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TEAM ID: 60000 ESCASA SAE INDIA 2012 DESIGN AND STYLE REPORT Copyright 2009 SAE Intercontinental TEAM: THE CONRODS AUTHOR: K. SUBHASH BABU. CO-AUTHOR: KARN JAIN.

ABSTRACT The objectives from the mini-Baja competition are to manufacture and design a “fun to drive, versatile, safe, durable, and high performance off road vehicle. Team members must ensure the fact that vehicle satisfies the limits of set guidelines, while as well to making financial support for the project, and managing all their educational obligations. This vehicle must be capable of negotiating the most serious terrain with full confidence and simplicity.

The 2012 SRM COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY Mini-Baja Group, THE CONRODS met these types of objectives simply by dividing the automobile into its main component subsystems. By reviewing the 2011 entry, the team was able turn many design and style features to better meet the explained requirements. Function Diagram (QFD) to determine which parameters were the most important. These essential parameters ranging from most critical to least critical are basic safety, reliability, affordable, ease of operation and routine service, and functionality. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

ENGINE Type Displacement Compression Ratio Utmost Power Utmost Torque TRAVEL TRAIN Transmitting Gear Shift Mechanism POSTPONEMENT, INTERRUPTION Front Suspension Rear Postponement, interruption Ground Clearance Shocks and Suspension springs Front Susp. Travel Back Susp. Travel and leisure WHEELS Entrance Tyres Rear end Tyres BRAKING Working Liquid Type Pedal Ratio Meters C Bore Dia Watts C Lose interest Dia Brake Disc Dia STEERAGE Type Device Steering Ratio Lock to lock position 4 Stroke, OHV, B, S 304 cc eight: 1 six. 5 KILOWATT @ 3600 rpm 18. 5 Nm @ 2600 rpm Mahindra Champion Alfa (forward Orientation) Sequential Twice Wishbone Double Wishbone 14. inches Customized 5 inches 6. your five inches 22*8-10 22*8-10 Dot-3 Oil All Wheel Compact disk 4: 1 0. almost 8 inch 1 ) 6 inch 6 ” Ackermann Tray and Pinion 10. several: 1 four hundred INTRODUCTION, CUSTOMER INFLUENCES THE CONRODS ESCASA SAEINDIA motor vehicle is designed being a prototype intended for manufacture by an outdoor entertainment firm. The perfect vehicle is safe, simple and inexpensive. Additionally , the automobile is attractive to potential buyers in both the visual overall look and performance. These types of characteristics are considered in design of the following key vehicle subsystems: frame, postponement, interruption, steering, and braking.

Before any style could commence, we had to understand exactly who our customers will be and their requires. To gain this understanding, all of us did extensive research that included industry survey and interviewing both professional and non-professional regional off-road fanatics. With this kind of research, we determined that our customers would be the BAJA SAEINDIA event and nonprofessional weekend off-road fans. We felt it essential to distinguish between both to ensure that we followed almost all rules established by SAEINDIA INDIA also to accommodate the weekend all-terrain enthusiasts within a safe way within the SAEINDIA rules.

Using necessary style parameters determined for each consumer bottom, we were capable of combine them for an overall list of style specifications that met all SAEINDIA requirements. We employed these guidelines to create a Qualitative 1|P aktiengesellschaft e Turning radius installment payments on your 7 yards CHASSIS/OVERALL SIZES Chassis Materials IS 3074 CDS1 Tubular Frame Total Length 2100 mm Steering wheel Base 1490 mm Tire Track 1143. 2 mm Height of Vehicle 1520. 0 millimeter WEIGHTS Entrance Wheel Assemblage 10 Kilogram Rear Steering wheel Assembly eleven. 8 Kilogram Engine(with engine oil) 3 Kg Transmission(with 17 Kilogram lubricant) Underchassis 55 Kg Dampers almost eight Kg Predicted Kerb Pounds 260 Kg

TARGET REQUIREMENTS: Parameters Velocity Stopping Length Acceleration Gradability Turning group of friends dia. Ground Clearance Emissions Beliefs 40 km/h 7m 11. 6 mere seconds 82. 2% 5. 5 m 14. 6 inches BS 3 the aircraft created by the roll competition and the driver’s helmet. SAEINDIA also need a 3 in . envelope each time a straight-edge is applied to any kind of two tubing. Emphasis was placed on creating an conveniently manufactured roll cage with few parts, minimal welded and yet remains to be both lumination and strong, hence the numbers of bends were held to a minimum.

Spin hoop Overhead members and Forward Bracing Members are one constant bent tube. Lower Body Side tubes are straight and are twisted inwards for connecting to the the front suspension wall mounts. The Side Influence Member is actually a single tube with a solitary bend that encompass the automobile from the Backside Roll Hoop forward. The foot field of the automobile is molded by the LFS, SIM and straight pontoons welded towards the upper part impact pipe forming a hexagonal front bulkhead taking into consideration the suspension style and reduction in dead space based on knowledge from the 2011 entry. A 3-D look at of the car is demonstrated below: FRAMEWORK DESIGN

AIM , FRAMEWORK CONFIGURATION The purpose of the underchassis is to encapsulate all Aspects of the car together with a driver successfully and safely and securely. With a limited amount of power, the focus is primarily on the capacity to weight ratio of the vehicle. The only ways to improve this critical unbekannte is to reduce the overall automobile weight. Wonderful care is taken in laying out the chassis. SAEINDIA requires every vehicle comply with a 95percentile male for a lot of ergonomic assessments of the design. The relevant information is definitely taken from “Body-space Anthropometry, Ergonomics and Design by Stephen Pheasant.

A number of key basic safety factors in the design procedure dictate chassis roll competition layout and foot box design. Intended for the rotate cage, SAEINDIA requires six inches of clearance assessed from the inside of Principal facets of the underchassis focused on through the design and implementation included driver security, suspension and drive-train the usage, structural rigidity, weight, and operator ergonomics. The number one goal in the chassis design was driver Site | a couple of safety. With the help of the 2012 Baja SAEINDIA Competition Guidelines and Limited Element Research (FEA), design assurance could take place.

Rear Impact Subsequent rear, effects analysis was done while assuming 12-15, 000N because the impact force. STRESS: SMX-172. 22 N/mm2 FOS: 2 . 43 MATERIALS SELECTION: Two materials were considered intended for the construction with the chassis: AISI 4130 and IS 3074 CD ALBUMS 1 . CAN BE 3074 COMPACT DISKS 1 stainlesss steel with a great OD of 25. four mm and a wall membrane thickness of three mm was chosen as it exceeds the bending stiffness and durability requirements of SAEINDIAINDIA that gives increased protection to rider.

You go through ‘Atv Design and style Report’ in category ‘Essay examples’ HOUSE Tensile strength(N/sq. mm) Deliver strength(N/sq. mm) Elongation on 50 mm G. T Density (g/cc) IS 3074 438 376 32% several. 872 AISI 4130 760 460 27% 7. your five Side Influence The next step inside the analysis was going to analyse a side influence with a 5000N load. Being a side effects is most likely to happen with the car being hit by another MiniBaja vehicle it was thought that not vehicle is a fixed thing. STRESS: 237. 49 N/mm2 FOS: 1 ) 77 It absolutely was found out that the bending stiffness and twisting strength of IS 3074 CDS happen to be greater than those of 1018 stainlesss steel having a round cross section of 25. 5 mm and 3 mm thickness PACKING ANALYSIS: To properly approximate the loading the fact that vehicle will encounter, a great analysis from the impact loading seen in the different types of impact cases was needed.

To properly version the impact push, the deceleration of the automobile after impact is generally assumed to be no. To approx . the worst case scenario that the automobile will see, exploration into the forces the human body may endure was completed. It absolutely was assumed that this worst circumstance collision would be seen when the vehicle runs into stationary, rigid object. Entrance Impact The first examination to be finished was that of the front collision with a immobile object. In this instance a deceleration of 20, 000N was your assumed reloading. STRESS: SMX-177. 81 N/mm2 FOS: 2 . 36

Skidding Impact The Final step in the research was to examine the stress for the roll competition caused by skidding with a 5000N load within the cage. The Loading was applied to both the upper forwards corner in the perimeter baskeball hoop with a combination vector side by side and down. The load was chosen to be on two edges as this may be a the worst thing would be rollover. ANXIETY: 267 N/mm2 FOS: 1 . 57 MANUFACTURE To maximize the geometrical persistence of the created chassis, all fixturing and measurements were based on a single fixed coordinate system relative to a rigid stand on which the chassis and components were bolted.

With the use of this stand and good fixturing techniques, the team could best ensure that the body geometry, especially Page | 3 in critical areas such as the suspension pickup points, correlated carefully with the design and style specifications. In addition , measuring from aFixed site minimized tolerance stack-up because of measurement error and component movement outcomes. We have chose to fabricate the other hub because it has minimal weight and optimized FOS. *Material Accustomed to manufacture the hubs-High Co2 Steel *Hardening Process Done-Cyaniding SPACE IN DRIVER AREA:

DRIVER EROGONOMICS Driver ergonomics has been each of our major concern during style of the framework and also during positioning of numerous systems in drivers log cabin. Cabin is made spacious for safe and comfy. All the cables and cables are sent properly in order that they would not hinder driver hip and legs or hands. all the routings are done in design stage itself and ROH is usually raised to a suitable height so that it would give proper vision to the rider DRIVERS PERSPECTIVE WINDOW: POSTPONEMENT, INTERRUPTION Objective: A Mini-Baja suspension must satisfy the following design and style requirements.

Control movement on the wheels during vertical postponement, interruption travel and steering, both of which impact handling and stability. Give sufficient leapt mass oscillation isolation to keep satisfactory drive quality, while maintaining high tire-ground contact price and low tire straight load varying rate to improve road possessing and handling. Improve getting performance by simply limiting sprung mass frequency displacement as the vehicle can be airborne. Limit chassis move during handling to prevent roll-over, decrease rotate camber, and thus, decrease steerage reaction time and slip position induced move forces.

Stop excessively high jacking forces simply by managing static roll middle location and roll middle migration. Limit lateral tire scrub to keep up straight series stability and minimize horsepower losses with the rear suspension. Control assortment load transfer distribution to influence both steady express and limit of aprobacion over steer/under steer handling characteristics. The non-professional weekend off road fanatic requires a car which demonstrates both safe, stable, responsive handling, and a soft, comfy ride. INDIVIDUALS VIEW FROM THE CABIN: Alternatives considered:

Many different types of suspension system were considered prior to selecting the independent unequal arm dual wishbone suspension for both front and rear. Bumpy double A-arm: In the style, suspension is supported by triangulated Aarm towards the top and lower part of the knuckle. Advantages: *Improved ride quality *Good road holding *Rigid links *More control over angles *Wheel control is specific *Negative helvétisme gain during vertical suspension system travel. Webpage | 5 FRONT POSTPONEMENT, INTERRUPTION Setting static roll Middle: A two dimensional draw was made after estimating the Centre of mass of the vehicle on paper.

Various referrals were delivered to make a 2D draw these include:?? Track width of vehicle The front hub california king pin axis inclination, full pin size, ball joint dimension Edge off set(for king pin number positioning) Wishbone mounting level lengths rebound. Since we’re able to not discover springs that had been less hard than this we went for the Auto suspension springs as it happy our drive comfort requirements. A stiffer spring was required in the rear to own coupling effect of suspension in order to convert the pitching action into a moving motion. REAR END SUSPENSION:

The principal concern in designing the trunk suspension was to get the maximum possible travel (jounce and rebound) in a way that the rear generating wheels were always retained in contact with the earth. The helvétisme change in the trunk wheels needs to be such that there isn’t much significant change in camber throughout the travel around of the tire. The other factor taken into account was that we were having issues with the rear suspension system in last year’s design and style as it was noticed that the travel shaft joining was holding the lower wishbone in the rebound condition and this issue has been addressed and rectified through this year’s design and style.

The rear suspension system wheel rate was fixed such that the natural rate of recurrence of the rear suspension can be 20% more than the front postponement, interruption thus providing a flat drive over lumps by changing the pitching motion of the vehicle to become converted into bouncing motion. DAMPER SELECTION: Means for selecting springs The process began by selecting a suitable wheel level for the leading axle. A typical road frequency of 3. six Hz could possibly be encountered with the competition. This is certainly based on an automobile speed of 40Km/h and a road surface with protrusions spaced 3m apart. The natural frequency of the suspension system should be retained well beneath 3. Hz in order to avoid virtually any unwanted fermentation. A front side suspension organic frequency of 1. 20 Hz was considered to be suited. The tyre rate needed to obtain this natural regularity was established using the following formula (assuming jumped mass of 72kg/wheel). two? We need to estimate the diffusing ratios to get the front and rear suspensions. The design process will start by iteration only. Initial we find the ratio pertaining to sprung and unsprung with regards to the model. Jumped mass was found being 71. 456kg the leapt weight was determined even though the sprung mass was 288. 54kg. The ratio is usually 0. 247. The natural frequency from the front suspension system is set for 1 . 2Hz. Weight on each front tyre is 57. 71 kg. The max force of damping is given by Fcd =2*Msp*wn. Critical damping push for the front suspension system is definitely 1085. 73 Ns/m. Pertaining to the un-sprung mass natural frequency will be Wn=((Ks+Kt)/Ms)^0. five The mixed stiffness of tire and wheel is definitely 53. 24N/mm. Amplitude percentages were computed for a selection of damping ratios. These exuberance ratios signify the ratio of utilized displacement plus the displacement that truly reaches the sprung mass.

Amplitude ratios were plotted against the proportion of applied frequency and natural consistency of the sprung mass. This graph displays the ideal damping ratio that should be used. This value because obtained from chart is 0. 7 that gives a dissipating co-efficient value of 760 Ns/m. In the similar method the rear suspension system has a ride rate of 1. 56Hz. The critical diffusing force is definitely 1960 Ns/m. The graph of extravagance ratio compared to frequency proportion shows an ideal damping ratio of 0. 7 the damping co-efficient is = 0. 7*1960=1372 Ns/m.? fn? k steering wheel ms

The right wheel price for the leading suspension was calculated being approximately 40N/mm. The relationship between wheel price and action ratio (MR) was used to deduce the location of the surprise actuation level on the reduce control equip. k wheel? (MR) 2? k planting season We need to set the movement ratio based on the wheel travel and leisure we require for the suspension. A travel of 50 mm was required and a list of springs were gathered and scored for their rigidity characteristics. In respect to this computation the motion ratio intended for auto early spring A’s (Ks=58. 57N/mm) wheel rate (Kw=41N/mm) the action ratio was 0. 8366. Travel of spring every unit wheel travel)The travelling obtained by this spring was lesser than was required we could simply obtain 26mm of travel around in Page | a few STEERING STYLE: Objective of steering system in Baja vehicle?? To provide easy maneuverability of the automobile over the undulating terrain. It ought to be durable to sustain the cruel off”road racing course. Fewer bump control and returning ability in steering Customer requirement: STYLE OF WHEEL HUBS Our steering wheel hubs have been designed and fabricated after an extensive exploration. Effort has been made for lowest scrub radius and obtains the best possible steering wheel geometry.

Adams and Ansys have been used to Simulate and analyse the behavior of these hubs respectively. We certainly have two key design concepts: 1 . 2 . 3. some. Optimum awareness Low turning radius Lowest feedback Inexpensive and easy maintenance Basis of our design: We certainly have decided to decide on a 400 degree lock to lock stand and pinion steering with Ackerman angles. Helical slice teeth will be used for the rack and pinion because of the following positive aspects over inspire gears:?? They take higher a lot. They are noise-free and more stable. HUB one particular SCRUB RADIUS FACTOR OF SAFETY LINK 2 almost 8 mm 4. 6 1460gm. 15 millimeter 5. two 2506gm

Rulebook Constraints: Almost all vehicles has to be equipped with great wheel lock? to? fasten stops and adjustable tie rod ends must be restricted with a quickly pull nut in order to avoid loosening Tie rod of vehicle should be secured by simply bumper in the front or any different safety unit in rear in order to avoid destruction of link rod during collision. FAT Hence choosing various elements in to thought HUB a couple of is considerd for fabrication and anxiety analysis is completed on it. ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED: PRESSURE DEFORMATION Holder and Pinion Good Excessive Low Light 1 . Extermely Basic 2 . Offers good driving feel Recirculating ball attach Very High Low High Very High 1 .

Really low free play 2 . Non-selfreturn ability Earthworm and sector High Low Very High Comparatively Heavy 1 . High free play 2 . Non-selfreturn capability FRONT CENTRE Efficiency Compactness Cost Excess weight Comments REAR HUB Computations: Distance between King Pins (c) Using the formulae: sama dengan 1117. 6mm FORMULAS FOR STEERING ASPECTS?? cot U ” crib? =c/b sin? =(c-d)/2r sin(? +? ) +sin(? , O) =2sin? Page | 6???????? BOBLLIER CONSTRUCTION FOR RACK PLACEMENT turning radius = (track/2) + (wheelbase/sin(average steer angle) here O=? o =outer wheel position? =? We = internal wheel perspective Then? guiding arm viewpoint r sama dengan length of the steerage arm c= kingpin to kingpin range d=length with the track fishing rod b=wheelbase COMPUTATIONS wheel foundation (b)=1532mm kingpin to kingpin distance(c) sama dengan 1117. 6 steering equip angle? =30 degrees about substitution an comparing two results we have? =40 deg O=27 degres turning radius was determined to be installment payments on your 9m Clevis joint can be used in stand to reduce the bump drive. The below picture reveals the clevis joint utilized Rack and Pinion style Rack displacement calculation STAND ANALYSIS FOS: 8. a few deformation stress From above formula we get holder displacement =40+40=80mm

The picture in the complete tray assembly Web page | six Values Number 1 . installment payments on your 3. 4. 5. 6th. 7. Item Symbol Method Spur Equipment 2 20 11 zm/2 + L zm Deb cos? thirty-five 22 Die bahn 20. 67 23 twenty-four Rack Module Pressure viewpoint Number of pearly whites Height of Pitch Series Centre Distance Pitch Size Base Size M? Unces H Ax D Adams results: CALCULATION OF MAKES ON HOLDER AND PINION R=steering tire radius = 165mm r=pinion pitch-circle radius t=number of pinion pearly whites = 6 p=linear or perhaps circular frequency =22mm E=input steering-wheel work = two * 20N W=output tray load In case the pinion makes one innovation, input controls movement Xi = a couple of? Output stand movement Xo = 2? R = txp sama dengan 82. 86mm Therefore , Motion ratio (MR) = Xi/Xo=2? R/2? r=2? R/tp=R/r= 165/11=15 15= W/E, w=600N force is to be applied to to the pinion to move the rack.???? Feet = Transmitted force Fn = Typical force. Fr = Resultant force? = pressure perspective Fn sama dengan Ft suntan? Fr sama dengan Ft/Cos? Here? =20 levels therefore Fn=194. 95NFr=630N Opposite wheel travelling Fig several: Graph you: camber viewpoint vs steering wheel travel Graph 2: move centre elevation vs tire travel Chart 3: tire rate versus wheel travelling Fig1: Shows the single tire travel compared to toe transform and scrub radius

Page | eight POWERTRAIN DESIGN AND STYLE? Engine and transmission would be the loudest devices of the car. Since the engine provided wasn’t able to be touched in any way, the only noise lowering technique that could be adopted was through the use of proper mufflers. Different mufflers were tested for the engine however the stock muffler provided the very least noise levels. It also provided the best energy efficiency. Therefore it was decided to use the stock mufflers considering the “Go Green” theme. The gearbox and CV joints should always be kept properly oiled to minimize noise due to scrubbing.

To reduce vibrations transferred to the chassis from the engine, it really is mounted on rubberized bushes. The drive shafts are welded properly so they are in-line and no vibration occur during rotation. The gearbox is usually mounted tightly in such a way that there is a minimum contact between gearbox and framework which means minimum transfer of vibration to chassis. The fuel reservoir capacity can be 4 litres.?? Fig2: Shows roll steer vs wheel travel?? Driveline Power is definitely transmitted from your engine for the wheels in the following approach Engine Stub Axle Chain Drive Wheels Gears Driveshaft

Opposing wheel travel around fig 5: Graph you: roll hub vs rotate angle Graph 2: camber vs rotate angle Chart 3: rotate stiffness versus roll angle The Driveshaft consists of dowel pin around the gearbox aspect and rzeppa joint upon wheel part. This design and style ensures transmission of power with nominal losses and allows transmission at longer wheel travel and leisure Page | 9 Design Methodologies A buyer expects the following things from your transmission approach to a Bajita vehicle: Forward Orientation Products Final Differential case ratio 31. forty eight 18. 70 11. forty five 7. thirty five 55. ’08?? Max. Motor vehicle Speed (Km/hr) 12. apr 20. twenty-seven 33. 21 51. 59 6. 88 Max. Tractive Effort (N) 2240. several 1348. twenty-eight 821. 93 485 3971 Reverse Positioning Final Gear Ratio 55. ’08 32. 72 19. 96 13. 40 31. forty-eight Max. Car Speed (Km/hr) 8. 18 13. 68 22. 19 32. 16 12. 75 Max. Tractive Effort (N) 2990 1776. 23 Reverse engine alignment resulted in issue with weight syndication and elevated vehicle duration. Using the transmission in forward helped to shift the center of gravity towards vehicle’s center. As a result of decreased lowering it also brings about increased car speed. It also provides more quickly acceleration and higher top speed due to this explanation we chose to use the transmitting in forward orientation.

To calculate motor vehicle speed at different engine speeds in various gears, we used the formula V= (2*3. 14*engine speed*radius of wheel/Gear ratio)*(60/1000) km/hr. Kit ratios received are: Chain Drive differential case ratio = 28/28 =1 1083 818. 36 1708. 91 The following graph is obtained: Tractive hard work is calculated by solution F=Engine torque*Gear efficiency/wheel radius The curves obtained will be: ratio*transmission Initial Gear Second Gear Third Gear Fourth Gear Reverse Gear Broadband for speed and velocity trials. High torque intended for towing and hill rising events.

It must be reliable and lightweight weight. It may transmit power in any driving conditions.? The gearbox operation should be smooth and easy for driving comfort. The engine applied has low power to excess weight ratio, thus its necessary to transmit electricity with minimal loss through drive coach. It should be so that it can be quickly couple while using engine. Alternatives considered: We had three alternatives while selecting the indication system a) b) c) A cvt mated with Mahindra transmission. A custom made manual transmission. Use of Mahindra champion transmission coupled with sequence drive. 3000 2000 multitude of 0 0 2000 4,000 ractive hard work in first gear tractive effort in 2nd items The maximum Tractive effort obtained is 2240N at 2600rpm in 1st gear. Offering an acceleration of a few. 6 m/s^2. The variation of full throttle power with road acceleration is proven below with different gear ratio Our previous experience with cvt got problem of belt slipping at excessive torque conditions. Also it ended in increased pounds. So we all decided against using this. Even as already got 2 champion Alfa gearboxes, we decided on using this gears alongwith a chain drive because of the following factors: 1) 2) 3) 4) Reduced chassis width.

Can be easily coupled with the engine. Equal travel shaft lengths, increased clearance. Minimum rear end overhang, better vehicle characteristics. 60 2nd gear 45 1st gear 20 zero 0 2k 4000 third gear There were 2 options for the orientation of gearbox: A) Forward engine with engine in the entrance rear axle. B) Change engine alignment with engine behind with the rear axle. Total amount of resistance of the car at 3600rpm is found away by the method R=k AW^2+KW+WsinO. Where k= coefficient of air amount of resistance N-m^2. Webpage | 15 A=frontal area of the car, m^2. V= automobile speed, km/hr. K=constant of rolling level of resistance.

W= fat of car, N O=gradient angle, deg. The value of amount of resistance comes to be able to be R=442. 64+2452 predestinación. We put this worth in formulation RV/3600nt=power of engine By simply solving these equation to get o, we have o=33 level at 2600 rpm in 1st equipment. Stopping Range Braking Performance Parameters Grasp Cylinder Size Caliper Diameter Brake mat height Diameter of the disc Co-efficient of friction with the brake pad Force produced by both the brake pads every wheel Braking system Torque every wheel Fat of vehicle(with the driver) Wheelbase Height of COG Dynamic entrance axle insert Dynamic backside axle weight 0. eleven m 56% Magnitude/value nineteen. 05 mm 32 mm 27 logistik 162 mm 0. 38 3431 In 1040 In 360 Kilogram 1397 millimeter 601. 3 mm 1780 N 1650 N seventy 60 60 40 35 20 15 0 0 2000 four thousand gradabilit sumado a in first gear Gradabilit y in 2nd equipment Gradabilit y in third gear BRAKING DISTANCE AS OPPOSED TO SPEED: This shows that the car is capable of climbing a 30 degree slope in 1st items. This is more than sufficient for heavy off-road conditions. BRAKES: The criterion of designing the brake system, as stated by the regulation book is the fact, all the wheels must locking mechanism simultaneously since the driver presses the braking mechanism pedal.

The ATV involves disc out of all four tires, as disc brakes are safer, trusted and more successful than brake drums. Brake signal used can be Independent in order to ensure security We are employing rotors of the identical diameter for all your four wheels. Special ATV rotors and wheel calipers have been brought in from Taiwan and Tandem Master Canister of Maruti 800 will be used. Metal linings and Rubber (flexible) brake lines are being used in the circuit. A Pro-E model of the braking system circuit inside the vehicle Braking system specifications Power of the new driver on the coated Average routine pressure Coated ratio Deceleration 400 D 5. sixteen N/sqmm 5: 1 a few. 5m/sqsec Site | eleven BODY ENERGY: The criteria for selecting the material for body solar panels firewall and belly griddle was the following:??? Safety in the driver Rulebook constraints Fat of the sections Recyclability in the material used Expense of the material Serviceability of the car INNOVATION: The solenoid Operated Flames Extinguisher The body panels happen to be divided into three parts: Part panels, entrance bumper and rear panels. For elevating the serviceableness of the vehicle, the solar panels and the front bumper have been completely mounted employing easily removable clips.

The materials utilized for the fire wall and stomach pan happen to be 1 . 5mm thick aluminium alloy sheets, which are the two lightweight and 100% recyclable. For human body panels, zero. 2mm thicker sheet material is used. Also, it is 100% recyclable. We have decided to incorporate next safety features within our vehicle: 1 ) All dvd brakes with cross circuit. 2 . Corrosion resistant stainless steel bolts with synthetic lock nuts for all fastenings. 3. 2 fire extinguishers 4. First aid kit 5. Spill shield and splash shield intended for fuel reservoir 6. Several point funnel seat belts. six. Wide open throttle stop at the pedal.. Invert alarm and brake signals. 9. Two 01-171 Ski-Doo kill switches. 10. Guiding stop at the wheels. 10. Rear view decorative mirrors. 12. Combustion switch to get engine, besides pull start. 13. Electric operated fire extinguisher. 16. Seat belt engine kill program 15. New driver emergency interaction system This novel sort of fire extinguisher arrangement functions electronically through a solenoid valve. In case of flames the device is opened up by a manually operated button and a fly of CO2 is on sale since the engine compartment through various angles.

This kind of effectively extinguishes fire in the engine compartment and stops really further distribution. Seat Belt Engine Kill System: This system is created such that the driving force will not be able to start the vehicle until he engages his seat belt. It belt provides a switch to operate the relay connected to the engine kill wire. When the and also is turned off, the engine kill line is grounded. Thus, the automobile cannot be started out. As it belt is usually engaged, relay operates, and the engine eliminate wire signal is now open up enabling the driver to start the COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

PURPOSE: ¢ This is a two way communication system wherein emails and signs can be transmitted from the pit to the driver and vice versa. FEATURES: ¢ The system uses two microcontroller based Arduino boards when you have an ZIGbee communication module. Page | 12 ¢ It is a transceiver. The signals are delivered and received with the help of color coded Force Buttons and LEDs. The actual tested program arrangement can be shown in figure. ¢ BILL OF MATERIALS: All of the parts of the ATV will be classified in eleven hindrances and are presented a unique five digit item.

The cost of procurement of the component or the material is mentioned and all the machining procedures are explained clearly. The spread sheet calculates the price of machining also. Finally, the sub total of the purchase cost and the machining expense is obtained which helps in grand total in the costs. The BOM provides level of pecking order to each portion. Sub-Division Engine Transmission Braking Steering Postponement, interruption Wheels Electricals Body Framework Fasteners Protection Grand Total Cost(in INR) 17000. 00 16800. 00 6928. 00 4457. 00 29954. 00 40308. 00 7940. 00 5340. 00 16240. 00 1346. 00 8272. 00 154585. 00 Page | 13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS? BAJA SAEINDIAINDIA Rulebook. ASIA 2010 Gillespie, Thomas M., Fundamental of vehicle mechanics, SAEINDIAINDIA publication????? Body-space Anthropometry, Ergonomics and Design simply by Stephen Pheasant. Automotive Anatomist Fundamentals simply by “Richard Rock and Jeffery K. Ball” The Multi body Systems Approach to Car Dynamics by simply “Mike Blundell and Demian Harty” Theory of Machines by “S S Ratan” Automobile Mechanics by “N. K. Giri” Machine Design and style by “R. S. Khurmi” Strength of Material by “R. K. Rajput” Google. com Howstuffworks. com Wikipedia. org Page | 14

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