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India, Africa

string(387) ‘ local populace would adopt the superior culture in order to become more like these people • Africans adopted The french language culture • All colleges, courts, and businesses designed after French institutions • In practice notion of assimilation deserted • French resided to indirect control • Identified African traditions but saw it while inferior |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local govt\. ‘

Section you: A Scramble For Africa • Western nations required to fuel commercial production • Competed for brand spanking new markets to get goods and took huge interest in Africa • Imperialism- Seizure of any country or perhaps territory by a stronger region o Occurred throughout most of Africa o Europe arrived and dominated • Core 1800’s Africans divided into cultural and linguistic groups • Some converted to Islam and Christianity • Most held traditions and religion Pertaining to 400 years African military services able to maintain Europeans out • Until late 1800’s Europe simply dominated coastline of The african continent • Could not navigate waterways • Disease also kept them away • Specific trade systems • Advantages of steam powered water boats allowed Europeans to dominate really Africa’s in house • Those who did join were against slave operate • Persons learned about The african continent through all their publications The Congo Sets off Interest: • Dr . David Livingstone journeyed with group of Africans into deep The african continent to promote Christianity • Many years past and individuals thought he was dead Henry Stanley went to find him and succeeded • Stanley wanted to search for course of Congo River • In 1879 and 1882 Stanley signed treaties with local chiefs of the Congo River Pit • Provided King Leopold II of Belgium control over these lands • Leopold II stated wanted to get rid of slave control and encourage Christianity • Brutally exploited Africans by simply forcing these to collect sap from rubber plants • About 15 million Africans died as a result of abuse In 1908 The belgian govt. got control of Congo away from king • Congo 80x bigger than Belgium • This alarmed France mainly because they had agreed upon treated that gave all of them control of north bank of Congo • Soon More European and Latin American countries started to claim regions of Africa Makes Driving Imperialism • Professional Revolution forced European countries to obtain additional land • European countries sought for more marketplaces Europeans viewed themselves while the greatest country and competition • Racism- the belief that one particular race is definitely superior to other folks • Social Darwinism- theory that those who had been fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were superior to others • Non-Europeans on lower scale of ethnic and physical development since didn’t produce technological progress • Europeans thought was their task to bring breakthroughs to other countries • European missionaries sought to convert gets to Christianity • Hoped Christianity would bring end to nasty practices like slave transact • Likewise wanted to civilize lands

Factors promoting Imperialism in Africa: • European’s technological brilliance • Europeans had firearms • Europeans had steam engines that allowed those to control profound Africa • Europeans experienced railroads, wires, and steamships that allowed them to connect within nest and to managing nation • Drug quinine prevented Europeans from getting diseases • Africa wasn’t unified as a result of diversity and wars fought against between distinct ethnic groupings Divison of Africa: • Discoveries of diamonds and gold in south Africa increased European’s affinity for conquering Africa • All European countries started to be part of race

Berlin meeting divides Africa: • Bremen Conference- 13 European nations around the world who fulfilled to lie down rules to get the division of Africa • Competition among European countries • Any region could overcome land yet had to alert other Europe • How Africans felt about it was not a factor • Didn’t focus on how ethnic and linguistic groups in Africa were distributed • By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free from European control Demand for Recycleables Shapes Groupe: • During colonization Europeans believed Africans would get their merchandise • Just few Africans did this Businesses continue to needed recycleables • Greatest wealth from Africa was large vitamin sources • Congo included copper and tin • This absolutely nothing compared to diamond jewelry and gold in s. africa • Produced cash plants: peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber • Replaced foodstuff crops necessary by farmers to feed families Three Groups Conflict over S. africa: • Zulu chief, Shaka used very disciplined warriors and great military organization to create significant centralized condition • Shaka’s successors unable to keep control • Zulu region eventually droped to English control

Boers and Uk Settle in the Cape: • Boers- Dutch settlers (Boer=farmer in Dutch) who required African’s terrain and set up large farms • The moment British took control of Shawl Colony there was clearly clash more than British coverage of slaves and terrain • Boers moved north in Wonderful Trek to flee from British • Started out fighting fiercely with Zulu and other Africa groups in whose land was getting considered • The moment Diamonds and gold found in south Africa Boers tried to continue to keep outsiders from gaining political rights • British attempted to rebel against Boers and failed Boers rose against British in Boer warfare • The war was brutal (no mercy) • Many black southern Africans also took part • Many were captured and put in British concentration camps • Britain received war • Europeans produced efforts to improve political, social and economic lives of people they conquered Section a couple of: Imperialism: • Imperialism of 18th and 19th hundred years different than previous imperialism • Europeans required more effect over all areas of African lives • Determined to condition economies to assist benefit Western european economies • Wanted visitors to adopt Western european customs

Varieties of Control: • 4 types: o Colony- a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power o Protectorate- A country or perhaps territory using its own inner government although under the control of an outside electric power o Sphere of influence- an area in which and outside electricity claims exclusive investment or trading benefits o Economical imperialism- a completely independent but less developed nation controlled simply by private organization interests instead of other govts.

• Also had indirect and direct control • Britain and U. S. preferred indirect France and most other Euro nations recommended direct • Indirect control: o Counted on existing political rulers o Rulers adopted Uk Authority to Rulers dealt with much of daily management of colony um Each colony had legislative council:? Imp�rialiste officials? Regional merchants? Specialists? Colonial governor • Direct Control: • French and also other European didn’t think Africans could run country • Paternalism- the idea that the people in authority minimize freedoms for their subordinates to get the subordinates’ good • Gave these people needs but not rights Europeans brought in very own bureaucrats • Didn’t educate Africans in European methods of govt. • Assimilation- the idea that the local human population would adopt the outstanding culture to be remembered as more like all of them • Africans adopted France culture • All universities, courts, and businesses designed after People from france institutions • In practice thought of assimilation left behind • The french language resided to indirect control • Identified African culture but found it as inferior |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local government.

You go through ‘Imperialism in Africa and India’ in category ‘Essay examples’ fficials used: |Foreign officials brought in to secret | |Limited self-rule |No self regulation | |Goal: to develop future leaders |Goal: assimilation | |Govt. organizations based on Euro styles although may have got |Govt. institutions are centered only upon European designs | |local rules | |

A British Colony: • Britain attained control of the southern area of Nigeria • Some neighborhood rulers consented to sign treaties of safety and recognize British citizens • Other folks opposed involvement and rebelled against that • United kingdom defeated rebellions • Royal Niger Compensation. gained control of palm oil control over Niger River Delta • In 1914 British claimed complete Nigeria since colony Taking care of the Colony: • Nigeria culturally various • 3 main groups were: u Hausa-Fulani:? Muslim? Had solid central govt. o Yoruba Followed classic religion? Relied on chiefs for control o Igbo? Same as Yoruba • Didn’t have enough British troops to govern such complex place • English resided to indirect control • Worked well with Hausa-Fulani but not with other two teams • Community chiefs of Yoruba and Igbo resented limited power African Level of resistance: • Africans resisted Euro attempts to colonize • But Europeans had heightened weaponry • Therefore , Africans didn’t achieve most cases Defeated Movements: There is resistance and resistance through religious moves • Algeria’s almost half century resistance against France • West Africa’s Samori Toure’s 16 season resistance against France • African villagers resisted Germans in psychic defense o Believed magic water would turn German’s bullets to water to 20 organizations came together and fought against Germans o Competitors believed The almighty and their forefathers would go back to life and assist them o Over 75, 000 Africans passed away o 2 times that many Africans died in famine to adhere to o Germans shocked and passed some reforms

Ethiopia: A successful Level of resistance • Simply African country that successfully resisted Europeans • Menelik II- became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889 • Successfully performed Italians, French, and British against one another • Built up large toolbox of modern weapons he purchased from Russian federation and France • Menelik II fixed treaty with Italy although Italians were invading the country • Menelik II declared war in 1896 • Battle of Adowa was largest challenge in history of Africa • Ethiopians won and stored independence Heritage of Colonial time Rule: • Negative effects: Africans lost control over land and independence u Lost many people to disease and rebellion o Famine o Breakdown of classic culture u Traditional authorities replaced to Homes and properties transmitted o Persons lost careers o Identity issues um Division of Africa o Unnaturally divided groupings o Zero Unity • Positive Effects: to Local combat reduced u Sanitation increased o Clinics o Colleges o Lifespans increased to Literacy elevated o Economical expansion u Railroads, public works, telephone, telegraph lines built-in Africa um However , this only genuinely benefited the Europeans

Section 4: United kingdom Imperialism in India: • Area managed by East India Company grew overtime, however, • The two directly and indirectly ruled southern India, Bangladesh, and territory along Ganges Lake in north • English govt. regulated East India company • Company ruled India with no British interference until 19th century • Had own army with British representatives • Sepoys- Indian troops • Army was dangerous because can easily turn against United kingdom Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown”: • Industrial revolution turned Britain into world’s workshop • India supplied Great britain with many raw supplies India’s 3, 500, 000 people also huge potential industry for British made goods • India was “brightest jewel in crown” as it was the best of all Britain’s colonies • British produced restrictions that prevented Indian economy from operating on its own • Indians could simply produce unprocessed trash for Britain • Indians weren’t allowed to contend with Britain British Transport Operate Goods: • Railroad system built in India • India became even more valuable • Most of unprocessed trash transported included: o Tea o Indigo o Caffeine o Natural cotton Jute um Opium • Sold trade opium for tea from China • Sold tea in the uk Impact of Colonialism: Negative impact on India: • British held almost all of economical and political electric power • British restricted Indian owned sectors • Many villagers didn’t want to be self sufficient due to emphasis on cash plants • Foodstuff production lowered • Famine • Racism • Forced conversion to Christianity Positive impact on India: • Experienced world’s third largest train system • Railroad program united helped bring modern economic climate that India • Sterilization and public well-being improved India modernized by simply railroads, phones, telegraphs, public works, bridges, water sources canals • Schools and collages founded • Literacy increased • Idea cleaned of bandits • Neighborhood welfare between competing rulers The Sepoy Mutiny: • British handled most of India • Believed British had been trying to convert Indians to Christianity • There was so much racism • Nationalist thought emerged • The Indians decided to rebel • Gossip spread between sepoys the cartridges with their new weapons were greased with beef and chicken fat • To use ink cartridges Indians was required to bite away ends Deer were almost holy to all of them and Muslims didn’t eat pork so they were very angered • Soldiers who have refused cartilages were locked up • Next day they rebelled • Sepoy Munity- rebellion of the American indian soldiers • Uprising distributed from Delhi to a lot of northern India • British and sepoys tried to slaughter each others armies • Took business more than a year to regain charge of country • Indians couldn’t unite against British because of weak leadership and conflict between Hindus and Muslims • Hindus preferred United kingdom rule over Muslim regulation

Turning Point: • After munity Britain took direct control over India • Raj- Uk rule following India received British overhead during reign of Full Victoria • To reward many princes who remained loyal to company during munity, The united kingdom promised to respect most treaties they had with all of them • Likewise promised that Indian declares that were even now free will remain independent • No matter, British gained control of cost-free states unofficially • Munity fueled racist attitudes of British Munity increased distrust between Indians and British • Hindus and Muslims felt these were being destroyed under United kingdom rule Nationalism Surfaces in India: • In early 1800’s some Indians began requiring modernization • Ram Mohum Roy, a contemporary thinking, well educated Indian started campaign to maneuver away from traditional Indian techniques • Ram memory Mohum Roy believed that if procedures weren’t altered India might continue to be managed by outsiders • Memory Mohum Roy’s writings inspired other Indians to press for sociable reforms and adopt european ways • Nationalist emotions also began to surface in India Indians hated system that manufactured them second class individuals in individual country • Made a lot less money than British workers Nationalist teams form: • 2 nationalist groups formed: o Of india National Congress in 1885 o Muslim League in 1906? Aimed at Indian’s issues? Wanted self government? Divided in to Indio and Muslim section? Parting made it hard for them to unite in asking for independence? In 1911 British regained control and divided them in another way • Conflict over Of india control ongoing to develop among Indians and British Key Terms: Imperialism- Seizure of a nation or terrain by a stronger country • African goods: copper, tin, gold, diamond jewelry, rubber, cacao, palm oil, and peanuts • Racism- the belief that one competition is better than others • Social Darwinism- theory that those who were fittest for success enjoyed riches and accomplishment and were superior to others • Duessseldorf Conference- 16 European international locations who attained to lie down rules intended for the trademark Africa • Shaka- was a Zulu main used extremely disciplined warriors and very good military business to create significant centralized condition in S. africa.

His successors weren’t because successful • Boers- Dutch settlers (Boer=farmer in Dutch) who had taken African’s land and proven large facilities • Boer War- Warfare between Uk and Boers over land and nutrients in which British won • Colony- a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power • Protectorate- A country or place with its individual internal government but beneath the control of an outdoor power • Sphere of influence- an area in which and outside power promises exclusive expenditure or trading privileges • Economic imperialism- an independent yet less designed country controlled by personal business pursuits rather than different govts. |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local govt. officials utilized: Foreign officials brought in to rule | |Limited self-rule |No self rule | |Goal: to develop future market leaders |Goal: compression | |Govt. institutions depending on European designs but might have |Govt. institutions happen to be based simply on Euro styles | |local rules | | • India was “brightest jewel in crown” because it was the most valuable of all Britain’s colonies • Indian products: Tea, Indigo, Coffee, Organic cotton, Jute, and Opium • Menelik II- became chief of Ethiopia in 1889.

He was the only one who was powerful at stopping his express (Ethiopia) from being conquered. • Sepoys- Indian soldiers • Sepoy Munity- rebellion of the Of india soldiers • Raj- United kingdom rule following India came under British crown during reign of Full Victoria • Ram Mohum Roy- a modern thinking, learned Indian started campaign to maneuver away from classic Indian procedures and provide nationalism • Paternalism- the concept the people in authority restrict freedoms with their subordinates for the subordinates’ good • Assimilation- the concept the local population would take up the remarkable culture to be remembered as more like these people •

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