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DATA| INFORMATION| 123424331911| Your winning lotto ticket number| 140593| Your date of birth| Aaabbbccd| The marks you desire in your GCSEs| Data and information Info, information & knowledge Info Data include raw specifics and numbers , it does not have virtually any meaning until it is processed and turned into something useful. It comes in many forms, the main types being albhabets, numbers, pictures, symbols and sound. It is crucial that info is available since it is the first step in creating meaningful details.

Ex, 123424331911, 140593, aaabbbccd, may not mean whatever by themselves, when it is processed and changed into (the graph below) they turn into something helpful. Information Details is info that has beenprocessedin such a system as to bemeaningfulto the person who receives that. INFORMATION sama dengan DATA & CONTEXT + MEANING DATA = DATA + FRAMEWORK + THAT MEANS Example of details DATA| 21041926| This has zero meaning or perhaps context| CONTEXT| It is a British date| This enables us to join up it because 21st April 1926.

It still has zero meaning and is also therefore certainly not information| MEANING| The Birth date of Princess or queen Elizabeth II| This gives united states ll the elements essential dor that to be named ‘information’| Expertise Knowledge may be the ability of understanding the relationship between bits of information and what to actually do with the info. Consider this scenario: Person places a little finger into hot water. Info gathered: Finger nerves directs pain info to the human brain. Processing: Brain considers your data and comes up with, Details: Painful little finger means it is not in a great place.

Action: Human brain tells finger to remove itself from water. Knowledge: Adhering finger in hot water is known as a bad thought. Knowledge has an understanding in the ‘rules’ Types of data Data can be trapped in many different types called ‘data types’. Once setting up a repository or spreadsheet, it is important that the correct data type is picked for each discipline. This is because the data type can determine what can be done with the info held in that field electronic. g. selecting, searching, measurements etc . Additionally, it can decide the structure in which data is exhibited e. g. date/time data type will allow you to pick the formatting of your choice, 14/05/08, 14 May possibly 2008, fourteenth May 08 etc . Finally, some info types have the ability to automatically confirm the data staying entered. e. g.: When you use a date/time data type then every date will probably be automatically examined to ensure that it could actually are present. For example , you will not be able to your date 31/02/2008 , it could automatically always be rejected or perhaps return a blunder message. Types of data: 2. Text * Number * Boolean 5. Date/Time 2. Image Text message A text data type can hold virtually any letter, number, symbol or punctuation tag.

It is sometimes referred to as , alphanumeric’ or , string’. The data can be pure text message or a mixture of text, numbers and symbols. * Identity Joe Bloggs * Talk about 101, Any kind of Street That Town TR34 9RT 2. Telephone Number 01234 567890 2. Car Registration EA05 NXR * Car ColourBlue Phone numbers need to be stored being a text/string data type since they often start out with a 0 and if these were stored while an integer then the leading zero will be discounted. You are never likely to wish to add or multiply cell phone numbers and so there is no reason to store this as a great integer info type. Amount A number info type includes numbers.

Model: * Pounds in Kg12. 25, 19. 99, 199. 99 2. Room way of measuring in metres14. 5 5. Temperature (degrees Celsius)37. 5 Types of numbers: 5. Integers An integer stores whole figures, either positive or negative. Integers even so cannot retail store numbers with decimal areas. * True Your numerical data might need to be sorted with quebrado places. Therefore it may not be stored because an integer number. Rather it is called a, real’number. You can designate the number of quebrado places that you might want. * Forex When you choose to format statistical data as currency then it will automatically be given two decimal locations.

However , you are able to choose to format currency with 0 dp because in some circumstances it could not be appropriate to show the pence. Think of an estate agent, they may sell a house for? 295, 000. It might look silly displayed because? 295, 1000. 00. The currency info type also allows you to display the correct money symbol just like? or bucks. Boolean Boolean data holds one of two values, for example: 5. Yes/no * True/false * 0/1 A Boolean data type can be used to answer inquiries where there are exactly two options, 3 options means it was no longer boolean info.

Examples of queries where the reactions would be kept as boolean data: 2. Has the heat been switched on? | Certainly / No| * Will you be employed? | Yes / No| Info / Time A date as well as time info type is employed to store virtually any data that is certainly related to particular date or period. The difficult thing regarding date / time is the fact there are so many methods of showing it. And some countries have the new way of addressing a date. Such as * 9/4/94 in the USA means 4th Sept 94 * 9/4/94 in the united kingdom means ninth April 94 By using a time /time info type, you may choose the formatting for how you want your details to be instantly displayed.

Such as: 14/05/08, 16 May 2008, 14th May possibly 2008 and so forth Another reason to use a date /time data type is that it can provide some basic validation for the data becoming entered. For instance , you would be unable to enter the time 31/02/2008 , it would instantly be turned down or return an error meaning. Image Databases allow graphical images just like photographs to be stored being a data type. Images are binary files rather than text or figures which is why a specific data type is required. Diverse file types such as. bmp,. jpg,. jpeg can be placed

Quality info Things that affect the quality of information Precision If the info that you have gathered is erroneous then the data it will develop will inevitably also be inaccurate.

You go through ‘Data and Information’ in category ‘Papers’ Examples of how innacurate info occurs: Questionnaries and online surveys * queries might be badly worded to ensure that users not understand them 5. there may well not have been enough people interviewed for any conclusions to be dependable. For example , requesting just two people is not going to be enough Human blunders * in the event people are collecting the data manually e. g. ecording answers to forms, writing down tool measurements, some may make a mistake. Calibration of devices * in the event data has been collected immediately by receptors or various other instruments then the results could be inaccurate if the instruments are not correctly arranged at the start of the data collection period Types of information which usually would be of little make use of if it was inaccurate: Climate forecasts Various people check the weather outlook each day in order to get an idea of what things to wear. Individuals have to have beliefs that the prediction will be moderately accurate in order to make decisions.

Superstore prices When you attend a shop you probably know how much money you need to spend. You chek the costs of things you are obtaining on the shelves and may have an concept of how much it will cost by the time you have reached the till. If the peson getting into the price information into the system has unintentionally overpriced a few items, then this could show that you don’t have enough money to purchase shopping and have to put some thing back. Businesses Businesses have to use accurate data of all the money coming in and all of the money staying paid out.

In case the accountants make a mistake and dont accurately entera ll in the money received then it may look like the business has not produced as much revenue that yr. Or they will havent documented all the expenses so it appears that the company is making more cash tan it truly is Relevance In order for information being useful it ought to be relevant to you. School You may have a great deal of data to learn for every single of your tests. Each time you head to lessons you probably take a wide range of notes and perhaps are given handouts by your educators to read.

How about if your professors decided to dedicate a few weeks instructing you about things that particularly interested them? The actual had trained you might have been very interesting to both all of them and you but it isn’t tightly related to what you required at the time. You would find that you needed spent some very valuable weeks learning about things that you just didn’t need to know in order to go your test. Weather predictions Whilst it may be interesting to learn what the climate is like in Florida or perhaps Melbourne today, it isn’t actually relevant to your daily life.

It’s not going to help you make a decision whether you need to take an umbrella with you prior to leaving home in the UK. Doctor’s sessions You might be sense unwell and wish to make an appointment to view your doctor. You phone up the local surgical procedure to find out if the doctor includes a spare session time. That wouldn’t end up being very useful or relevant to you if the receptionist told you how many visit times were open to see the doctor. House prices Perhaps your parents might be considering moving house. The first thing they will do would be to speak to an estate agent to find out how much their property was worth.

It didn’t be useful or relevant if the estate agent were to let them know how a identical house in a different part of the country could be worth. Current information To become useful, data needs to be current. In many cases information changes as time passes and so older or old information can be misleading or five you the wrong photo of what is going on. Exams As part of your revision, you could have a go at practicing a lot of exam inquiries before the wedding day and you function your way through the practice papers and version answers that your educator has given you.

However , a number of the papers will be over five years old. How useful will be the model answers for questions such as , which hard disk drive would you recommend? , and , what is the average scale a hard drive? , It truly is well known that things maneuver very quickly in the world of ICT and hardware and software alterations rapidly. What was a top-notch computer only three years before is now most likely a very low-spec machine. And so the model email address details are likely to be out-of-date. Holidays Choosing a holiday could be great fun. And also you would probably navigate to the travel agent to get the most current brochures. Why?

Well, since if you used last year’s brochures the vacation may not even be available any more. And certainly the costs would be several. So you will need up-to-date data House prices Your parents remain thinking of selling their house. They require an idea of how much their house is worth at this time. It would be not any use to these people being told by the estate agent simply how much their house was worth five years ago. Completeness In order for data to be valuable it needs being complete. In the event that part of the details is lacking then you will never be able to employ it or perhaps make exact decisions.

Exams Remember individuals exam paperwork that you were doing for revision in your study leave? Your instructor wanted you to work all the way through them and check your answers against the unit answers. What if you had been only offered the second half the model response and the initially half was missing? How useful will it possibly be for you? Weather outlook You still need to strategy the friends and family picnic for tomorrow. However , if you examine the weather prediction you are only told what the weather in the morning will be just like. There is nothing at all about the afternoon.

You can’t really make a decision just based on what the morning weather will probably be. Doctor’s appointment Imagine you sense ill and also you need to meet to see your doctor. How useful would it be if the receptionist just said that to you you could have a scheduled appointment at quarter past two? Does she mean today, tomorrow or perhaps next week? The data in incomplete. Quality of presentation Info which is presented in a disorganised way or in a manner that is hard to know will be much less useful to you Business info

If you were asked to present a few information in a business meeting. It is often far better to present this graphically. People find it very difficult to spot patterns in a desk of data, nevertheless the same information presented as being a graph helps it be very easy. Buying a house Your mother and father want to buy a brand new house. It is much easier to pick a house if the photograph was available. Your mother and father can see immediately if the home would appeal to them and whether they would be enthusiastic about finding out more. Once they have decided they such as the look of the house they would then want more in depth written info.

However , giving them the created information initial with no concept of what the house looks like would make it difficult to allow them to get a thought as to whether they would like it. Too mucho or perhaps too litle detail For facts to be valuable you need the right amout of detail. We have a risk of having too much fine detail which makes the info overwhelming and difficult to remove the parts that you want to be aware of about. Or perhaps there might certainly not be enough fine detail in which case you will not understand the total picture. Case: baking a cake An excessive amount of detail| Not enough detail|

Substances Not only telling you that you need f (symbol), but telling you all of the several brands of f (symbol) and how picking out each you might affect the growing of your cake| Ingredients Telling you that you need f (symbol) but not the amount you will need to think about ouy| MethodTelling you just how many times you need to beat the ovum and for exatly how many seconds you need to fold in the fluor| MethodTelling you to blend the ingredients with each other but not updating you in the correct order in which to combine them| CookingTelling you the precise amount of minutes the cake needs to be baked for each type of oven that is at the moment for sale| CookingTelling the temperatura to cook the cake but is not how long to leave it in the oven for| Coding of data When you are designing a repository system to carry data, one of the initial decisions that you will need to help to make is about how a data will probably be collected and stored. You already know the term GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out).

If you gather data and enter it in to the system devoid of careful consideration with the planning level then the output from your system will be of little work with. One of the things that you may consider is to code some or your entire data in order to improve the productivity of your program. What is coding of data? Any kind of system have to have data accumulated, entered and stored. One method of holding data is always to assign rules to that. This usually means shortening the original data within an agreed way. The arrangement is between users with the system. This kind of coding scheme could be portion of the training of how to use the machine, and it could possibly also be written about within the system for new users.

If the code is completely apparent then there is no such dependence on formal documents. For example if the field known as , Gender’ has just two principles , M’ and , F’. It should be obvious from your field brand that this refers to Male and feminine. Example you Original data: Monday, Wednesday, Wednesday, Thurs, Friday Coded data: Friday, Tues, Wed, Thurs, Fri Example 2 Original data: Xtra Large, Large, Moderate, Small Coded data: XL, L, M, S Example 3 The above codes will be fairly easy for anyone to recognise and understand. Several codes on the other hand are more complicated. What do you believe the following codes might signify? RG935LR CV183TP The above illustrations could be zones.

They symbolize a avenue name, a certain part of the avenue and the town where the street is located. Case 4 What about: SK12BN TR14GN These could possibly be a little bit more tough because the code is made up coming from different rep parts. Let’s have a better look. The first component represents a piece of clothing, so , SK’ represented , Skirt’ and , TR’ showed , Trousers’ The middle portion of the code was your dress size. The final part of the code displayed a colour, thus , BN’ represented , Brown’ and , GN’ represented , Green’. You have to be able to observe from that information that the initial code can be described as size 12 brown skirts. What bit of clothing could the second code represent? Why might you want to code info?

Much of the info that we collected and get into our devices has some degree of repetition. Speeding up data access Let’s take those example of collecting data in regards to a person’s sexuality. People can be either , Male’ or perhaps , Female’. Whilst these two options are easily understood by simply all, picture having to your word , Male’ and , Female’ into a program many a huge selection of times instead. It is a waste of time and effort mainly because no extra information is usually contained in the full words when compared to a single notification. Increase accuracy of data entry The various other issue is the fact no matter how accurate a person is for data entrance, at some stage they are likely to make a mistake and may spell , Male’ since , Mail’ or , Female’ as , Femal’.

This type of blunder will make any results from your database queries unreliable. Instead of coming into , Male’ or , Female’ you could code the information and instead come in as , M’ or perhaps , F’. Simply needing to enter 1 letter rather than possible half a dozen will accelerate data admittance. It will also cut down on the risk of errors being made with spelling. Use of validation Inside our example, the text , Male’ or , Female’ have already been coded so they become , M’ or , F’. When data has been coded it makes it easier to use validation to check if the information entered makes sense. With the case in point above, the person entering your data could nonetheless make a mistake and enter , S’ rather than , M’ or , F’.

But since you set up validation so that the field only will accept the letters , M’ or , F’ and absolutely nothing else then that should further cut down on likely mistakes. Note that validation can easily check if the information is sensible and within sensible limits, this cannot verify whether the data is appropriate. Somebody can still enter in , F’ instead of , M’. Less storage space needed Every letter that you retail outlet in your database system will need at least one byte of storage area. If you retail outlet , Female’ as , F’ then you definitely will save five bytes of storage space. If the system is a large company, there might be thousands or a lot of records stored , by simply coding 1 field, a huge amount of hard disk storage can be preserved. Faster searching for data

It stands to reason the fact that smaller how big your database, the quicker it will be to find and produce results. Therefore by code data and keeping the size of the system down the more time it can save you in the long run once running concerns. Coding illustrations In our each day lives we all come across many examples of just how coding is used to represent data. Here are just some more ideas: Nation names The name of your country may be represented by simply two letters. For example: England , GIGABITE France , FR Canada , FLORIDA Problems caused by coding info Whilst code data would bring many benefits it may also lead to a few problems. Coarsening of data Because of this during the coding process some of the subtle particulars in the info are misplaced. Look at the image below:

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