an study of the theory maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is actually a theory regarding human requirements and motives, which was first presented in a paper published in 43 (Maslow, 1943) and later extended in the book “Motivation and Personality” (Maslow, 1954). According to Maslow’s (1954) point of view, individual motivation could be represented by using a 5-level hierarchy model, which is always pictured as a pyramid as proven in Physique 4. The 5 amounts are:
Physiological demands, which are the simple physical requirements to survive.
Protection needs, such as personal, monetary, health secureness and secureness against various other disasters or perhaps illness.
Take pleasure in and belonging, which refers to the desire of belonging and acceptance among the social teams.
Esteem, which will represents the needs to be accepted and respected by others or have self esteem.
Self-actualisation, relating to Maslow (1954, pp. 92), is to “accomplish anything that one can, to get the most that one may be. inches This category involves high-level needs which can just be satisfied in fact other demands have been satisfied.
It is suggested by Maslow that lower-level needs are essential to rewarding higher-level needs. Most important needs need to be met just before one is motivated to fulfil higher-level demands. This basic principle is also required for education, mainly because in order to motivate a student to examine, their reduced needs must be satisfied 1st.
Figure 5: Maslows structure of needs
Source: Maslow (1954)
Yet , most analysis about Maslow’s theory relates to business and organisation managing (Douglas and Nougaim, late 1960s, Lindner, 1998). With regards to education, the author offers identified several needs based on Maslow’s theory (Table 2).
Herzbergs Dual-factor Theory and Grades in College
The dual-factor theory, that has been developed by Herzberg, divides inspiration in two categories: satisfaction and dissatisfaction (1959). The reason why of this kind of classification is the fact Herzberg finds that these two categories will be independent.
A motivator is some factor whose presence can result in satisfaction in the workplace. On the other hand, a hygiene factor is something which cannot deliver satisfaction, except if it is missing. This obtaining is also related to Maslow’s pecking order of demands because a pleasure is usually connected with higher-level needs (e. g. status, responsibility and self-realisation), while dissatisfaction tends to be associated with lower-level demands (e. g. salary, oversight and operating conditions).
However , the education sector is definitely slightly different from traditional project and company management. An essential issue that is worth analysing is the marriage between pupils and levels. According to Becker ainsi que al. (1968, p. 55), grades are “the currency of campus”, just like salaries to employees. As a result of that, students don’t usually spend time or energy studying a thing that is not related to a level. (Elton, 1988). To be even more precise, college students will only have a module critically if they already know there will be an exam linked to it. However , the amount of work invested in a module or assignment depends heavily about students’ interests rather than represents (Elton and Laurillard, 1979). That is why marks and reviews play a significant role in students’ academic career.
Gibbs (2003) observed which a grade will probably be understood by student because indicating their particular personal capacity or worth as it is usually ‘norm-referenced’. It also tells them, primarily, their angle in relation to other folks. A poor class may destruction a student’s ‘self-efficacy’, or sense of ability to work. Yorke (2001) elaborates around the positive or negative ways formative assessment can affect scholar retention and emphasises it is role in ‘academic integration’ (Tinto, 1993). In a thorough review of 87 meta-analytical studies on what affects students’ achievements, Hattie (1987) reports that the most powerful single effect is opinions. However , problems reported by Hounsell (1987) is the fact Feedback is normally not go through at all, or perhaps not recognized by college students (Lea Street, 1998).
In conclusion, as being a powerful tool to motivate project members, the university should make use of feedback effectively, providing learners with clear and beneficial comments. Exploration also shows that students are likely to obtain higher marks coming from coursework assignments than tests (James Fleming, 2004), which can be probably why they choose to former to the latter (Starr, 1970).