biochemistry and biology form 5 essay
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Each of the objects which exist around all of us are made up of chemical compounds. These items exist an element, compound or mixture. All of these objects contribute benefit to human kind. In the future, human has done many researches to ensure all these chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves. Chapter 9 of Form some syllabus features the students with manufactured chemicals in sector.
This is important to get the students to understand the knowledge of chemistry that may be still fresh for themselves.
Personally, I think that the chapter can be an interesting chapter as it uncovered the way of scientist produces the fabric around me. It also gives new knowledges of the uses of chemical compounds that I usually found in the laboratories. I really hope, by learning this phase, I will be more interested in learning biochemistry and biology as it can help me later on. All the equations from this phase make me more understand with the previous chapters.
2. Understand the produce of sulphuric acid.
2. Synthesise the manufacture of ammonia as well as salts.
5. Understand alloys.
* Assess the uses of synthetic plastic.
* Apply the uses of cup and ceramics.
* Measure the uses of composite materials.
* Appreciate several synthetic professional materials.
ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN PURE METALLIC
* Pure metal can be soft rather than very strong.
* Atoms of pure metals possess similar style and are organized closely although there is continue to space between atoms. 2. When power is used on pure metals, the atoms slide along one another conveniently. * This kind of property triggers pure material to be ductile, that is, it can be stretched in a wire. 2. When bumped or hammered, metal atoms slide along one another to fill areas between the metal atoms. 2. This real estate causes genuine metal being malleable, that may be, it can be bumped or pressed into different desired styles.
MEANING OF ALLOYS
5. An combination is a mixture of two or more metals mixed in a specific percentage. OR PERHAPS * An alloy is known as a substance produced from a combination of metal and also other elements. OR PERHAPS * A great alloy is known as a solid remedy that contains at least 1 metal. Generally an metal will contain only two or more metals, sometimes alloys contain one or more alloys along with a nonmetal. * Another atom (impurity atom) may be atoms of other precious metals or non-metals such as carbon and si. * The mixing atoms of impurities with atoms of natural metal simply by melting is referred to as alloying.
USES OF MAKING ALLOYS
Alloys are meant to
2. Increase the strength and hardness of the metal
* Prevent corrosion of the metal
* Enhance the appearance with the metal in order that it is more attractive.
ALLOY| PURE METAL ATOM| MAIN FOREIGN ATOM|
STEEL| 00% IRON| 1% CARBON|
STAINLESS STEEL| 74% IRON| 18% CHROME, 8% CARBON|
BRONZE| 90% COPPER| 10% TIN|
BRASS| 70% COPPER| 30% ZINC|
PEWTER| 97% TIN| 2% COPPER1% ANTIMONY|
DURALUMIN| 93% ALUMINIUM| 3% COPPER3% MAGNESIUM1% MANGANESE| COPPER NICKEL| 73% COPPER| 25% NICKEL|
ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN ALLOYS
* Impurity atoms that happen to be mixed may be larger or smaller than atoms of genuine metal. * Impurity atoms fill the empy places between the atoms in genuine metal. 2. Impurity atoms can stop the layers of metal atoms from slipping along one other easily. * Due to this, an alloy is definitely harder, stronger, less ductile and less malleable than it is pure metal.
EXPERIMENT TO COMPARE THE HARDNESS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ALLOY AND A NATURAL METAL
TRY THINGS OUT TO REVIEW RATE OF RUSTING BETWEEN IRON, STEEL & STAINLESS-STEEL
SOME EXAMPLES OF ALLOYS, THEIR COMPOSITION, HOUSES AND ITS USES
ALLOYS| COMPOSITION| PROPERTIES| USES OF ALLOYS|
CARBON DIOXIDE STEEL| 99% IRON1% CARBON| HARDSTRONG| 5. FRAMEWORK OF BUILDINGS & BRIDGES * FRAMEWORK OF HEAVY MACHINERY & BODY SYSTEM OF VEHICLES| STAINLESS STEEL| 74% IRON18% CHROMIUM8% NICKEL| SHINYSTRONGRESIST RUSTING| * PRODUCING CUTTLERY & KITCHEN WARE| MAGNALIUM| 70% ALUMINIUM30% MAGNESIUM| LIGHTHARDSTRONG| 2. MAKING AIRCRAFTS| PEWTER| 97% TIN3% WATER PIPING, ANTIMONY| LUSTROUSSTRONG| * PRODUCING MUGS, CANDLE LIGHT STICK & SOUVENIERS| SOLDER| 50% TIN50% LEAD| HARDSHINYLOW MELTING POINT| * MAKING OF SOLDER FOR ELECTRIC POWERED WIRES| CUPRO-NICKEL| COPPER, PENNIE. % ACCORDING TO COLOUR| HARDSHINYRESIST CORROSION| * PRODUCING COINS|
MEANING OF POLYMERS
* Polymers will be long organizations of molecule made from combos of many tiny molecules. OR * Polymers can be defined as significant molecules composedof numerous more compact, repeating products known as monomers which are joined by covalent bonds. 2. Small substances that combine to form polymers are called monomers. * Polymerisation is a process of combining monomers to form a lengthy chain of molecules.
5. Polymers could be divided into two styles:
a) Natural plastic
b) Synthetic plastic
NATURAL POLYMER BONDED
2. A natural polymer is a plastic that occurs normally.
5. Natural polymers are normally of living microorganisms. NATURAL POLYMER| MONOMERS ( small substances )|
PROTEIN| AMINO ACID|
NUCLEIC ACID| NUCLEOTIDES|
* Synthetic (artificial) polymers will be man-made polymers that are produced from chemical compounds through polymerization. * Synthetic polymers are used extensively in daily life.
* Some examples of man made polymer and their monomer and their uses.
TYPES OF POLYMER| MONOMER| USES|
POLYTHENE| ETHENE| 2. MAKE ALSO, PLASTIC BAGS, RAINCOATS, MOTION PICTURES, BOWLS & RUBBISH RECEPTACLES. | POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)| CHLOROETHENE ( Vinyl Chloride )| 5. MAKE NORMAL WATER PIPES, ELECTRIC POWERED CABLES, PADS, VINYL RECORDS & CLOTHES HANGERS| POLYPROPENE| PROPENE| * MAKE ROPES, WINE BOTTLES, CHAIRS, DRINK CANS & CARPETS| PERSPEX| METHYL-2-METHYLPROPENOATE(
Methyl methacrylate )| 5. MAKE CAR WINDSCREENS, AIRCRAFT WINDOW PANES & SPECTACLE LENSES (optical instruments)| NYLON| ADIPIC ACID & HEXANEDIAMINE| * PRODUCE ROPES, WINDOW TREATMENTS, STOKINGS & CLOTHES| POLYSTYRENE| STYRENE| 5. MAKE PACKING BOXES, BUTTONS & NOTICEBOARDS|
EFFECTS OF THE DISPOSAL OF THINGS MADE FROM SYNTHETIC POLYMERS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
1 . Synthetic polymers are not eco-friendly (not deconstructed by microorganisms ). installment payments on your The careless disposal of things made from synthetic polymers just like plastic triggers environmental air pollution. 3. The consequence of burning & careless convenience of items produced from synthetic polymers on the environments are the following:
a) Burning of artificial polymers
* Produces pollutants that endanger overall health such as smoking, gases which can be smelly, poisonous & corrosive such as sulphur dioxide, contaminants that cause acid rainwater & the greenhouse effect.
b) Careless disposal of synthetic polymers
5. Spoils beauty of the environment
* Causes flash massive amounts during heavy rainfall
* Endangers marine life just like turtles that accidentally consume polymers including plastic as its food.
4. The best way to take care of used items made from synthetic polymers is to recycle them. 5. Plastics that are eco-friendly can be used rather to reduce environmental pollution.
GOBLET AND CERAMICS
* The main element of both goblet and hard is silica or si dioxide, SiO2, which is extracted from sand. 5. Both glass and porcelain have the same real estate as follow a) Hard and frail
b) Inert to reactions
c) Insulators or perhaps poor conductors of heat and electricity
d) Tolerate compression but is not stretching
e) May be easily washed
f) Low cost of production
* several main variations between a glass and hard:
* Glass can be heated right up until molten regularly but not ceramics * Cup is usually transparent whereas ceramics are not
* Goblet has a reduced melting point than ceramics
USES OF GLASS
USES OF PORCELAIN
TYPES OF A GLASS
a) FUSED SILICA GLASS
b) SODA-LIME GLASS
c) BOROSILICATE GLASS
d) LEAD VERY GLASS
* Composite materials are made out of the mix of two or more several compounds just like alloys, precious metals, glass, polymers & ceramics. * The characteristics of the developed material are more outstanding than those original components. * Several instances of composite materials & their uses are:
a) Reinforced concrete
* Made from an assortment of cement, gravel, sand, water, iron or perhaps steel to make nets, fishing rods or bars. * Solid, high tensile strength & affordable
* Construction material for buildings, bridges, highways & dams
b) Fibre glass
* Made out of silica, SiO2, sodium carbonate, Na2Co3, and calcium carbonate, CaCo3 5. Good insulator of heat & electricity
* Used to make protective apparel for astronauts & firefighters.
c) Fibre optical technologies
5. Made from a glass, copper & aluminium
* Permits information to be transmitted because form for high speeds (speed of light) * Used in the field of communications to create electrical wires and in the field of drugs to observe bodily organs without executing surgery.
d) Ceramic cup
2. Produced by subjecting glass which contains certain amount of metals to ultraviolet light & heating system it for high temperatures. 5. Withstand heat
* Used to generate cooking supplies & skyrocket heads
e) Photochromic cup
2. Produced from smelted silica that is mixed with slightly silver chloride, AgCl 2. Dark in colour when exposed to light ( ultraviolet ray ) & dazzling when in the dark. * Used to make opticl lenses & glass windows (windshields) of specific vehicles.
Evaluating the Homes of Fibers Glass having its original pieces
The process of making glass and fiberglass
The majority of glass is a mixture of a lot of silica that derived from good white sand or pulverized sandstone, combined with smaller sized amounts of an alkali like soda (sodium bicarbonate) or potash to decrease its shedding point, and lime (from limestone) to assist stabilize the mixture and eventually make the a glass vigorous and water-resistant
At the most basic level, a follicle, or fiber, of glass, can be shaped bytaking smelted glass (made by burning silica fine sand, limestone, and soda ash, along with recycled glass) and driving it by using a small opening. Commercial fiberglass production engages a platinum bushing with up to 3 thousand gaps in this, creating three thousand fibres at a time. Although glass is definitely brittle, these kinds of fibers will be pretty adaptable, because they are so thin.
Advantage of using Photochromic glass inside the making of spectacles
Photochromatic lenses happen to be activated by UV the radiation. Thus it will eventually darken the glasses so that it can stop our eye from direct lights that leads to retinal damages or Photophobia.
Besides that, Photochromic lens are great for the ones that wear spectacles, who can not really wear sunglasses unless they can be prescription. With photochromic lenses, we can hold just one set of sunglasses or perhaps goggles for any day as well as night