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The culture of the organization determines just how effective an enterprise is. Philip and Waterman emphasized the value of company culture more than 20 years ago when they gave their theory about how organizational culture affected a business organization. However , it absolutely was not the first time that copy writers and scholars acquired brought focus on organizational traditions as many other philosophers ahead of that time experienced brought the situation that there was clearly a link between culture and effectiveness of a business.

For example , Blake and Mouton got already contended about this a significant 1969 and had claimed that culture was a major aspect in determining the organization’s achievement.

Company culture

The theory of organizational tradition dates back to the 1960s and earlier when different writers gave different theories of what is culture and how this affects the business enterprise. There is no challenge over the definition of culture yet there is an on going disagreement as to just how this traditions affects the achievements of an organization.

Company culture is known as a set of values, customs, values and habit. Drennan, (as cited in Bernard Burnes, p 44) gives the easiest definition “culture is ‘how things are carried out around here’.  This kind of definition talks about culture in the easiest terms. Basically, the organizational lifestyle theory focuses on that organizations are like typical societies which may have their own beliefs, norms and customs.

Yet , the theory about how precisely culture impacts the business can be not as basic as the meaning. Different writers argue upon varied aspects of culture and link them to the achievement and performance in the business. After the Second World War, the rise of Japan was linked to its powerful organizational culture. Research were completed to see just how, and what cultures led to the success of The japanese.

Enhancements made on organizational culture

Company culture is the central obstacle in introducing a change in the business procedures. People’s beliefs, their traditions and set of values are very difficult to transform. For example , an alteration was introduced to stop sexuality discrimination and to give similar opportunities to both genders. Whether or not that transform was validated and introduced on a large scale in virtually all businesses, nonetheless people discovered it difficult to accept it. That they continued to think of women as unable to carry out the duties at the higher managerial levels and so, they remained at the low hierarchy levels in several organizations where culture was strong enough to make room for this change.

A large number of theories about change in company culture and the way to manage that change have been completely developed. The need for such hypotheses arose the moment many businesses failed because the people did not accept the transform they presented in the organization. It is not easy to improve the set of beliefs and norms, which develop on the long time and folks get used to next them. Because of this , many businesses failed when they tried to be more effective by changing the way points were performed. The failing rate was 70% of companies, which tried to change the culture of their corporation.

The components where a culture is based, such as the cultural version made by Cummings and Worley (as mentioned in study guide, pg46), which shows that the lifestyle comprises of standard assumptions, norms, values and artifacts, are incredibly difficult to alter. The lifestyle of the firm develops through the years with past leaderships and customs and so, changing that culture by introducing new techniques and work methods lead to de-motivation and unhappiness of the employees. Even if the employees accept the change, it is hard to implement it.

The organizational modify management theory explained the several methods of launching change and managing it so that the inability rate reduces and the firms succeeds in implementing a change and making the most of it when it comes to increased revenue performance. The OCCM theory, therefore , was not something the firms were exercising before. Although some businesses knew the importance of culture as well as role in determining the effectiveness of the business, a lot of them were unable to improve the tradition successfully to increase effectiveness. OCCM theory helped those businesses to bring in change and implement them. This theory explained the ways of changing the work push to the modify, which had to be introduced. Therefore, this was a novel theory, which not only explained what organizations currently believed just about all provided these people an insight in implementing the change efficiently.

Applying OCCM theory in companies

The main issue with organizational change is definitely not why it is important and once it has to be implemented but the primary issue is usually how to put the theory in practice. Many writers include written hypotheses and produced models to help businesses put into action that change and manage it so that it brings the results they desire. However , a number of these theories are too complex to actually use in businesses. These ideas were of little make use of for the managers as well as the people who were responsible for starting the transform.

Several theories of implementing change

The eight-step version given by Kotter is the most famous and this highlights ten simple ways, which can result in a successful transform. With the[desktop], not only it becomes easy to prevent disputes and insurgence inside the organization when ever some unexpected huge change in the tradition is presented, but it also makes that alter successful. The main concern once introducing alter is the employees and their a reaction to it. It truly is highly important to initiate the change in this sort of a way the work force will not get de-motivated and dissatisfied.

The eight-step theory provided by John Kotter says which the person who is definitely initiating the change should do it in the following approach:

Communicate the need for change: this kind of says that the manager will need to explain the various problems the company is facing and the likely causes. If a sense of urgency is created, the people inhabiting the organization can make up the minds of men for accepting a change.

Synchronize and socialize: the next step is to ask the people to suggest different methods in which individuals dilemmas could be fixed. This would let them have the chance of suggesting changes in the culture.

Produce a eyesight for the change: after discussion regarding several methods and modifications in our culture, a vision can be created about the replace the business must introduce. This vision is going to determine what the business enterprise wants simply by introducing the change in the business.

Communicate: it is essential to talk the benefits of the change, the vision plus the problems if perhaps change is definitely not initiated, so that the people at all amounts are happy and the risk of resistance is decreased.

Tackle resistance: while you will make sure that most the staff is content, there will be folks who will resist the alter. Some business processes and structures will likely make the alter difficult to put into action. It is important to tackle all of them well.

Produce short-term goals: instead of making a list of long lasting targets, it is advisable to create immediate goals and reward the workforce on the achievement of people short term goals. The initial goals will be achieved earlier and the people will see the effect of the change, which will lessen resistance and criticism.

Put into practice change trying to improve: don’t just introduce the change. Additionally it is important to continually look for ways of improvement, that may lead to elevated productivity.

Secure the change into the company culture: the change you introduce and implement should become the key of the organization and should turn into a major part of it is culture. It’s this that cultural change is called.

The OCCM theory given by Kotter explains the change management in the most basic way. This theory is usually widely used in businesses and it is very useful since almost all people, not only change frontrunners, can figure out and stick to the simple steps.

The OCCM theory given by Cummings and Worley (2001) is actually complicated to follow. Very few businesses found individuals complex suggestions useful. To the contrary, many other hypotheses of modify management describe very simple methods, which are as well general. Those theories are of no use towards the organization. In addition, many writers commented about change managing that the lifestyle problems could possibly be exaggerated and blamed intended for poor functionality. Those authors pointed out that many managers may blame the culture to get the ineffectiveness of the firm while for that matter, the problem may be because of some other reasons like poor communication or perhaps lack of dexterity.

Another well-known and beneficial OCCM theory is the organized change strategy theory simply by Kurt Lewis, which was succumbed 1940s. This kind of theory obtained a lot of popularity since it highlighted on organizing the modify and then putting into action it. It had been the best theory until the professional revolution when folks criticized that it is not suitable for those people who work businesses in unpredictable area. They argued that in those environment, there was not any room to get planning plus they had to bring in sudden changes in their company culture. It is because the designed approach theory took lots of time to expose and implement change, which many businesses wasn’t able to tolerate. It was only helpful for those adjustments, which were certainly not urgent. Nevertheless , the results and the effectiveness from his theory were high enough because the planning method led to fruitful benefits.

Therefore, the OCCM theories were overall within reducing the failure price of businesses, which will tried to improve their business overall performance by changing the organizational culture. Not every the OCCM theories were useful in making the transform initiative successful, but there have been some just like Kotter’s unit, which proved to be very practical, and a simple theory to follow.


Bernard Burnes, organizational culture and change managing, 2010, volume 1, british isles

www.mindtools.com, kotter’s 8 stage change style, 2011

Catherine Itzin and Janet Newman, ‘gender, tradition and organizational change’, Routledge, 2001

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