beetroot essay

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Subject: The effect of temperature about beetroot’s cells membrane Goal: To use beetroot to investigate the result of temperatures on cell membranes andrelate the effect seen to the membrane’s structure and properties Intro:


Beetroot is one of several type of beets known as Beta Vulgaris. You can use it in cooking food and consuming as it is one of the source of vitamins, minerals, nutrients and antioxidant as well which include magnesium, potassium, sodium and vitamin C and betaine. Betaine in the cells act as organic osmolytes which are produced or obtained from the surroundings by cells pertaining to protection against osmotic stress, drought and temperature.

It is also important for cardiovascular disease. The high sum of nitrate content inside the beetroot assistance to lower blood pressure and therefore, help to prevent the cardiovascular diseases. the nitrate or known as diet nitrate inside our blood is usually believed to be the cause of ‘biological messenger nitric oxide’.

This kind of ‘biological messenger nitricoxide’ is utilized by the endothelium for signalling the smooth muscle mass to relax.

Thus, vasodilation occurs and enhance the blood circulation. Other than the benefits to health, beetroot, especially the juice is used to make dyes or perhaps the food fardant as it is known for no sensitized side-effects. Besides it is affordable. But , beetroot’s colour will alter when heated so it is mainly utilized in confectionary, ice lotions, tomato substance, jam and jellies. Beetroot dye could also be used in tattoo. when the bulb is elderly, the colour is deep crimson and the flesh is softer.

Cell Surface Membrane and Properties

Cell membrane is a framework of cellular that features as the barier isolating the interior cellfrom the outside’s surrounding. This structure selectively let chemicals in and out from the cell. Itis made up of lipid molecules arranged side by side using their tails facing each other forming a phospolipid bilayer

This lipid bilayer has partial-permeability for ions and extremely moleculesas the arrangement of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails avoid the solute just like amino acids, carbs, protein and ions coming from diffuses through it. But simple konzentrationsausgleich occurs pertaining to substances like water (osmosid) and blood sugar which won’t require extra helps coming from protein.

The model of cellular membrane that is accepted extensively is the ‘Fluid Mosaic Model’ by T. J. Musician and Garth Nicolson. This model of cell membrane demonstrates the cell membrane can be described as substance as the composition of computer that include lipids and protein that usually move side by side or virtually. This is why it is known to be more fluid-like than the usual solid.

The protein in the phospholipid bilayer is known as transport protein which usually helps the transportation of substances out-and-in of the cell. As we know, substances of valine, carbohydrate, healthy proteins and billed ions cannot pass through the lipid bilayer by straightforward diffusion. As a result, the transporter protein is used to transport these types of substance sometimes with help of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).


Colorimeter is a gadget used to gauge the absorbency of substances. This can be a light-sensitive gadget that simply measures simply how much colour can be absorbed by objects or perhaps substances. With the aid of colorimeter, we can analyse the concentration of these particular chemicals. This device works according to Beer Lambert’s law that state, ‘the absorption of sunshine transmitted through a medium can be directly proportional to the concentration of the moderate. ‘Colorimeter functions by passing through a ray of sunshine through the remedy thus actions the amount of light. The more centered the object or solution, the less lumination passing through that as more light can be absorbed by solution. The difference can be seen between your light ahead of passing through the perfect solution is and after that passed through it. The actual result or the absorbance does not have a specific unit. But it really is called ‘arbituary unit’ or perhaps AU.

Problem Statement: Precisely what is the effect of temperature about cell membrane layer and what is the connection between the end result observed and the structure of cellmembrane. Hypothesis: When the beetroot cell surface area membrane is usually exposed to hot temperature, the membrane will breakdown causing the red pigments of the beetroot to leak out. Parameters: Manipulated Changing: the temperature of drinking water bath utilized Responding Variable: the browsing of the colorimeter (the absorbencyof solution) Fixed Variable: the type of beetroot employed, the size of every single sectionof beetroot, the time 30-minute time utilized Apparatus: Cork borer, white tile, cutting knife, ruler, beaker, boiling tubes, forceps, thermometer, colorimeter, cuvette, measuring canister, pipette, stop watch.

Materials: Beetroot, distilled normal water, water bathroom at 30 oC, 40 oC, 60 oC, 62 oC


1 . The natural beetroot will be cut in half using a knife and lined with a white tile. Then, several sections of beetroot are slice using a natural borer. The sections after that are assessed to 1cm length using a ruler and put aside. Be alert when ever handling the beetroot while the beetroot juice may stain the clothes and skin poorly. 2 . The sections in that case are place in a beaker and rinsed with unadulterated water. three or more. 12 cooking tubes labelled 30oC (1), 30oC(2), 30oC(3), 40oC (1), 40oC(2), 40oC(3), 50oC(1) 50oC(2), 50oC(3), 600C(1), 600C(2) and 600C(3) are ready and 5cm3 of distilled water is definitely added to all the boiling pipe. 4. The boiling tubes then are put in normal water bath with temperature; 30oC, 40oC, 50oC, and60oC correspondingly for 5 minutes so the unadulterated water could reach the required temperature. 5. One of the sections of beetroot then simply placed in every boiling pipe and left for half an hour in the normal water bath. The time is set using a stopwatch. 6th. After thirty minutes, the beetroot sections by each of the boiling tube can be taken out and the solution in the boiling tubes are shaken to distribute the absorb dyes. 7. The colorimeter is usually adjusted to see % absorbance.

8. 3cm3 of each absorb dyes solution is definitely measured and added into the cuvettes separately. The cuvette then is definitely put into the colorimeter and the reading can be taken. being unfaithful. The smooth edges of the cuvette is wiped clean and dry to make sure there isn’t a dust, water and finger marks on it. The reading is usually repeatedfor 3 x to obtain a more reliable result. twelve. This step is carried out on each with the cuvette pertaining to dye alternatives. 11. Each of the readings happen to be recorded in a table and interpreted right into a graph.


Temperature as well as oC| Absorbency of dye solution as well as arbituary unit| Average of absorbency of dye solution/ arbituary unit| Observation the color of color solution| | 1| 2| 3| | |

30| zero. 064| 0. 096| zero. 100| zero. 087| Pale Red|

40| 0. 066| zero. 104| zero. 119| zero. 096| Mild Red|

50| 0. 098| zero. 097| 0. 145| 0. 113| Red|

60| 0. 255| 0. 207| 0. 252| 0. 238| Dark Red|

The chart of absorbency of color solution against temperature


The graph tabulated demonstrates that when the temp is higher, the absorbency of the solutions is higher. This show that, there are more beetroot coloring leaks into the solution if the temperature is higher. Via 30oC to 40oC, the line of the graph is raising rapidly. The reason is , the hot temperature started to denature the healthy proteins in the cell membrane causing the reddish colored dye to leak. The larger the temperature exposed to the cell as in to the beetroot, more kinetic energy will be gained by the red colors inside of the beetroot cells. Therefore, this will bring about diffusion out of crimson pigments from your internal cell of beetroot into the environment or surrounding through cell membrane. Besides, proteins are formed of amino acids coiled and attached to each other like strings. The bond between amino acid is definitely held by hydrogen you possess and disulphide bridge.

The hydrogen a genuine however weaken when warm is applied and the disulphide bridge or perhaps known as SS-bond is a kind of covalent connect which has a low boiling stage thus, very easily disrupted once exposed to hot temperature. This will effect the damaging of the vacuoles and seeping in the cell membrane triggering the dye or red pigments within the vacuole to leaks out or diffuseout of the cell into the around. This diffusion is assist by the concentration gradient regulation that a material will approach from a spot with excessive concentration to reduce concentration. The enhancement is because at this temperature, more healthy proteins will be denatured and also the gaps in the cell membrane receiving bigger as the red pigments of beetroot hurry out of the cellular into the environment or adjacent. Besides that, as we know, the cell membrane layer is made up of phospholipid bilayer. These lipid bilayers are include water-loving brain and water-hating tail or just known as hydrophilic and hydrophobic. The head (water-loving or hydrophilic is the simply side that is certainly exposed to drinking water. When this lipid bilayer is warmed or delivered heat, the bond will certainly break down since lipid are more fluid. The water also grows and the elements vibrate faster. This will bring about disrupting the membrane. From 40oC to 60oC, the graph is increasing continuously showing which the leaking of red pigments of the beetroot cell remains happening. However the gradient is less steep since the lean from 30oC to 40oC.

This is because, a number of the denatured aminoacids are preventing the holes made in the beginning resulting low flow “out of crimson pigments from the internal cell into the adjacent. In conclusion, this can be all about kinetic energy. Strength is supplied to the molecules especially the red tones of beetroot by warmth. Thus, boost the rate of diffusion in the molecules into surrounding. Other than the colors gaining strength, the cell membrane (proteins and lipid bilayers) will probably be damaged and denatured as a result of high temperature. This kind of, will cause the red pigments molecules that gained strength to run out of the cell. Although the red pigments might gain a lot of energy because of the high temperature, it is the gaps between membrane) lipid bilayer) that causes it to pass through and as the pigments approach faster, it will increase the level of konzentrationsausgleich resulting in quicker rate of diffusion while the temperatures increase.


Limitations are factors that you cannot control in tests. The constraint of this experiment is the beetroot used. There are plenty of type of beetroot and certain species of beetroot might only give out tiny dye as the red pigments is much less many as the various other beetroot. Besides, the beetroot used is additionally not refreshing. This might impact the result while wiltinbeetroot doesn’t have so many reddish colored pigments kept in the vacuole. Other than that, there can be unseen scrape on the easy sides with the cuvettes. To be sure, the colorimeter is a very light-sensitive device. The scratches that cannot be averted will make the effect differ from what should be because the light passing through it will be diffracted causing a wrong absorbency.

Sources of Error and Ways to Conquer:

Problems do happen in every experiment. The problems that always happen are once cutting the sections of beetroot. The size could possibly be slightly different when you measure the 1cm span. This will impact the surface area confronted with the surrounding as well as the result may be different than it must be. Besides, the part of beetroot got also must be from the same part. If the sections happen to be taken for instance , from the part that is near the skin in the beetroot, the flesh is not hot. So , to create it standardize and fixed, the sections needs to be taken from the middle part which is the thickest and juiciest as the quantity of beta lain (red pigments) may possibly differ for different parts of the beetroot. Apart from that, when the beetroot is cut, there are dyes that leak out. The dye should have been laundered away by soaking the section of beetroot overnight. By simply washing it and simply wash it with distilled normal water, the color might be on the area of the beetroot. This will impact the result since the red pigments that your solution may come from the slashes not entirely because of the separated cell membrane layer. Last but not least, this particular bath heated is not consistently at the temperature necessary. Means that, the baths are fluctuated. This will result in the colors getting more or less kinetic energy that what they are likely to get. Therefore, the result is damaged.

Further Examine:

You will discover other ways to investigate the properties of cell membrane or what will impact the permeability of cell membranes. For example , the pH of the solute. The degree of pH affects the pigment of the beetroot; the color in the beetroot (betalain) diffuses out of the cell when the membrane proteins are damaged as a result of high acid level of ph level. The pH level is responsible for regulating the function in the protein in the cell membrane. The healthy proteins will be denatured at large alkalinity and acidity, and breaks downthe lipid bilayer. For example , if we use alcohol to investigate the effect of pH on the cellular membrane, even more alcohol employed, will result in more leakage of red colors of beetroot into the surrounding. This is because; alcohol is a fat-solvent. Thus, it will eventually dissolve the cell membrane is it consists of lipids.

Safety Precautions:

A lab layer must be put on during the research as the beetroot drink is a good color which can stain your skin and clothes desperately. Besides, you need to use all the apparatus properly especially the natural borer and the knife to prevent any damage or accidental injuries. While controlling the test pipes with drinking water bath, be sure to are within a suitable very safe distance with the water bathtub to avoid scalding or burn off. When you are taking measurements such as the volume of drinking water or the entire beetroot, make sure you read the reading carefully. The eyes should be at seite an seite with the instrument to avoid any kind of parallax error and affect the experiment. The cuvettes likewise must be handled with care. Ensure you wipe the graceful sides in the cuvette with out fingerprints are left behind as it can disturb the reading of colorimeter. The reading in the colorimeter has to be repeated three times to get a dependable result. Lastly, you must clean the parts of beetroot carefully to make sure you will find no red pigments put aside so that the end result will be far more reliable


When the cell membrane is encountered with high temperature, the membrane with the cell membrane will be broken down as the proteins and lipid bilayer is denatured and causing becoming poroso to chemicals. The speculation is acknowledged




* Edexcel AS Biology, Students publication, Pearson company, 2008 5. Edexcel Biology for BECAUSE, CJ Clegg, Hodder Education, 2008 2.





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You can even be interested in the following: effect of alcohol on beetroot cell membrane experiment


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