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Development

CARIBBEAN STUDIES MODULE TWO: PROBLEMS IN CARRIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT SUBJECT: THE INTEGRATION ACTIVITY 1 . The evolution of: Federation, CARIFTA, CARICOM, OECS, ACS installment payments on your The accomplishments and issues of any THREE of the following: 2. Caribbean Community (Caricom) * University from the West Indies (UWI) * Caribbean Exams Council (CXC) * Western Indies Cricket Board (WICB) * Carribbean Tourism Enterprise (CTO) 5. Caribbean One Market and Economy (CSME) * Regional Security System (RSS) A// The West Of india Federation (1958 , 1962) One of the first main attempts by regional the usage was the formation of the West Indian Federation of 1958.

Member States included: * Antigua * Barbados * British Guiana 5. Dominica 5. Jamaica 2. Montserrat * St kitts/Nevis/Anguilla * Saint Vincent * St lucia * Trinidad and Tobago The Federal government was headed by an Executive Governor-General, hired by Great britain and included: * A chief Minister, elected from amongst and by the members of the House of Reps * A cupboard, comprising the top Minister and ten other elected Associates chosen simply by him * A Council of Point out presided above by the Chief excutive General. The Council included the Prime Ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) and Users of the Case as well as 3 senators and three civil servants.

The senators and civil maids were picked by the Chief of the servants General. (The Council of State was the principal plan (decision)-making body at the start from the Federation. In 1960 Britain agreed to eliminate this Authorities and allow the Cabinet to take over the forces of the Council) * A forty five-member House of Representatives, with Members elected from among the list of Territories, and * A nineteen-member United states senate, nominated by Governor Standard following discussion with the Perfect Minister The Governor General was Master Hailes of england and the Perfect Minister was Sir Grantley Adams, (Premier of Barbados).

The National capital was located in Trinidad and Tobago. During their brief living (1958-62), numerous fundamental problems were discussed with a view to strengthening the Federation. Between these were direct taxation by Federal Government, Central planning for expansion, Establishment of any Regional Persuits Union and Reform of the Federal Constitution. The issue of direct taxation was particularly questionable. The Federation was not authorized to levy (impose) tax for at least the first five years of their life.

Added to this, were the greatly differing positions among the Territories with respect to how different federal taxation should be levied. In addition , the Federation started quickly to get to establish national institutions and supporting buildings. It developed federal civil service, set up the Western Indies Delivery Service (in 1962) to use two convenient ships , the Federal government Maple as well as the Federal Side , make donation to it by the Government of Canada.

It had embarked also on transactions to acquire the subsidiary in the British International Airways Corporation (BOAC), namely British Western world Indies Air passage (BWIA). Co-operation in tertiary education was consolidated and expanded during this time period. The then simply University University of the West Indies (UCWI), which was established in 1948 with one campus in Mona, Jamaica, opened its second campus at Street Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, in 1960. The Federation however encountered several problems.

These included: the governance and administrative structures made by the English, disagreements among the territories over policies, specifically with respect to taxation and central planning, an unwillingness for most Comarcal Governments to quit power to the Federal Government, and the location of the Federal Capital. The important development, which led to the demise from the Federation was the withdrawal of Jamaica , the largest member , after conducting a national referendum in 1961 upon its continuing participation in the arrangement.

The results in the referendum confirmed majority support in favour of withdrawing in the Federation. This was to lead into a movement within Jamaica pertaining to national independence from The uk. It also led to the right now famous statement of Dr Eric Williams, the then Premier of Trinidad and Tobago that, one coming from ten leaves nought, discussing the disengagement of Discovery bay, jamaica and symbols of and justifying his decision to pull away Trinidad and Tobago from the Federal arrangement a short while later on. The Federation collapsed in January 62.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1 . To strengthen the movement pertaining to self govt 2 . To promote economic development 3. To guard the democratic system of authorities vis a vis dictatorship and the reds ACHIEVEMENTS 1 . Federation facilitated the movements from colonialism to independence through a combined voice installment payments on your The coming collectively of little states heightened their performance in dealing with foreign bodies like the United Nations FACTORS BEHIND FAILURE 1 ) The masses were not knowledgeable on the significance of Federation installment payments on your

Communication among the list of islands which includes shipping, phone and postal services was ineffective 3. Jealousy and jealously among member states off their varying levels of economic prosperity 4. Distrust by the smaller states in the larger users (Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica) proposal to prematurely replace the constitution in the Federation B//CARIFTA (1968 , 1973) The Caribbean Totally free Trade Connection (CARIFTA) was founded by Cayman islands land and Barbuda, Barbados, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago on 12-15 December 65, with the signing of the Dickenson Bay Agreement (the Contract establishing the

Caribbean Totally free Trade Association). They were joined up with on 1 July, 1968 by Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St Lucia and St Vincent and the Grenadines, and on you August, late 1960s by Montserrat and Discovery bay, jamaica. In 1971 Belize (then British Honduras) joined up with the Association. These Carribbean countries experienced recently become independent, and CARIFTA was intended to unite their financial systems and to give them a joint presence within the international field.

Specifically, CARIFTA was intended to encourage balanced development of areas by: | ¢ elevating trade , buying and selling more goods among the list of Member Says ¢ diversifying trade , expanding the range of goods and services designed for trade ¢ liberalising control , taking away tariffs and quotas on goods produced and traded within the place ¢ ensuring fair competition , setting up rules for all those members to follow to protect small enterprises| Additionally to providing for free trade, the Contract sought to: | ¢ ensure that the key benefits of free trade were impartialy distributed ¢ promote professional development in the LDCs promote the development of the coconut industry (through an Oils and Fats Agreement) which was significant in many of the LDCs ¢ rationalise farming production however in the interim, facilitate the marketing of selected agricultural products of particular fascination to the LDCs (through the Agricultural Advertising Protocol), and ¢ offer a longer period to phase out persuits duty in certain products which were more important for the revenue of the LDCs| In 1972, Commonwealth Carribbean leaders with the Seventh Heads of Government Convention decided to enhance the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the Caribbean Community, of which the regular Market can be an integral part. The signing with the Treaty building the Caribbean Community, Chaguaramas, 4th September 1973, was a defining second in the history of the Earth Caribbean. Though a free-trade area had been established, CARIFTA did not give the free of charge movement of labour and capital, and also the coordination of agricultural, commercial and foreign policies.

The objectives in the Community, determined in Document 6 with the Revised Treaty, are: to boost standards of living and work, the total employment of labour and also other factors of production, quicker, coordinated and sustained monetary development and convergence, enlargement of operate and monetary relations with third Claims, enhanced levels of international competition, organisation pertaining to increased development and production, achievement of your greater way of measuring economic power and efficiency of Member States in working with third States, groups of Claims and organizations of any description plus the enhanced co-ordination of Member States’ overseas and overseas economic policies and increased functional co-operation. In 1973, CARIFTA started to be the Carribbean Community (CARICOM). C//CARICOM The agreement the birth of the Caribbean Community and common Industry (CARICOM) was signed upon July some, 1973 in Chaguaramas in Trinidad and Tobago. Powerful operation of Caricom started on September 1, 1973. Main goals include: 1 )

To improve the economic progress member says through the introduction of free trade. 2 . Co operation among member countries in the parts of: shipping, atmosphere transport, meteorological services, overall health, education, traditions etc .. several. To establish common policies in dealing with non-member says and transnational corporations D//OECS , Business of Eastern Caribbean Declares The organization of Eastern Caribbean states (OECS) was established upon June 18, 1981 with the signing of the treaty among the following countries: 1 . Cayman islands land and Barbuda 2 . Dominica 3. Grenada 4. Montserrat 5. St Kitts/Nevis 6th. St Lucia 7. Street Vincent plus the Grenadines Goals: 1 .

To market development by formation of your common industry among affiliate states 2 . To package more effectively with international body by developing a common foreign policy a few. To assist the other person in protecting and preserving political freedom OECS affiliate states have got a common Eastern Caribbean Currency, they all are part of the Lower Antilles, all are small , 3rd party states, reveal common approaches for development, a common Central Bank, a common Substantial Court and a Joint Stock exchange. ACS: Association of Caribbean Claims The relationship of Caribbean States is usually an orgsanisation which presently consists of twenty-five Member says, 3 Connect members and 14 countries with viewer status. Targets:

The ACS was inaugurated on September 02, 95 with its management office in POS, Trinidad. The main targets of the Affiliation relate to assistance, discussion and action bringing about the lasting development of the whole Caribbean region. These include: 1 . Incorporating the collective man and physical resources of the Caribbean to get economic, social, cultural and technological advancement 2 . Increasing the potential of the Caribbean Ocean by dealing with member declares and other organizations 3. To encourage improved trade and investment options through cooperation 4. To provide new and improved steps to promote the cultural identities of it is members.

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