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Term paper on “Nursing care theories and models and their application to: 1 . Mature health nursing” 2 . Community Health nursing” 3.
Reproductive Health nursing” A theory is a group of propositions utilized to describe, explain predict and control. Nursing jobs theory is a term directed at the body of reassurance that is used to define or perhaps explain different aspects of every single profession of nursing. Amounts of nursing theories. * Grand nursing hypotheses. This type of theory has the broadest scope and present general concept and propositions.
Theories at this level may both reflect and provide insight helpful for practice but are not made for empirical testing. This restrictions the use of grand nursing hypotheses for directing, explaining and predicting breastfeeding in particular scenarios. * The middle of range nursing jobs theories. Happen to be narrower in scope than grand breastfeeding theories and offer an effective connect between grand nursing theories and medical practice. That they present idea and positions at a reduced level of �tre and keep great assurance for elevating theory-based research and medical practice strategies. * Medical practice hypotheses.
Nursing practice theories have most limited scope and level of hysteria and are developed for use within a specific selection of nursing scenarios. Nursing practice theories present frameworks intended for nursing interventions and anticipate outcomes and the impact of nursing practice. Types of theories. i. Descriptive theory: it specifies properties and components of a discipline, this sorts away meaning and observations and sets on what elements exists in the discipline that identifies and describes particular characteristics of particular people, groups, condition or event. ii.
Informative theory: recognizes how the real estate and parts relate to each other and accounts for the way the properties and components associated with each other and accounts for the way the discipline capabilities. It describes relationships among various phenomena. iii. Predictive theory: forecasts the relationship involving the components of a phenomenon and predicts what conditions it will eventually occur yet does not present control. iv. Prescriptive Theory: addresses nursing therapeutics and consequences of interventions. This sort of theories designate under what conditions some thing should occur.
Characteristics of nursing theory * They may be interrelating ideas in such a way regarding create a different way of taking a look at a particular trend. * Logical in mother nature. * Generalizable. * Basics for ideas that can be tested. * Raising the general body of knowledge in the discipline through the research implemented to confirm them. 5. Used by the practitioners to steer and improve their practice. * Consistent with different validated theories, laws and principles but actually will leave available unanswered questions that need to be looked into. 1 . ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY FLORENCE NIGHTNGALE
The environmental theory can be attributed to Florencia Nightingale. The main objective of her theory is the control of the surroundings of individuals and families both equally healthy and ill. She discusses the need for ventilation and light in sickroom, proper disposal of sewage and ideal nutrition. Her ideas about nursing possess guided both equally theoretical believed and actual nursing practice throughout the great modern breastfeeding. Nightingale deemed nursing for a religious contacting to be solved only by women with an all consuming and passionate response.
She considered breastfeeding to be both an art and science and believed that nurses ought to be formally knowledgeable.. Application of environmental theory in: Adult well being nursing Unneeded noise is usually not healthy for recuperating sufferers. Nightingale advocated for a quite environment inside the hospitals. Small management proposed the elimination of psychological harm zero upsetting media strictly war issues and concerns really should not be discussed within the hospital. The lady includes the application of small pets of psychological therapy when nursing adult patients.
Nutritional intake- sufferers to be fed with clean food and water Light has quite as actual and touchable effects for the body. Her nursing intervention includes direct exposure big t sunlight. Control over room temperature- patients needs to be nursed for appropriate temp With the use of Nightingales ideas private hospitals became a place for people to restore rather Than a place to die. Community Health Medical Warmth calm and diet plan environment the lady introduced the manipulation of the environment for patient’s edition such as open fire operating the windows and repositioning the room seasonally.
Cleanliness and sanitation- she presumes that filthy environment was your source of contamination and declined the bacteria theory. Her nursing interventions focus on correct handling and disposal of bodily secretions and sewerage frequent washing for patients and rns, clean apparel and palm washing. The environmental theory can be utilized by modern architecture inside the prevention of “sick building syndrome” making use of the principles of ventilation and good light. Noise management- noise pollutes the environment rendering it unhealthy for folks and can cause serious circumstances e.. hearing problems Once for a purpose hospitals did not hire their particular nursing participants nurses utilized nightingales concepts in the community inside the development of public well-being nursing. Reproductive Health Nursing Good well balanced diet is important to pregnant women in order to bring forth healthful children. Clean environment is an important aspect in kid delivery in order to avoid postnatal difficulties, this is a application of environmentally friendly theory. 2 . DEVELOPMENTAL IDEAS. Developmental hypotheses are called sometimes theories of growth and development.
Creation models stress processes of growth advancement and growth. Focus is additionally on id of genuine and potential developmental problems and delineation of involvement strategies that foster optimum growth and development of men and women and their environment. The advocates classified beneath the developmental unit branch contain: 1 . Sigmund Freud Freud proposed one of the better known grand theories of kid development. According to Freud’s theory kid development arises in a group of stages aimed at different pleasure areas of the body.
During each stage the child activities conflicts that play a major role during development. installment payments on your Erick Erickson Rather than focusing on sexual interest as a power in creation, Erickson believed that sociable interaction and experience enjoyed a important role. His eight stage theory of human expansion described this method from childhood through loss of life. During each stage individuals are faced with a developmental discord that influences later operating and further development 3.
According to Watson caring is usually when the registered nurse enters in the experience of somebody else and another can enter the nursing staff experiences (Watson 1989 pg 234) Her main concern inside the development of this kind of theory is to balance the impersonal areas of nursing treatment that are seen in the scientific and scientific aspects of practice with the personal and interpersonal elements of care that increase from a humanistic opinion in life. The lady openly acknowledged the clientele and family’s spirituality and spiritual beliefs as a necessary element of well being 4. Madeleine Leininger’s Ethnic care Diversity
Leininger claims that attention is the fact of medical a man qualified and prominent distinctive and unifying characteristic of nursing. This model model emphasizes that health and care are inspired by elements of social composition such as technology, religious and philosophical elements, kinship and social devices, cultural ideals political and legal factors economic and educational factors. Combined with universal characteristics of humans as qualified beings, the cultural proper care values, beliefs and techniques that are certain to a presented culture provide a basis intended for the habits, conditions and actions associated with human care.
Application of Developmental theories: Mature health Nursing jobs. According to Watson’s caring way, the idea helps in establishing a marriage of help and trust between nurse as well as the client. Watson’s theory helps with the adult patients/clients nursing as they are able to express both positive and adverse feelings with acceptance. That assists by any means deemed appropriate to meet the essential human demands of the customer. Community overall health nursing Watson’s model aids in manipulating the surroundings to make that more supportive, protective or connective to get the client with any type of disease process.
Watson’s theory recognizes the patient’s and family’s spirituality and spititual morals as an essential element of wellness. Reproductive Overall health nursing Developmental theories are useful in examining whether a child’s growth and developmental stage is keeping pace together with his chronological age group. Children dropping outside the typical ranges require medical and breastfeeding interventions. Development and developing theories are usually useful to rns teaching parents about what should be expected from their children at specific ages and stages.
Throughout the study of developmental theories, nurses understand and should do not forget that although being aware of characteristic qualities, developmental tasks and phases is useful, every individual is unique in fashion and tendencies. 3. ACTIVE MODEL. This model emphasizes the value of social relationships involving the nurse as well as the person. It focuses on identifying any social problems and providing treatment techniques to promote optimal socialization. The leading theorists of active model consist of: Hildegard Peplau’s interpersonal theory.
Her theory of interpersonal relations offers a useful framework for looking into clinical phenomena and leading nurses’ actions. Her theory focuses primary on the nurse-client relationship through which problem solving happen to be developed. 4 phases happen during this interactive process: orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution phase. Through these levels, the conselling, leadership, surrogate, resource person and instructing role. Virginia Henderson’s Unit. The foundation of Henderson’s theory is that nurses should concentrate on the people rather than the job.
The key component to Henderson’s theory is good for nurses to help patients turn into self sufficient. She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient’s independence so that progress after hospitalization would not become delayed. USING INTERPERSONAL IDEAS, Adult Health Nursing Peplau’s theory is usually significant for practice for the reason that it powered psychiatric breastfeeding from custodial based proper care to social relationship theory based treatment Peplau’s theory has offered an enduring educational for instructing the nurse patient relationships as a pivotal nursing method in all situations of practice.
The beneficial nurse sufferer relationship promotes active participation of sufferers in their healthcare. Peplau’s theoretical work has also promoted a paradigm of professionalization and empowerment to get educating nurses for the 21st century. Nursing jobs education has become deeply troubled by Henderson’s obvious vision with the function of nurses. The nursing theories of Peplau and Henderson are commonly utilized by psychologists and psychiatrists and nurses in mental health clinic settings. They provide a framework intended for understanding patients’ reactions to illness, delivery, deaths and traumatic lifestyle events.
Henderson conceptualizes the nurses part as supporting sick or perhaps healthy visitors to gain self-reliance in getting together with 14 primary needs. Community Health breastfeeding. Interactive models are utilized in the community because there is enhancement of interpersonal acts and relationships, through interaction from the community users and the registered nurse. People are in a position to clearly identify any problems they may have got and look for treatment techniques to showcase optimal socialization amongst themselves. Henderson’s theory expects culture to bring about nursing education.
Reproductive well being Nursing. Marital life and family-This theory may involve marriage and relatives planning options for adults. This technique teaches continence and training safe love-making until marital life. Nurses available lines great communication to address the issues the client features about preventing unwanted pregnant state. Family preparing programs can be found to youngsters interested in practicing birth control approaches and celibacy until marriage. Nurses lawyer on the range of birth control, their use or change useful.
As per Peplau’s theory, the nurse presumes the instructing role and assists couples in understanding concerning the virility cycles. 5. SYSTEMS IDEAS. The devices model of medical views anyone as a multidimensional being who reacts regularly to a world of stressors. Devices may be sealed or available depending on the sum of information to arrive or out of your systems. Clears systems permit exchange details through their very own bounderies. shut systems label rigid set ups in which nominal exchange of ideas are limited. Some theorists include Full Imogene, Neuman and Orem.
Imogene California king. His theory describes a dynamic interpersonal relationship in which a person grows and develops to attain specific life desired goals. Betty Neuman Her theory is a medical theory based upon the person’s relationship to stress, the relationship to it and reconstitution elements that are powerful in nature. The purpose of the nurse is always to retain this kind of system’s stability through the primary, secondary and tertiary reduction. Roy’s edition model. Roy’s model views individuals a collection of interrelated devices (biological, internal and social).
The individual aims to live within a unique strap in which they can cope effectively. Nursing attempts to alter environmental surroundings when the person is certainly not adapting very well or provides in altering coping responses. According to The Roy adaptation unit, the person provides coping components that are commonly categorized in either limiter or cognator systems. Orem’s General theory of medical. Orem’s theory revolves around a person concentrated model, where the nurse recognizes self treatment needs with the patient then works as collaboratively as possible with all the patient to satisfy those requires.
The theory includes self treatment, self care deficit and nursing program concepts. PUTTING ON SYSTEMS THEORY Adult Health nursing. King’s theory highlights the importance of any client’s involvement in decision making that impact care and focuses on the two process of nurse-client interaction plus the outcomes of care. Newnan’s system version is utilized in seeking to restore the stability of the system using the principal, secondary and tertiary surgery. Neumann’s theory is also found in practice and research.
Their concentric tiers allow for a simple classification of how severe problems is the standard of insult can be quantified allowing for graduated intervention. Today’s rns use nursing diagnoses to explain patient’s concerns. Orem’s home care deficits are well symbolized here. Roy’s adaptation theory is utilized in medical as it permits to assess patient’s stressors and abilities to cope. Nurses knowledgeable about adaptation hypotheses can help sufferers realistically evaluate their stressors, examine their usual coping responses and if necessary study new ones.
By usage of these hypotheses in mature nursing, nurses can interact with the patients to facilitate achievement of health-related desired goals. Community Overall health nursing As people connect to others in the community, they must regularly adjust to stressors’ in the external and internal environment Nursing staff can effectively provide treatment at the interactional systems level at which they will deal with up-and-coming small to moderate-sized teams in activities such as group therapy and health advertising classes. King’s theory provides insight into nurse’s interaction with individuals and groups in the environment.
The role of nursing with the social devices level could be expanded to incorporate involvement in Policy decisions that have an impact on the health proper care system all together. Orem’s self care shortage theory have been widely followed in a variety of specialized medical settings just like rehabilitation medical, with its concentrate on addressing self care deficits in patients with physical disability or perhaps chronic disease and house health nursing jobs which is targeted at making people as safe and self-employed as possible within their own homes. Reproductive Well being nursing
Motherhood and anxiety management-Nurses participating in family preparing are available with advice following delivery with the child. This postnatal care consists of nourishing techniques, health issues for the baby as well as for the mother. Breastfeeding give required counseling and support to mothers who might knowledge postpartum depressive disorder. These theories provide the important guidance to couples to handle the entire method from pregnancy to labor and birth so that the couple can make the most of becoming a cheerful and healthy family. Orem’s self care theory is definitely applies in diagnosing various reproduction disorders.
Reference: 2. Yema M. Luhahi, Nursing jobs Theories and professionalism, NRSG 121: REGISTERED NURSE, BSN, YOUR, Senior lecturer. * Linderg and al (1998) introduction to Nursing: principles. issues and opportunities. 5. Barium Barbara (1998). Medical theory: Research, Evaluation, Lippincott Williams and Wikins ISBN 978. 5. Allender J N: (2001)Community Health principles and practice, 8th release. * Tomey A M Alligood. MR. (2002)Nursing theorist and their work(5th edition), Mosby, Philadelphia. 2. Memmott, Rae Jeane, usage of the Neumann systems unit in interdisciplinary team.