 0. 687 Excessive operate a 0. 614 Insufficient period a 0. 673 Conflicting requirements a 0. 802 Social support Boss is concerned zero. 16 Supervisor pays attention 0. 674 Helpful manager 0. 744 Manager good organizer 0. 717 Colliege support Co workers competent 0. 432 Coworker involvement in me 0. 757 Friendly co workers 0. 746 Co-staffs helpful zero. 730 Physical demand Much physical effort zero. 747 Lift heavy loads zero. 482 Quick physical activity 0. 837 Awkward body system position b 0. 891 Awkward arm”head position b 0. 881 Variance explained (after rotation)(%) 8. 43 8. 19 7. 1 7. seventy nine 7. fifty four 6. 96 6. thirty seven 4. forty-eight Total variance explained (%) 62. 4 a Item formulated in a unfavorable direction, the score was reversed prior to factor evaluation. b Item loaded on the different aspect. SJWEH Suppl 2008, simply no 6 57 de Araujo , Karasek scale, and it was not related to the scale for skill discretion, not surprisingly. Physical require loaded on two different facets, revealing two different types of physical workloads, type 1 including “much physical effort, “lift heavy loads, and “rapid physical activity and type 2 including “awkward physique position and “awkward equip and mind positions.

Capability of the job content questionnaire to identify different job situations because risks to mental well being Relevant differences in the frequency of internal distress were observed according to the job strain quadrants. The high-strain particular had the highest psychological problems prevalence (table 5). Corresponding effects were identified for the formal and informal careers. The low-strain situation had the lowest psychological distress prevalence. A difference was found in the quadrants of diagonal N (passive and active). In formal jobs, the frequency of internal distress was higher intended for the active job sector.

For the informal careers, the prevalence of internal distress was higher inside the passive job quadrant (1. 4 above in the low-strain situation). Conversation This is the initial study to evaluate performance of the job content material questionnaire simply by comparing formal and relaxed jobs in a developing region. Performance in the questionnaire was tested in a poor area of northeast Brazil, exactly where general home for that pet are dodgy and the educational level is low, the worker’s degree levels were, in general, very low. Despite the ethnical nd monetary differences coming from developed country contexts, the job content set of questions has good global functionality. Our means and standard deviations had been similar to results from the job pressure absenteeism and coronary heart disease Western cooperative examine (the JACE study) (9), including ten samples by five Countries in europe. Some variations occurred not surprisingly, such as higher means for physical demand and job insecurity in our study (formal and informal jobs) and higher decision latitude for the JACE study. It is notable that, pertaining to decision authority, the means for the casual jobs and the JACE examine were related.

This similarity indicates a significant freedom pertaining to the workers to determine how to carry out their own work in informal careers but likewise pointed out that, amongst these workers, the possibility to make decisions was not combined with the use or perhaps development of abilities. For example , inside the sectors of commercial activity and transportation, the workers seemed to be liberal to decide how to complete their job, but the same did not affect the development of rewarding and capabilities. The opportinity for decision power were more than the opportinity for skill discretion in these groups.

Within these kinds of sectors, the proportion of folks working on the streets was high, a well known fact that could partly explain this kind of result In general, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients revealed a performance similar to that discovered with other large-sample studies, conducted in created countries, although they were slightly lower in the study. The estimated rapport indicated suitable levels of inside consistency for nearly all of the weighing machines of the work content customer survey. The mental demand size, with five questions, showed poor interior consistency.

The reliability was acceptable for the formal jobs nevertheless low intended for the informal jobs. This kind of finding has become observed as well in other research. For example , inside the JACE analyze, the Cronbach’s alpha pourcentage was relatively low to get the men (Netherlands 0. 57, Canada”Quebec zero. 59, The japanese 0. 61) and for the women (Netherlands zero. 51 and US”QES 0. 62). These types of results unveiled a general imprecision of the work content set of questions in computing psychological require. Karasek et al (9) have asserted that different meanings of psychological demand by population groups may explain part of these effects.

These variations in meaning are related to some of the stage of area development. Until now, there has been no contract about the precise meaning of psychological Table 5. Frequency rates intended for psychological distress”the prevalence ratio (PR) as well as the respective self-confidence intervals (95% CI) based on the job stress model intended for formal and informal careers adjusted pertaining to age, educational level, sexuality, social support, time in this position (results from the multiple logistic regression analysis). Work strain model a Frequency PR w 95% CI (%) Formal jobs Low strain (^ decision latitude v internal demand) 11. 5 ” “

Passive job (v decision latitude v internal demand) 15. 5 1 . 35 0. 64″2. 84 Active work (^ decision latitude ^ psychological demand) 23. eight 2 . 07 1 . 05″4. 08 High strain (^ decision latitude ^ mental demand) 21. 7 2 . 32 1 . 18″4. 56 Informal careers Low pressure (^ decision latitude sixth is v psychological demand) 20. 0 ” Passive job (v decision lat. v emotional demand) 24. 5 1 . 23 zero. 91″1. sixty six Active work (^ decision latitude ^ psychological demand) 24. one particular 1 . twenty 0. 90″1. 61 Large strain (v decision latitude ^ emotional demand) thirty-three. 1 1 . 65 1 ) 26″2. 18 a Reference point group: decision latitude and psychological require. The delta method was used to convert odds ratios to frequency ratios. 58 SJWEH Suppl 2008, not any 6 Task content questionnaire in jobs in Brazil demand in our social and ethnical contexts. This remains a crucial question pertaining to future studies. In addition , to create this concept and correspondent level more reliable, a distinction between “qualitative and “quantitative internal demands has been proposed. Recommendations to include mental demand as being a job sizing has also been known in the literary works (21). Large internal consistency was discovered for decision authority among the list of formal and informal workers.

The items accustomed to evaluate the measure of worker opportunity to make decisions in the two highly organised and unstructured settings performed well, since indicated by Cronbach’s alpha. It is important to make note of that, when these two job-control subscales happen to be taken as a single scale”decision latitude”the reliability is definitely acceptable to get both formal and simple jobs. The subscales for coworker support and supervisory support confirmed the highest persistence with the demand”control model theory. The large consistency of such scales had been observed previously in other studies of the quality and dependability of the task content questionnaire (14, 17).

The physical demand level also showed good stability for teams in formal and relaxed jobs. This kind of scale has also been observed to do well in other studies (9, 12). The factor analysis showed a structure that is consistent with the assumptive presumptions with the job pressure model. The study developed eight factors, almost all of all of them in an predicted way. The scales pertaining to decision expert, supervisory support, coworker support, physical require, and skill discretion had been consistent with the recommended scales with the job articles questionnaire, because observed in additional studies (22).

However , a few findings of the study have to be more properly analyzed. For example , aspects associated with the physical demand scale loaded on two types of things, showing which the job content questionnaire tested two several physical work loads. Although the customer survey establishes just a scale for physical demand, Karasek , Theorell (23) thought that two specific types of physical demand were involved in job tasks (physical exertion and physical isometric load). Actually it is suitable that the set of questions includes by least two different kinds of physical demands, since observed in the study.

Indeed, this end result reinforces the ability of the set of questions to assess and determine specific qualities of the work place. With this kind of perspective, upcoming improvements inside the questionnaire must look into the evaluation of these two dimensions separately, instead of only one, as presently suggested. A single item from the skill discernment scale was also important. The subscale “variety (“I get to perform a variety of various things in my job), in both formal and informal teams, was even more related to psychological demand factors than towards the skill acumen scale, as you expected.

The data advised that doing different things has not been related to work enrichment in the studied populace in Brazil. In fact , this represents an increase in workload. Moreover, translation troubles could be regarded a potential reason for these certain results (cultural differences). One particular item related to psychological demand, “conflicting demands, loaded over a separate element for both the formal and informal jobs. That revealed a decreased correlation of the subscale with other subscales related to psychological demand, which replicated rather exactly a problem found in studies far away (8, being unfaithful, 12) in this question.

Each of our results likewise showed relevant problems with this subscale, rewarding the hypothesis that within this item structure happen to be needed to enhance the performance with the psychological demand measurement. For the formal jobs, that “repetitive work did not weight on the skill discretion element, as expected. Corresponding effects were seen in studies in other countries (7, doze, 24, 25). The low persistence of this item with the skill discretion subscale could be related to a nonnormal distribution on this aspect. Generally, repetitive function is much more frequent for the lowest skill (9). The Costa da prata version in the job content questionnaire howed a high power to identify risk to mental health. Since predicted by control”demand model, work with substantial strain consistently has the maximum negative effect on mental overall health for equally formal and informal careers, albeit even more strongly to get formal jobs. It supports an association between psychological problems and job strain, because pointed out in other studies about mental overall health (25). To summarize, the quality and dependability of the Portuguese version of the job articles questionnaire is good, and it is performed similarly among workers with formal or perhaps informal job in Brazil. Upcoming research should address an in depth evaluation farreneheit the decision-latitude dimensions in informal jobs, especially in regards to skill discretion, which performed regularly amongst informal personnel and in fresh investigations of psychological demand indicators and the performance. Gender differences kind another important aspect to be investigated in future research. Acknowledgments This kind of study was funded by simply CAPES”Coordination pertaining to the Improvement better Education Employees, Brazil, and partially maintained grant D43TW005749, “Work and Health in Brazil and Mexico from your John Elizabeth Fogarty Internationl Center of the US Countrywide Institutes of Health.

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