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Elizabeth Terry Biology 101-06 MWF at 3: 00 November 16, 2011 Study paper DOWN SYNDROME Down syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardationDown syndrome is considered the most common reason behind mental retardation. It is due to the presence of an extra chromosome. Chromosomes contain sequences of GENETICS called genes that represent the innate information that exists in a cell.

Twenty three distinctive pairs of chromosomes which is 46 in total. They may be located within the nucleus (a region in the cell that is certainly bounded with a specialized membrane, and which houses the genetic material).

When a ejaculation cell fertilizes an egg cell, the newly created zygote normally gets 23 chromosomes from both parents. The contribution of hereditary information by each parent is why each baby a distinctive mixture of both features. In Down syndrome a blunder during label of the ejaculate or ovum produces a cell with an extra chromosome twenty-one. This event occurs during cell division and is referred to as non-disjunction, or the failing of all chromosomes to independently properly causing retention of 1 of the chromosomes in one of the two new girl cells.

This is also called trisomy 21 and it is accounted for 95% of all Straight down syndrome sufferers. A rare number of Down symptoms cases the first egg and sperm skin cells begins with all the correct range of chromosomes nevertheless shortly after fertilization during the period where cellular material are separating rapidly just one cell can easily divide unusually creating a brand of cells with an extra chromosome 21. It can called a cell line mosaicism. The individual with this type of down syndrome has two types of cells: a lot of 46 chromosomes which is the regular number plus some with 47.

Individuals who are mosaic for trisomy 21 typically have less sever sign and symptoms of the disorder. An additional are site that can trigger down affliction is called a chromosome translocation. This is a much that in contrast to the numerical abnormally creating trisomy 21 years old, there is a structural abnormality. Exchange of material by two diverse chromosomes throughout the production of sex cellular material can take place such that there is also a whole chromosome 21 placed on another chromosome but the chromosome number is normal. [1]These types of translocation involving chromosome 21, occur in about 3-4% of cases of Straight down syndrome.

Old cultures, just like those in Greece, Ancient rome, and Egypt, put impaired infants to death. Consideration toward the disabled was awakened by early Christian church, nevertheless charitable affect waned through the middle ages. Straight down syndrome likewise affected this people as a result of no one seriously caring by what was going on with all the ill kids. Down syndrome has a large amount of causes and this is normally what some parents want to know is the reason why their child comes into the world with this syndrome. Usually this is why they tell you while you are carrying your child you need to view very closely to see all indications of genetic disorders with pregnant.

Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder as mentioned before. An infant is usually recognized at birth through observation of your set of prevalent physical qualities. Babies with Down affliction tend to become overly silent. When I say that I mean significantly less responsive with weak floppy muscles. With that said , a number of physical signs may be present. This can include a flat link of the nasal area which is less space-consuming than normal. It’s a low set nose. They will tend to have a tiny mouth with a protruding tongue, upward slanting eyes and also extra retracts of skin located on the corner of each eye, near the nose.

They will have small outwardly rotated ears and small hands as well. Generally they have a unique deep crease across the center of the side and a malformed 6th finger. They may have a wide space between your big and the second foot and uncommon creases within the soles from the feet. Additionally they experience shorter than normal height down the road in their years as a child. Before genetic testing came out, Down syndrome was clinically diagnosed based on certain typical physical characteristics. Not all people with Down syndrome have the ability to these features though.

This could vary from particular people and they are caused by the excess chromosomes. People with Down problem also have bones that are loose than regular. Their skulls are brief and wide-ranging. Newborns usually have extra skin area on the back side of their neck, and as the child gets older the neck generally appears short and larger than usual. [2]Face shape can be round inside the newborn and in addition during infancy. When the child gets older their very own face form becomes oblong like. The main reason for this is the underdevelopment each goes through. Their very own cheeks happen to be round and the teeth develop late and in an unusual buy.

Although Straight down syndrome is not curable and you will see no cure for it, father and mother, researchers, as well as the Down problem individuals make an effort to make the best out of life and try coping with it. Developments in medical treatment over the past 40 to 50 years for conditions such as cardiovascular defects and respiratory disease have generated dramatic increases in the life expectancy of those with Down symptoms. [3] Half the children born with Straight down syndrome during the late 1960s survived to age your five. Bronchopneumonia, a respiratory disease and heart defects were the most common factors behind death.

Today about many of these of those delivered with this survive to age 12, and about 50% of them survive to age group 50 or perhaps beyond. The recent figures from different study areas show the fact that place of chance of Down syndrome anywhere from 1 in 600 to 1 in one particular, 000 live births. An analysis printed by numerous people. Bray and acquaintances in 1998 of combined info from eight different research found that the incidence varies from 1 in 1, 445 live beginning mothers at 10 to at least one in 25 live births to mothers at age forty-five.

You read ‘Malcolm X a Selfmade Education’ in category ‘Essay examples’ Down syndrome really is a hard disorder to live with but at the same time it has the advantages.

Down syndrome does not have treatment options nevertheless they have a lot of courses to help handle this syndrome. The development of a child is a wondrous thing. That involves amazing ohhs and ahhhs that could shock you every day your kids does something totally new. All youngsters from the period their capable to sit up by them and walks happen to be learning new pleasures everyday. At the same time adults all of us learn new pleasures everyday but nonetheless with Down syndrome, everything that they complete is excellent. All youngsters learn to develop their excellent motor expertise but you will find different aspects with regards to Down affliction children.

The introduction of motor abilities is very hard. The first thing you have to do is have got a outlined foundation of how you will plan on teaching that child. This is very dependent upon stability. [4]Stableness is being able to push open up a heavy door. It’s to be able to put on your shoes without dropping. It is holding a holder full of beverages. Its a legitimate list which goes on good results . this affliction most things aren’t accomplished because down symptoms babies lack stability. A lot of people diagnosed wit this syndrome also is likely to walk strange. They walk from side to side and have their head twisted.

At this point as children get older and reach how old they are past eight, then your not exactly alright, but you can inhale a little. The majority of researchers continue to be concerned about the older kinds but its really the babies that a majority of are worried regarding. They tend to go through a lot while newborns and unto right now there early babies stages. [5] Babies with Down symptoms suffer a lot. They have a great deal they feel and go through, although being an newborn and not to be able to talk doesn’t help whatsoever. Being given birth to with Straight down syndrome you go through how it can be from that point on as well as for the rest of your life.

Children with this syndrome almost always have some level of intellectual disability. That is why they learn slow and have difficulty with sophisticated reasoning and judgment. The level of intellectual impairment various greatly. These children do learn and what they do learn they’re not going to forget. Straight down syndrome can not be prevented but it is People who have Down affliction, whatever their age, are people first. They are people with skills, strengths and weaknesses like everyone else. They may have extra needs but first they have similar needs since everyone else of their age group.

The caliber of health care, education and community support provided to children and adults with Straight down syndrome constitutes a real difference to their progress throughout your life. This module provides an introduction to all the problems that need to be dealt with to enable people with Down symptoms, and their families, to enjoy full and cheerful lives inside their communities. It gives an overview from the development of people with Down problem from infancy to mature life. Additionally, it provides a overview of the factors behind Down problem, the chance and frequency of the condition, life expectancy and associated education and healthcare needs.

Kids with straight down syndrome experience problems with their digestive tract for a price that is greater than that of other kids. [6] some of these problems such as blockage of the digestice tract can be life threatening and can require emergency surgical procedure. Blockage or atresia in the esophagus or perhaps the duodenum could cause starvation if not corrected. Atresia takes place when the anal starting does not develop. This condition inhibits solid spend from staying eliminated from the intestinal tract and must be remedied surgically. Anal stenosis will permit waste products to, but will cause constipation.

Gastroesophageal feflux is likewise more common in individuals with straight down syndrome. Throughout this stage meals reenters the esophagus from your stomach. This could cause throwing up and irritability of the esophagus. You can also include vision problem s with down symptoms to. Theses problems are normal with those suffering with down syndrome. Strabismus by which one or both equally euyes both truns in or away. Occurs in 43% of theses chuldren. It is due to abnormal or incomplete development of the cneters in the brain that control the dexterity of vision movements. This condition may require a great eye patch, special eyeglasses or even surgical treatment.

Vision therapy may also be benificial and should be regarded as before medical procedures. Hearing problems also come with problem. [7] physiological differences that result from trisomy 21 help the larger percentage of reading difficulties founf in individuals with down affliction. Appromately 53% in kids with straight down syndrome have hearing problems. This makes it more difficult to examine the ars for feel buildup and infection. The center ear is usually smaller than typical, as well. This kind of contributes to the presence of chronic ear canal infections in 40% to 60% of youngsters with lows syndrome.

The shallow nose bridge founfd in 61% of individuals with down problem also led. Collapse or perhaps blockage in the eustachian pipe, which leads from your ear towards the throat, causes fluid to build up in the middle headsets and boosts the risk of middle section ear infection. [8]In children with down syndrome the eustachian tubes in many cases are smaller tha normal and still have lowered muscle tone. Complications with fluid develop in the middle hearing occur in 60 per cent of indiviuals with down syndrome this kind of fluid accumulation interferes with experiencing and can trigger permanent hearing loss if it is still for a long peopif of your time.

Estimates of hearing loss that individuals with straight down syndrome cover anything from 60% to 80%. Hearing problems in children can play a role in language and speech difficulies as well as auditory attention. Monitoring for smooth buildup and infections from the middle hearing should begin prior to age of half a year and should continue into adult life. Hearin helps may be an option as well. An additional problem that happens in straight down syndrome people is difficulties with thyroid sweat gland. Weighing less than one oz the thyroid is in fact one of the greatest endocrine glands. Thyroid human hormones help regualte the synthesis of development factore and a lot of hormones.

Thyroid hormones are very important for right brain creation during pregnancy. Also, they are important in normal expansion. Because they are made up of the valine tyrosine, where iodine substances have been atattched adequate iodine in the diet can be esstenial for their production. Another hormone made by the thyroid gland is calcitonin which manages the levels and metabolism of calcium. The hormones tri-iodothyonine and tetraiodothyonine are manufactured by the thyroid sweat gland in a proportion of 1, 13. t4 is secreted by thyroid gland in reactions to TSH. The lively form, T3 is formed inside the kidney, liver, and pleen by removal of one iodine molecule via T4. individuals with down syndrome also are 12 to 30 times more likely to develop Leukemia. [9] This is a type of cancer caused by the production of unusual qhite blood cells by bone marrow. These irregular cells ultimately crowd away normal red and white blood skin cells. There are two main types of leukemia. Acute and chronic. Serious leukemias develop slowly and the patienst condition worsens slowly. Chronic leukemia develops speedily and the individuals syptoms aggravate quickly. About 10% of babies created with straight down syndrome develop a transient leukemia that usually disappears by 3 months of age.

About 20% to 30% of people with this transient condtion go on to build up acute leukemia. Babies whom do not have down syndrome almost never have the transient form of leukemia. This greater risk of leukemia is in contrast to the risk of other types of tumor in people with down syndrome. The chance of most types of solid tumors is muh less space-consuming than in the standard population. Down syndromes costs has also elevated. From lates 1970s to 2003, the frequency (total number of cases of a disease in a human population at a specific time) of Down problem (DS) at birth increased by 31 percent, from 9 to doze per twelve, 000 live births in 10 ALL OF US regions.

Inside the 10 parts, birth frequency of DS ranged from a low of 9. 7 in Arkansas to a high of 13. 7 in Utah during 1997-2003. The amount of infants given birth to with DS was practically 5 times larger among births to elderly mothers (38. 6 per 10, 000) than amongst births to younger moms (7. almost 8 per 10, 000). In 2002, DS was discovered to be present in about 1 of every you, 000 children and children aged zero to 19 living in twelve chosen areas of the United States, meaning that approximately 83, 000 kids and teenagers with DS were moving into the United States in that year. Frequency of DS by age bracket was the top in 0-3 year olds at 11., declining to 10. 3 among 4-7 year olds, 9. eight among 8-11 year olds, 8. a few among 12-15 year olds, and 6. 0 among 16-19 year olds. A screening test out will help recognize the possibility of Down syndrome. Screening process tests do not provide conclusive answers, but rather, they provide a sign of the likelihood of the baby having Down affliction. An abnormal test consequence does not mean that your baby offers Down affliction. The aim with a verification test is usually to estimate the chance of t baby having Down syndrome. In the event the screening check is positive and a risk for Straight down syndrome is out there, further tests may be suggested.

Diagnostic assessments can identify Down symptoms before the baby is born. January issue of Obstetrics , Gynecology, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists released suggestions recommending screening for Down syndrome for all pregnant women during their first trimester. Agnostic checks tend to be more high-priced and have a degree of risk, screening tests are easy and quick to do. Yet , screening testing have a greater chance of becoming wrong, you will discover “false-positive (test indicates the newborn has the condition when the baby really does not) and “false-negatives (baby gets the condition but the test implies they do not).

As far as those individual children with Down syndrome there is also a lot that they may do, as the regular kinds. Kids with Down problem tend to have a sense of humor. Those with this disorder have slurred words and stutter but what you can understand they have decent conversation. Also in about 4 percent of all down syndrome instances the individual owns not an whole third copy of chromosome 21 materials, which has been incorporated via a translocation into a zero homologous chromosome. In translocation pieces will be swapped among two non-related chromosomes developing hybrid chromosomes.

The most common translocation associated with Down syndrome is that between the lengthy arm (down gene area) of chromosome 21 and an end of chromosome 14. [10] The consumer in whom the translocation has happened shows not any evidence of the aberration because the normal enhance of genetic material is still present simply a different chromosomes location. The problem arises when ever this individual forms gametes. A mother whom possesses the 21/14 translocation, for example has one normal 21 one normal 13 and the cross types chromosomes.

The girl with a genetic carrier intended for the disorder because your woman can pass it on to her children even though she actually is clinically typical. The mom can produce three types of viable gametes: one that contains the normal 16 and 21. the presence of another copy in the long arm of chromosome 21 causes defects in many tissues and organs. A single major a result of Down affliction is mental retardation. The intelligence scission of affected individuals are typically inside the range of 40-50. The IQ varies with age nevertheless being higher in the child years than in age of puberty or adult life.

The disorder is normally accompanied by physical traits. Trisomy 21 is one of the most common chromosomal aberrations taking place in regarding 0. 5% of all ideas and in 1 out of every seven hundred to 8-10 hundred live births. About 15 percent of the individuals institutionalized pertaining to mental deficit suffer from Straight down syndrome. Prior to chromosomal basis for the disorder was determined the frequency of Down problem births was correlated with elevated maternal era. For mothers at age 20 or so the incidence of down syndrome is around 0. 5 percent which boosts to zero. 9 percent by the age thirty-five and 3 percent at age forty-five. Comparing the chromosomes of the affected offspring with those of both parents have shown which the nondisjunction event is maternal about 75 percent enough time. The mother’s age result is considered to result from the several manner in which you and female gametes are made. Gamete production in the man event in females. Formation of the woman’s gametes begins early in embryonic life, somewhere yet between the eight and twentieth weeks.

During this time, cells in the developing ovary divide swiftly by mitosis forming skin cells called primary oocytes. These kinds of cells in that case begin meiosis by integrating up the homologues. The process is definitely interrupted now and the cells are held in a state of suspended movement until required in duplication, when they are induced to finish their section. Most individuals with Down syndrome have intellectual disability inside the mild (IQ 50″70) to moderate (IQ 35″50) range, with people having Mosaic Down affliction typically 10″30 points larger. Dr .

Weihs notes the mental features of people with Down symptoms to be “unisexual, ” “playful, ” “affectionate, ” “mischievous” and “imitative”. [21]Language skills present a difference between understanding speech and conveying speech, and commonly people who have Down syndrome have a speech postpone. Fine electric motor skills happen to be delayed and frequently lag behind gross motor skills and will interfere with intellectual development. Effects of the condition around the development of gross motor expertise are quite variable. Some children will begin walking at about 2 years of age, while others will not likely walk right up until age 4.

Physical therapy, and/or participation in a program of adapted physical education (APE), may enhance enhanced progress gross electric motor skills in Down problem children. A 2002 literary works review of elective abortion prices found that 91″93% of pregnancies in britain and The european union with a associated with Down syndrome were ended. [54] Data from the Nationwide Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register in the United Kingdom indicates that via 1989 to 2006 the proportion of women choosing to terminate a pregnancy pursuing prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome has remained regular at around 92%.

In the United States a number of research have reviewed the abortion rate of fetuses with Down affliction. Three research estimated the termination prices at 95%, 98%, and 87% respectively. Medical ethicist Ronald Green argues that parents offer an obligation to stop , innate harm’ with their offspring, and Claire Rayner, then a consumer of the Down’s Syndrome Association, defended testing and child killingilligal baby killing saying “The hard facts are that it is pricey in terms of human being effort, compassion, energy, and finite methods such as cash, to take care of individuals with handicaps

People who are not as yet parents should certainly ask themselves in the event they have the justification to inflict this sort of burdens in others, even so willing they can be themselves for taking their talk about of the burden in the beginning several physicians and ethicists are concerned about the ethical ramifications with the high child killingilligal baby killing rate just for this condition. [59] Conservative commentator George Will certainly called it “eugenics simply by abortion”. 60] British peer God Rix stated that “alas, the birth of a child with Down’s affliction is still deemed by many to be an ful tragedy” and that the “ghost from the biologist Friend Francis Galton, who founded the eugenics movement in 1885, nonetheless stalks the corridors of countless a hospital. Doctor David Mortimer features argued in Ethics , Medicine that “Down’s symptoms infants have a long history and are disparaged simply by some doctors and federal government bean counters. Some users of the impairment rights activity “believe that public support for prenatal diagnosis and abortion depending on disability contravenes the movement’s basic beliefs and desired goals.

Peter Vocalist argued that “neither hemophilia nor Down’s syndrome is really crippling as to make existence not really worth living through the inner perspective of the person with the condition. To belay a fetus with one of these problems, intending to possess another kid who will not be disabled, is to deal with fetuses while interchangeable or replaceable. In case the mother has previously chose to have a specific number of children, say two, then what she is carrying out, in effect, is rejecting 1 potential kid in favor of one other.

She could, in protection of her actions, say: the loss of your life of the aborted fetus can be outweighed by gain of any better lifestyle for the conventional child that will be created only if the disabled 1 dies. People who have Down problem have a higher risk for many circumstances. The medical consequences of the extra genetic material in Down symptoms are highly variable and may affect the function of any organ system or bodily procedure. Some trouble is present at birth, such as selected heart altération. Others turn into apparent after some time, such as pilepsy. Other things Straight down syndrome individuals go through are extremely emotional. For people with Down syndrome it is very hard to cope with the everyday actions. It is also hard on the family members, especially the father and mother. It can be extremely frustrating intended for the parents to deal with having a kid with Down. People delivered with Straight down syndrome require so much more extra attention than that of an ordinary child. Suggestions from several psychologists are for the parents to go to some type of group periods to talk to other parents with children with Down.

Therefore , someone else can understand the frustrations that they proceed through in bringing up their child. People with Down affliction have various emotions working through all their mind and body. Individuals with Down affliction, whatever their age, are people first. They can be people with capabilities, strengths and weaknesses like everyone else. They could have further needs but first they have precisely the same needs because everyone else of their age group. The quality of health care, education and community support supplied to children and adults with Down syndrome constitutes a real difference to their improvement throughout life.

This component provides an summary of all the problems that need to be dealt with to enable people who have Down syndrome, and their families, to enjoy complete and cheerful lives inside their communities. It includes an overview of the development of people who have Down problem from infancy to adult life. Additionally, it provides a brief summary of the reasons for Down affliction, the chance and frequency of the condition, life expectancy and associated education and healthcare needs. Further more modules through this series talk about each of these concerns in detail.

Down syndrome individuals also have work out look at points. The most of that time period feel distinct and misplaced. Most would want to know whom Down syndrome affects. For example what competition and what are the percentages of living past a teen Children and adults with Down syndrome have a variety of abilities. A person with Down symptoms may be very healthier or may well have uncommon and demanding medical and cultural problems in virtually every level of your life. It’s important to understand that every person with Down symptoms is a unique specific. Each child will develop in his or her very own pace.

It may take children with Down affliction longer than any other children to reach develop Straight down syndrome may not be cured. Nevertheless , early treatment can help various people with Down syndrome to live productive lives well in to adulthood. Kids with Straight down syndrome can frequently benefit from talk therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises to improve their engine skills. They could also be helped by particular education and attention for school. Some of the medical problems common in individuals with Down syndrome, like cataracts, trouble hearing, thyroid problems, and seizure disorders, could be also cared for or fixed.

It has been advised that kids with Down syndrome may possibly benefit from medical treatment that includes amino acid supplements and a drug known as Piracetam. Piracetam can be described as drug that some people believe that may improve the ability with the brain to find out and appreciate. However , there were no controlled clinical studies with Piracetam to date in the U. S i9000. or elsewhere that demonstrate its security and effectiveness. The life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has increased substantially. In 1929, the average life span of the person with Down symptoms was nine years. Today, it is common to get a person with Down symptoms to live to age 40 and beyond.

In addition to living longer, people with Straight down syndrome are actually living bigger, richer lives than ever before while family members and contributors with their community. Various people with Straight down syndrome form meaningful interactions and eventually marry. Now that people with Down affliction are living much longer, the requirements of adults with Straight down syndrome will be receiving better attention. With assistance from as well as caretakers, a large number of adults with Down problem have developed the skill sets required to maintain jobs also to live semi-independently mental milestones, but many of these milestones can eventually become met.

Consequently , parents must not compare the progress of a child with Down affliction to the progress of other siblings and even to other children. [pic][pic] [pic] , , , , , , , , [1] Down syndrome K. Le Lerner Pg. 1377. Paragraph 1 . [2] Family genes and Disorders. By Fay Evans-martin. Pg. 14 paragraph 2 . [3] Fay Evans-martin Pg. 17 Paragraph 3. [4] [5] [6] Genes , Disease By: Fay Evans Pg. 67 [7] Genes and Disorders Bayerischer rundfunk Fay Evans Pg. 71 [8] Genes And Conditions By Fay Evans Pg. 71 [9] Pg. 75 Genes And Disorders Simply by Fay Evans [10] Down syndrome medical guide. Pg. 749

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