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Management, Credit rating

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Accounting principles: Accounting may be the language of business.

Accounting information has to be superbly recorded classified, summarised and presented. Accountants adopt the subsequent concepts in recording of accounts 1 .

Business Organization concept The company unit is treated as being a separate and distinct through the persons whom owe that. Hence business transactions must be kept completely separate through the private affairs of the owner this concept permits the owner top rated ascertain the style of a business. 2 . Heading concern strategy It is assumed which the business can exist for future years and orders are recorded from this point of view. A strong is said to be a going concern when there may be neither the intention nor the necessity to wind up their operation.

In other words, that continues to procedure at its present scale in foreseeable future. several. Money Way of measuring Concept Every transactions are expressed and interpreted when it comes to money. Accounting records just those deal, which are being expressed in monetary conditions through quantitative records are also kept. 5. Accounting period concept A business is thought to continue consistently. In order to ascertain the state of affairs of the business at diverse intervals we must choose the times for determining the budget and detailed results each and every such span, which is referred to as accounting period.

five. Dual Aspect concept Every transaction offers two elements. 1) Charge aspect. 2) Credit element. If a organization has acquired an asset it must have end result, There has been money leading to a rise in the amount the business owes to the proprietor Accounting Guidelines: The dual entry system of accounting is founded on a set of theory which is called generally accepted accounting principles. This incorporates the consensus at a particular period as to: ¢Which economic assets and commitments should be registered as assets and debts by economic accounting, ¢Which changes in resources and financial obligations should be registered ¢When these kinds of changes need to be recorded, ¢How the resources and debts and within them ought to be measured, ¢What information must be disclosed and Which financial statement ought to be prepared. Q.

two Pass Diary entries for the following deals. Solution: Diary DateParticulars LfDebitCredit Cash AIRCONDITIONING Dr To capital A/C (Being Madan invested in business) Purchase Airconditioning Dr To cash A/C (Being credit rating purchases) Pulling A/C Dr To funds A/C (Being cash taken for personal use) Purchase AIR-CONDITIONING Dr To cash AIRCONDITIONING (Being funds purchase)Wages A/C Dr To cash AIR-CONDITIONING (Being salary paid)70000 14000 3000 12000 5000 70000 14000 3 thousands 12000 5000 Q. 3Explain the various types of problems disclosed by trial harmony Ans: All those errors that may be disclosed by simply trial balance can easily be located. As soon as the trial balance would not tally, the accountant can easily proceed to identify the spots where the errors might have been determined. The total amount of difference in the trial balance is briefly transferred to a “Suspense Account “so which it can be mitigated as and when the error acquire rectified. Hence the suspense consideration get debited or credited as the truth may be on rectification of these types of error. The following are errors: a) Posting an incorrect amount, This kind of mistake might occur when posting an entry by subsidiary publication to ledger.

b) Posting towards the wrong part of an consideration: This error is determined while publishing entries via subsidiary publication to journal. c) Incorrect totalling: The two under casting and over sending your line are discovered by trial balance. if perhaps any bank account is mistakenly totalled, it gets shown in the trial balance. ) Omitting to post an access from subsidiary book to ledger: In the event that an entry produced in the additional book would not get placed to ledger, the trial balance would not tally. e)Omission of an accounts altogether via being I actually shown in trial equilibrium. f) Submitting an amount into a correct bank account more than once, This result is imbalance in trial stability. g) Placing an item for the same area of two different journal accounts: In the event that two accounts are debited/credited for the same deal, this type of mistake occurs.

Q. 5 From the following balances taken out from trek balance, prepare trading Consideration. Solution: The closing inventory at the end from the period is definitely Rs. 6000 TRADING ARE THE CAUSE OF THE YEAR ENDING, , Dr Particulars Rs Cr Particulars Rs To stock upon 1-1-200470700 To purchase 102000 (-) Returns Outwards 3000 99000By sales 250000 (-)Returns Inwards 3000 247000 To buggy inwards5000By closing stock56000 To import duty6000 To cleaning charges7000 To Royalty10000 To fireplace Insurance2000 To Wages8000 To Gas, electric power, water4000 To GROSS PROFIT91300 TOTAL303000TOTAL303000 Q. 5Differentiate Economical Accounting and management accounting. Ans: T. NoBasis of differenceFinancial accountingManagement Accounting 1 )

. several. 4. your five. 6. Thing Nature Material Compulsion Finely-detailed ReportingTo record various transaction in order to know the financial position. It is helpful to discuss holders, creditors, bankers etc .

It can be mainly concerned with the historic data. It really is concerned with determining the outcomes of the complete business. It truly is compulsory in a few undertakings Real figures happen to be recorded and no room for applying approximate characters It is able to find out success and budget of the matter. It is helpful for outsiders. To aid the supervision in creating policies and plans. This deals with the projection of data for the future. It deals individually with different units, Department and cost zones.

Not necessarily compulsory Zero employee has to actual figures. the approximate characters are more beneficial than the actual figures It is only for inside use. Queen. 6 Pursuing is the Balance sheet of M/s Srinivas Limited. you are required to prepare a fund movement statement.

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