a look at the theme of physical violence and its
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In the two Homers The Odyssey and Sophocles Antigone, violence and war appear to be considered honorable, great practitioners such as Antilokhos, Akhilleus and Odysseus of The Odyssey and Eteocles of Antigone are glorified and celebrated because exemplary figures in their individual societies, brave souls ready and able of going into battle. Yet in the two poem as well as the play, a sense of deep tragedy and futility accompanies nearly every incident of violence. Every single major challenge is met while using question of whether or not the benefits of violence have outweighed its consequences, and the reply to this issue is almost usually no . Violence, in general, will serve in both equally works as a regrettable, tragic and even irrational vacation resort, and belies the concept of honor and greatness of physical violence in the Greek world.
In The Journey, Odysseus instantly rises for the forefront being a victim of violence. And it is often his own chaotic behavior that in turn difficulties him afterwards. When Telemakhos visits Nestor while checking out his fathers disappearance, the prince of charioteers recounts the price Odysseus would spend on attacking a Trojan area needlessly: Nevertheless we plundered Priams city and tower/ and accepted the ships, God spread the Akhaians. / He previously a brain to make homecoming hard to them (III, 140-2). While Odysseus is famous for his prowess in battle, the sacking on this town is a result of folly, certainly not strategy or necessity, he and his fleet are for that reason punished and compelled to remain. However , Nestor, Diomedes, and Menelaos, three Akhaians who have certainly not participated from this foolish action, realize that the battles that they fought through the Trojan War bring them enough grief and sorrow, and sensibly withdraw from struggling any further. They can be permitted by simply Zeus to escape.
The importance of Odysseus mistake of sacking Priams town could be witnessed inside the long and difficult journey this individual and his fast are put through for the next ten years. If Odysseus does not assault the town, they can expect a safe departure from Troy, although since he does, Odysseus is compelled into his long and perilous journey throughout the seas. And during his exile from home, Odysseus commits an additional violent action that stretches his journey to Ithaka. He shades the Kyklops Polyphemos, child of Poseidon. Again, the utilization of violence to fix his challenges lengthens Odysseus unfortunate and perilous journey to his homeland. Although a single might attribute Poseidons punishment of Odysseus to the fact that he reveals his identity to Polyphemos after leaving this island then, leading the Kyklops to beseech his father that Odysseus, raider of metropolitan areas, never/ observe his house (IX, 578-9), the fact remains that Odysseus earlier decision to rezzou Priams community is the source of the faults he is making now. Root the hubris that gets Odysseus struggling in his exchange with Polyphemos is the dangerous, unrewarding violence he areas to backside at Troy.
The illegitimacy of violence in The Odyssey can easily again be observed in the revenge cycle that appears the two with Poseidon and Odysseus, and the Ithakan king as well as the suitors. When Poseidon tries Odysseus and throws his ship all over the world, the goodness of earthquakes is fueled by rage and sadness for the harm completed his child. Poseidons grief, fed by Odysseus violent doings, rss feeds his very own belligerence and desire to retain Odysseus faraway from house and family. The cycle of violence, discomfort, and payback is neverending. When Odysseus decimates the suitors, the ultimate vehemence and insensibilities of violence will be revisited. Odysseus launches the attack on the suitors to be able to restore honor to his family, and, having conquered them, is usually described simply by Eurykleia, Penelopes nurse, like a lion/ filled with mire and blood (XXIII, 49-50). Later, Eupeithes rises to avenge the murder of his boy Antinoos and the violent have difficulty is perpetuated. Odysseus responds by killing him and advancing around the old mans supporters even as Athena alerts all from pursuing this bitter skirmish (XXIV, 593). Only in the direct caution of Zeus wrath will the son of Laertes order himself and end the senseless struggling. This ending to The Journey suggests that Odysseus final actions somewhat lack honor because they are uncontrolled and purposeless, the violence gets out of hand and threatens to put Odysseus into trouble again. The ending also will remind the audience that violence is a consuming, powerful, hurtful, unproductive solution to conflict and adversity. Violence only begets even more violence, in addition to this way bears non-e from the honor frequently assigned to Greek warrior heroes.
The natural tragedy of violence is definitely even more apparent in Antigone. The starting to the enjoy, which instantly follows the fatal struggle between Eteocles and Polyneices, sets the tone throughout Antigone. A violent conflict between two brothers commences the tragic cycle that will eventually destroy the entire past and present royal friends and family, and put a curse upon Thebes.
The fortune that befalls Antigone results from her public defiance of Creons requirement that Polyneices not be provided with proper burial rites or honors. Rather, Antigones sibling must be still left to lay unwept, unburied, / Intended for hungry wild birds of prey to come and feast/ On (28-30). Antigone buries her buddy anyway, leading to Creons wisdom that she will be performed for insubordination against the express. The deaths that arise later on in the play are the fate that Creon must face to get his impiety and competitors to the laws and regulations of nirvana.
Yet underlying all the deaths as well as the problems Creon causes pertaining to himself is a very celebration that starts this domino effect of pain and suffering: the war among Eteocles and Polyneices. Polyneices wages this war on Thebes to gain back honor and power, tagging the beginning of a curse which will afflict Thebes and ruin its vips. The overall misfortune of the characters in Sophocles tragedies can be traced back in Oedipus wonderful fated misfortune, Oedipus prospects a life of agony and repent as a result of his destined guideline of Thebes, and his descendents naturally carry the burden of his curse following he provides died. Even so, in Antigone, what commences the final level of the Sophoclean tragedy is known as a violent conflict that ends lives and leads to catastrophe in Thebes.
There isn’t much physical violence in Antigone, unlike The Odyssey, wars are not fought and battles are not fought against, however , where violence discloses itself one can detect a disturbing hyperlink between disaster and violence. Each event of physical violence in the perform is image and undeniable in gloom. Birds and dogs tear apart Polyneices physique. Antigone hangs herself in quiet expectation of reuniting herself with family in hell. Haemon in remorseleaned upon the blade/ And drove that half its length in to his body system (1234-5). Eurydice does himself in, pressing a sharp-edged dagger through her mama. Creon begs for death in the end, noticing the error of his rule. Once again, violence produces more physical violence, until at last the gods lift the curse. Regrettably, in Antigone, the problem is elevated only when violence has consumed all.
Violence, an inevitable a part of Greek society, reveals it is dark shadows and agonizing legacy in both The Odyssey and Antigone. Although occasionally the preventing and warring in composition and perform showcase the honor and bravery of physical violence, the essential impression to be drawn from both reports is that assault is one of the origins of battling, adversity, and anguish. Violence, even when performed honorably, just causes even more violence, in addition to most cases, the moment considered from afar, is needless and unimpressive. Violence, most likely noble and great in certain circumstances, is within and of itself ignoble, conferring little exclusive chance to those who have engage in this.