case study osteoarthritis with a total knee

Category: Health and fitness,
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DN is a 68 year old Black male whom lives in Pomona, Missouri. In September 13, 2009, DN underwent a scheduled left total knee arthroplasty at Baxter Region Regional Clinic. A consultation appointment about a total knee arthroplasty was slated when DN had elevating pain in the knees while doing jobs and focusing on his dairy farm. The increasing discomfort DN was having been due to a history of osteoarthritis and the wear-and-tear in the joints through his lifestyle, no particular injury was noted.

With respect to the outcome of the left knee, DN was consulted in having his right knees done in the near future due to his active way of living as a milk farmer. DN is at present in very good health in spite of his soreness from osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis can be caused from usage on the joints. The bone fragments between a joint is definitely cushioned by simply cartilage which will after many years of use decreases. If the bones no more have the cushioning, pain and stiffness grows when the bone tissues rub with each other (Total Knee Replacement, 2009).

His health record includes conquering prostate tumor approximately six to eight many years ago.

After a prostatectomy to remove his cancer, DN continues to encounter erectile dysfunction possibly after seeing a large number of specialists aiming many therapies. In 1999, DN had his appendix removed at Ozark Medical Center. DN has a herniorrhaphy and cataract surgery just before this hospitalization. DN has no known allergies to medications, food, or perhaps environmental contaminants in the air. The patient lives at home with his wife on the dairy farmville farm. He deals with about 170 head of dairy cows that are milked twice per day. He retired from Howell-Oregon County Electric powered approximately five years ago to assist manage his farm on the full time basis. DN fantastic wife raised three kids and have a lot of grandchildren who also come and visit regularly. DN does not have any kind of significant great nicotine, liquor, or drug use. His diet features consisted of fresh fruits and fruit and vegetables from the garden throughout his life. These types of factors have the ability to played an important part in helping DN stay healthy with no underlying persistent disease procedures.

Physical Evaluation

My physical assessment was performed about September 18, 2009. DN’s vital signs consisted of a great apical heart beat of 98, a breathing rate of 20, a temperature of 99. you degrees F, an oxygen saturation of 96%, a lying blood pressure of 117/78, a sitting down blood pressure of 116/75, and a position blood pressure of 116/74. Patient was alert and focused to person, place, time, and condition. Patient surely could spell WORLD forward and backwards. PERLA and noted cardinal field of look were undamaged. Eyes had been clear with conjunctiva pink and no launch noted. Patient’s head and face was symmetrical without apparent pores and skin breakdown. Sufferer had denture intact in mouth with healthy, green gums without having lesions present inside the mouth. Thorax was symmetrical with no signs of pulsations or lesions. Breath sounds clear in all of the lobes. Unlabored breaths. Cardiovascular sounds S1, S2 had been heard after auscultation in all of the four heart failure areas with normal rhythm. Abdominal is smooth, symmetrical with hypoactive bowel sounds within all four quadrants. Last bowel movement was on On the, September 13. Patient was passing flatus.

No people, distention, or lesions mentioned on the belly. No pain was observed in the stomach. No edema was observed in the higher or reduced extremities. Upper and lower extremities had no sign of lesions or staining. Saline locked on still left forearm was intact without redness or perhaps swelling. Surgical incision upon lower remaining extremity got scant numbers of serosanguineous draining, wound ends were well-approximated, slight erythemateous around incision, no scent present, and dressing was dry and intact. Signal were good and equivalent bilaterally- including carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibialis. Skin was warm and pink with no signs of cyanosis, rash, or perhaps skin breakdown. Gait was symmetrical and coordinated when using a master, without the supportive device there may be some unsteadiness due to the still left total knee arthroplasty. There is no experiencing deficit observed with usual conversation. Sufferer only experienced complaints of pain in surgical internet site after ambulation, physical therapy and also the CPM. Patient was taught he could just ask for the pain treatments prior to these types of events to hopefully avoid intense soreness.

Current Medications

Throughout DN’s hospital stay he was prescribed medicine to ease the soreness caused from the overall knee arthroplasty, help prevent virtually any infection that had potential to be a problem, and prevent any complications. DN’s urrent medicines while in the hospital were the following: 1 . ) Docusate-Senna (Trade Name: Peri-Colace) 1 tablet by mouth, twice a day; intended for softening and passage of stool to get the relief of obstipation caused by content operative ease and lowered activity (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007). 2 . ) Enoxaparin (Trade Identity: Lovenox) 40 mg by subcutaneous injection, once every single morning; employed for the prevention of thrombosis formation (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007). a few. ) Psyllium (Trade Term: Metamucil) 1 tablespoon orally, twice every day; used for pain relief and avoidance of obstipation (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007).

4. ) Acetaminophen-Oxycodone (Trade Name: Percocet 5/325) 1-2 tablets orally, every several hours; intended for decreasing discomfort as well as lessening a heat (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007). 5. ) Magnesium Hydroxide (Trade Name: Milk of Magnesia) 30 mL orally as needed; used for replacement unit in a poor state or perhaps evacuation of the colon (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007). 6th. ) Morphine (Trade Term: Astramorph) almost eight mg simply by intravenous piggyback, every 3 hours while needed; employed for a decline in the seriousness of soreness (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007). 7. ) Promethazine (Trade Name: Phenergan) 12. a few mg simply by intravenous count on, every 4 hours as needed; utilized for diminishing nausea and throwing up, as well as offer some sleep (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007).

Diagnostic Checks

DN had diagnostic assessments prior to becoming admitted to the hospital to get his total knee arthroplasty to determine the best treatment option option for his osteoarthritis. After his surgical treatment, more classification tests were done to monitor for complications of the procedure. The results were compared to typical and had been as follows intended for the patient: 1 . ) Light Blood Skin cells (Normal Value: 5, 000-10, 000/mm3) Person’s white bloodstream cell depend was doze, 800/mm3, a high value. This value indicates the stress on the body and infection around the knees involved after the operation. The significance is also a possible indicator of infection, which will would need continued monitoring (Pagana & Pagana, 2006). 2 . ) Red Blood Cell Count (Normal Worth: 4. 7-6. 1×106/l) Person’s red blood cell count number was three or more. 74×106/l, the low benefit. This worth indicates the blood lost during surgery, which is a common finding after an invasive surgery.

A decreased level may indicate a hemorrhage, overhydration, or a dietary deficiency, which may have to be corrected (Pagana & Pagana, 2006). 3. ) Hemoglobin (Normal Worth: 14-18 g/dL) Patient’s hemoglobin was 14. 8 g/dL, which is a low value. This kind of value is a frequent finding following surgery because of the blood loss, nevertheless the value could also indicate anemia or health deficiency (Pagana & Pagana, 2006). four. ) Hematocrit (Normal Worth: 42-52%) Person’s hematocrit was 34. 4%, which is a low value. This is certainly a normal getting after surgical treatment, but might indicate anemia, malnutrition, or possibly a dietary deficiency that may should be corrected (Pagana & Pagana, 2006). five. ) Indicate Corpuscular Hemoglobin (Normal Value: 27-31 pg) Patient’s suggest corpuscular hemoglobin was 31. 8 pg, which is just slightly raised. This value could possibly indicate a macrocytic anemia, but is not elevated enough to be a significant concern (Pagana & Pagana, 2006).

Fundamental Conditioning Elements and Electrical power Components

Dorthea Orem pinpoints ten standard conditioning elements that discover the patient and help assess the requirement of care in her Self-Care Deficit Theory of Medical. The basic health and fitness factors identified by Orem consist of era, gender, Erikson’s developmental state, health point out, sociocultural positioning, health care system factors, friends and family system elements, patterns of living, environmental factors, and availability of assets (Caton, 2008). DN can be described as 68 year old Caucasian man who lives in Pomona, Missouri where he wonderful wife own a house. DN grew up in Dora, Missouri where he managed to graduate high school, then relocated to Pomona when justin was nineteen. DN has 3 grown children and several grandchildren. DN’s family members remains very close and go to often to in which DN lives. DN give up his work at Howell-Oregon Electric in 1980 to become full time player. DN and his wife very own approximately three hundred acres to operate a dairy and beef cattle farmville farm with 169 head of cattle.

That they milk the cows twice a day keeping them extremely active during the day. DN views himself being in the middle-class economically, but with the unpredictable cattle marketplace economic status can change all year round. DN offers Medicare while primary insurance with supplements. Before his admission to the hospital, DN’s health condition was very good. DN’s medical system factors consist of a medical diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Treating choice to get DN was a left total knee substitute. After release, home health will help plan physical therapy closer to home. DN does not possess any root diseases, just like hypertension or diabetes, which can cause issues or alter the ability of DN to possess a speedy restoration.

He contains a primary doctor in Willow Springs intended for yearly check-ups and minimal problems. DN’s patterns of living include hunting and fishing, gonna church, and taking care of the farm. DN does not smoking or drink alcohol. According to Erikson, he can in a developing stage of ego sincerity versus give up hope (Berman ainsi que al., 2007). DN goes in this psychosocial developmental level because he is at a stage where he is definitely content with his life and satisfied with everything that has occurred in his existence thus far. They can reflect on his past with no regret. DN feels as though he provides lived a life filled with happiness.

Orem identifies 10 power components that are important in considering how much nursing care is required by the sufferer. The five power pieces consist of focus span and vigilance, control over physical energy, control of physique movements, capability to reason, determination for action, making decisions skills, understanding, repertoire of skills, capability to order self-care actions, and ability to combine self-care activities into habits of living (Caton, 2008). DN’s focus span advertisement vigilance is a strength mainly because throughout the physical assessment and health background, he continued to be very mindful and genuine when answering the inquiries. His control over physical strength is a potential weakness due to the fatigue DN could encounter after his knee replacement unit. After surgical procedure, becoming fatigued is easier due to the pain and inability to acquire a good evening of rest inside the hospital. DN seemed to know his limits with what sort of physical energy he had to work with throughout his stay.

The patient’s charge of body movements is a durability. Even though DN is recovering from a total leg replacement, he maintains good control over his movements. This individual also has a steady gait when walking having a supportive gadget. The person’s ability to purpose is a strength. When he required help, this individual knew to inquire his wife, a registered nurse, or an aide pertaining to help. This individual understood that Home Overall health would be a gain once he was discharged from your hospital. Determination for action happens to be a strength. DN was incredibly motivated to get back on his feet when he could. He knew physical therapy was what would help the the majority of so he was always all set to go when physical therapy came to consider him to the Joint Team. After coming back after a vacation to physical therapy, the person stated, “The physical therapist said I had better than all of the other people with leg replacements. 

The person’s decision making expertise were power because he got all choices into consideration prior to getting his knees replacement. This individual knew it might be the best option together with the active lifestyle that he has. Understanding was a potential deficit to get the patient as they had under no circumstances had a leg replacement surgical treatment before. The person was knowledgeable of all the methods, hospital stay, and anticipated outcomes during consultation visits, but all the details at once may be overwhelming to get the patient. Actually after the surgery, the patient even now questioned the health care associates throughout the hospital stay to refresh his memory. Show of abilities is a durability because the sufferer has a secondary school education, in addition to the same occupation throughout his life.

They can retain info and duplicate skills in the event that needed. DN’s ability to order self-care activities is a strength because he has the capacity to decide what actions are most important and follow through with them. He chosen to have his knee surgical treatment to advantage his life-style and made this a priority to get it done as soon as he can. The ability to incorporate self-care activities into his patterns of living is actually a strength to get DN. He integrates healthful eating and lively lifestyle to avoid complications of his osteoarthritis. After attempting minor treatment plans to control discomfort and pain from the osteoarthritis, DN wanted surgical treatment and he knows the physical therapy he will have to integrate into his life-style for full recovery.

Universal Self-Care Requirements

Orem’s Standard Theory of Nursing consists of self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing devices. Orem’s meaning of self-care is what people prepare and do on their own behalf to take care of life, overall health, and wellbeing. The breastfeeding systems that Orem recognizes are totally compensatory, to some extent compensatory, and supportive-educative. The universal self-care requisites that patient might be deficient, probably deficient, or a strength in consists of air, water, meals, elimination, activity and rest, solitude and social connection, prevention of hazards to human existence, and normalcy (Berman ain al., 2007).

Air: Potential Deficit

Air is a potential deficit with this patient. Upon assessment, his respiratory level was inside normal selection at 20 breaths per minute. Normal respirations for age group of the client range from 15 – 20 per minute (Berman et ‘s., 2007). You will have a stable breathing rate among this level, but with decrease red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit the patient’s oxygen level may increase to compensate pertaining to the lack of cells that can take the oxygen, specifically during essential. DN’s chest sounds when ever auscultated had been clear in every lobes, bilaterally. A critical unwanted effect of morphine, one of the medicines DN was taking while in the hospital, can be respiratory major depression, which can happen in a matter of moments causing a deficit (Deglin & Vallerand, 2007).

Drinking water: Strength

Water is a strength for DN. No edema was observed upon evaluation. Good skin turgor was indicative that there was adequate hydration for the patient. DN’s average consumption was 2k mL of fluids, generally water and ice tea. This was within normal range with the requirements being set at a minimum of 1500 milliliters of essential fluids daily (Berman et al., 2007).

Meals: Strength

Foodstuff is a durability for the individual. The patient was on a regular diet plan and had no trouble eating. In some situations, his better half brought dishes to the affected person. DN eats a healthy diet, packed with fruits and vegetables by his own garden when ever home. Necessary protein consumed in the diet generally consists of incredibly lean beef from home grown cattle. DN consumed enough calories to aid in restoration of his surgery.

Elimination: Deficit

Eradication is a trouble for the person. He have not had a bowel movement since the day just before he had the surgery. DN had an epidural anesthesia until the first working day post-op and is also taking narcotic analgesics pertaining to pain control, which both equally contributed to the impaired removal. The side effects from the medication cause the intestines to diminish peristalsis. Monitoring bowel functions, as well as administer the feces softeners and laxatives that are ordered, will be two essential nursing interventions (Lemone & Burke, 2008).

Activity and Rest: Shortfall

The patient a new deficit in both activity and relax. The patient explained he was not getting adequate others in the medical center due to the distinct environment as well as the pain he was experiencing from his surgical procedure. In the hospital, the patient was also put on activity constraints due to his total leg arthroplasty. He was able to head to physical therapy 3 x a day, yet normal activities were limited for DN. At home DN does not have got activity or rest shortfall, he participates in an effective lifestyle with a lot of walking and daily physical labor. He also gets approximately several or almost eight hours of sleep a night which is enough for a guy his age group (Berman ain al., 2007).

Solitude and Social Conversation: Potential Debt

The patient would not have a deficit with social conversation. His partner was in the area majority of enough time and this individual also got many persons drop in and see him throughout his hospital stay. DN also interacted with individuals on the health care team, if it was the nurses or physical therapists, having been always creating a conversation with someone. Because of the many visitors and actions DN got during the day, isolation was a potential deficit. The physical therapists and healthcare professionals that came in the room consistently produce it difficult to get the patient to get any moment to rest and relax by himself. Adequate others is easier to have when there are no interruptions in the relax period and a few solitude is definitely allowed.

Risk Prevention: Shortfall

Hazard elimination is a debt for DN. The total knees arthroplasty causes the patient to get at an elevated risk for disease due to all the invasive types of procedures done. Prophylactic antibiotics were being considered to help prevent any illness that may develop. The patient is additionally at risk pertaining to falls. The intravenous series and pole make it difficult for the patient to ambulate on his own although dealing with his surgery. The medications DN were taking could cause misunderstandings, dizziness, and sedation which could lead to an autumn. The patient is usually at risk to get a deep problematic vein thrombus due to the surgery, which could be a perilous complication if not avoided. Compression tights and devices were accustomed to decrease the chance of venous stasis.

Promotion of Normality: Shortfall

Promotion of normality is known as a deficit intended for the patient. He has just been hospitalized two also in his life and feels uncomfortable. As DN can be not used to staying in the medical center, he is hesitant to ask for discomfort medication until the pain is already present. Teaching DN to request the pain medicine just before activities so when he identifies the pain coming back. DN’s normal regimen at home will probably be changed to allow for for the knee medical procedures he went through. He will need to adjust to the limitations on his actions until he can fully recovered. For example , he may have to depend on his partner and other loved ones to help dairy the deer and take care of the farm right up until he provides full range of movement so this individual does not destruction his newly replaced leg.

Developmental Self-Care Requisites

Developing self-care requirements are linked to conditions that result in growth (Berman ain al., 2007). DN offers lived a long, productive existence and many life-changing events occurred throughout his life. He graduated secondary school and worked well multiple jobs which offered him the experience he necessary to now be a self-employed farmer. He wonderful wife raised a family with three kids, and now possess several grandchildren. All of these different facets in DN life have got helped DN mature, which will puts him in a developing stage of ego integrity versus hopelessness. According to Erikson, persons in this stage should have approval of their your life and self-worth (Berman ou al., 2007).

DN seems very satisfied with everything that features happened in the life. They can reminisce regarding the things that have happened in his life having a smile. This individual does not include any regrets about his life. At this moment in DN’s life, he is always thinking of others and enjoying the little things in life. Even though DN is in this kind of developmental level, he has not fully finished this level. DN is at a position where he still works and provides to get his relatives. He is not ready to leave his friends and family at this point in his life.

Health Deviation Self-Care Requisites

According to Orem, there are six health deviation self-care requirements. The health attention deviation self-care requisites contain seeking and securing medical help as needed, responsibly focusing on the effects and results of pathologic conditions, effectively performing prescribed interventions, responsibly focusing on the dangerous effects resulting from prescribed interventions, accepting the very fact that occasionally self or perhaps others require medical help when facing certain lifestyle challenges, and learning to live productively with all the effects of pathological conditions and treatments whilst promoting continued personal development (Caton, 2007). The individual is good in seeking and protecting medical help when needed. When the patient realized his soreness was raising in his leg, he scheduled an appointment along with his family doctor who referred him to Dr . Know the orthopedic surgeon. The patient is also liable in attending to the effects and results of pathologic conditions. The patient is aware of the physical therapy regime he needs to finish for complete recovery, and also the preventive measures he needs to decide on protect his right leg. The third well being deviation self-care requisite should be to effectively execute prescribed concours, which is a power for the sufferer.

DN understands he will continue with physical therapy after launch on the medical center and will be over a few prescription medications. Other concours, such as using TED lines, limiting activities, and enabling home wellness to help along with his care, can all be then the patient. The fourth health deviation self-care essential is to conscientiously attend to the regulation of results resulting from prescribed interventions can be described as potential deficit. Even though the sufferer stated he can do the concours asked of him, the task of according to others to get help might be difficult. As a farmer, it is difficult to let somebody else do the chores the patient is normally doing on a regular basis. The 6th health deviation self-care essential is acknowledging the fact that sometimes home or others need medical help once faced with selected life difficulties.

This well being deviation self-care requisite is actually a strength to get the patient. Once DN realized his knee was not functioning at the level he necessary it also, he wanted help by professionals after trying option treatments. When DN experienced his prostatic removed because of prostate tumor, he also pursued support from various specialists to cope with the many complications a prostatectomy can cause. The sixth well being deviation self-care requisite can be learning to live productively with all the effects of pathologic conditions and treatments while promoting ongoing personal development. This is certainly a durability for the DN because he looks forward to having better function in his knee to live a much more productive existence. The duties he does on the farm were getting difficult while using increasing discomfort in his knees prior to the surgery. The patient right now talks with excitement about getting back out on the farm to perform the things he loves to carry out.

Nursing Analysis

I. Medical Diagnosis #1: Acute Pain related to tissues trauma due to surgery and intense essential regime since evidenced by patient verbalizing his pain an eight on a 1-10 scale. a. Expected Result: Patient verbalizes relief of pain since less than a three or more on a 1-10 scale at least half an hour after operations of pain medication. my spouse and i. Intervention #1: Assess the patient’s description of pain and effectiveness of pain-relieving affluence. 1 . Rationale: Assessing pain description leads to the best concours to control the pain, and also assess for any complications having a different soreness description. Every single patient includes a right to powerful pain relief (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). 2. Intervention #2: Instruct the individual to ask for pain medicine before the pain becomes extreme. 2 . Explanation: Relief is going to take longer in case the patient waits until the pain is too extreme (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007).

The best discomfort control can be proactive, not really reactive. 3. Intervention #3: Administer narcotic analgesics while ordered by doctor. three or more. Rationale: With all the tissue damage performed during surgical treatment, the doctor should presume the patient is within pain and wishes analgesics (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). a. Implementation/Evaluation: Health professional assessed the patient’s information of pain to properly treat the pain symptoms. Nurse taught the patient the request the pain medication at the start pain to minimize the amount of time it takes to start out working. The goal was met because the patient verbalized his pain less than a several on a 1-10 scale inside 30 minutes of administration of pain medicine. b. Expected Outcome: Individual appears secure as confirmed by a shortage of facial grimacing and use of stress management methods between dosages of discomfort medication and throughout medical center stay. 4. Intervention #1: Nurse will certainly teach individual to use well guided imagery and progressive rest. 4. Reason: Use of well guided imagery and progressive rest will distract patient in the pain he can experiencing (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). sixth is v. Intervention #2: Nurse is going to teach individual to change situation frequently.

five. Rationale: Changing positions (within limits) can relieve pressure and pain on bony prominences, reduce muscle spasm, and undue tension (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). vi. Intervention #3: Nurse will certainly apply ice cubes packs as ordered. six. Rationale: Making use of ice packages may reduce edema and enhance comfort and ease (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). b. Implementation/Evaluation: Nurse educated the patient different comfort measure to relieve soreness in between doasage amounts of pain medication. Applying repositioning and relaxation procedures helped the sufferer stay comfy between doasage amounts of discomfort medication. The goal was met. 2. Nursing Prognosis #2: Impaired physical range of motion related to discomfort after medical procedure as confirmed by limited ability to ambulate. c. Expected Outcome: Affected person will preserve optimal mobility within restrictions throughout hospital stay. vii. Intervention #1: Assess postoperative range of motion in affected and unaffected joint parts.

7. Reason: Assessment of range of motion can give a baseline to see if the patient is definitely improving. Range of motion exercises are important to strengthen afflicted joint (within limitations) and unaffected joints need to preserve current mobility in periods of decreased activity because joints with arthritis lose function quicker (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). viii. Treatment #2: Health professional will assist patient to ambulate with significantly less assistance since tolerated. almost 8. Rationale: This will allow for patient to become more independent just before discharge (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). ix. Intervention #3: Nurse will certainly encourage the patient to move from the bed for the chair while tolerated, and also ambulate within the room three times per day. 9. Improvement will be watched toward usual activities individual will do once discharged in the hospital (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). c. Implementation/Evaluation: Nurse assessed postoperative range of motion to have a baseline of function. Improvement was mentioned throughout move that the affected person was able to exercise independently. deb. Expected End result: Patient participates in rehabilitation program throughout hospital stay. x. Treatment #1: Assess the patient’s fear or panic in ambulating and gonna physical therapy.

12. Rationale: In the event the patient’s anxiety and stress is too great, the patient might not exactly get the full benefit of essential and is at a greater exposure to possible falls or perhaps other accidental injuries (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xi. Treatment #2: Nurse will inspire use of encouraging walking gadgets, such as a walker. 11. Explanation: Use of a walker will assist the patient truly feel more independent and prompted to go to essential as ordered. More weight bearing will progress throughout the make use of walker (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xii. Intervention #3: Nurse will reinforce guidance for rehabilitative activities since ordered. doze. Rationale: Reinforcing instructions may help the patient achieve mobility throughout the hospital stay and abide by the physical therapy program (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). d. Implementation/Evaluation: The patient was thinking about physical therapy and gaining full mobility of affected lower leg. He participated in the rehabilitation program and was able to go back home on schedule, therefore the goal was met.

III. Nursing Analysis #3: Self-care deficit linked to impaired freedom as confirmed by incapability to perform activities of everyday living, such as shower, bathing, and ambulate individually. e. Predicted Outcome #1: Patient can safely conduct all self-care activities of daily living independently before release. xiii. Input #1: Nurse will measure the patient’s capacity to perform actions of daily living. 13. Explanation: This will provide a baseline to know where the goal deficits in the patient’s performance of ADLs and help registered nurse assist with the patient’s demands (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xiv. Input #2: Help the patient in accepting support from other folks. 14. Reason: The patient may want to realize after having a total knee replacement, some assistance might be needed and dependence on persons or supportive devices may be necessary temporarily (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xv. Input #3: Registered nurse will implement measures to facilitate self-reliance, but be around to help sufferer when needed.

15. Rationale: Supplying the patient independence will help inspire patient to try ADLs by himself, but with assistance when needed will prevent falls or perhaps other traumas (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). e. Implementation/Evaluation: Nurse assessed the person’s ability to conduct activities of daily living and realized in which the patient necessary assistance. Sufferer was urged to do ADLs on his own, but for recognize and have for help if this individual needed this. Patient was able to ambulate on his own the bathroom, conduct most actions independently, nevertheless required several help coming from his partner by discharge. This aim was fulfilled because the affected person realized when he needed support and performed all ADLs safely by discharge. farreneheit. Expected Final result #2: Methods are determined that are within optimizing the autonomy and independence from the patient by simply discharge in the hospital. xvi. Intervention #1: Nurse will assess what assistance will probably be needed if the patient can be discharged.

16. Rationale: This will be helpful to the patient and also other caregivers to realize deficits right up until they are conquer (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xvii. Intervention #2: Nurse will inspire patient to use assistive devices until not needed anymore, and reassure patient apply of them can prevent declines and accidental injuries. 17. Reason: This allows sufferer to know total independence is not expected just because the person is being dismissed (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xviii. Input #3: Doctor will help the patient set short-run goals to becoming more impartial. 18. Explanation: Setting short-run goals can decrease the stress the patient may well have in not being able to complete activities he could do before surgery (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). f. Implementation/Evaluation: Nurse assessed what assistance may be required to help with actions of everyday living. Patient utilized assistive products and help via others if he recognized this individual could not carry out them individually. Short term goals were established and affected person was able to become discharged which has a walker and home well being services. This kind of expected end result was achieved.

IV. Nursing Diagnosis #4: Risk for ineffective tissue perfusion related to surgical treatment and damaged physical range of motion. g. Anticipated Outcome: Patient maintains satisfactory tissue perfusion and remains free from profound vein thrombosis, as confirmed by nice extremities, great capillary fill up, bilaterally equivalent pulses, adverse Homan’s sign, and steady vital indicators. xix. Intervention #1: Examine neurovascular status of damaged limb preoperatively and postoperatively, as well as evaluate for signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis. 19. Explanation: Preoperatively set up a baseline should be proven and evaluating for adjustments postoperatively will be indication of the problem. Signs and symptoms could be an early indication of your blood clog which leads to early input (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xx. Input #2: Registered nurse will assist patient in employing thromboembolic disease support hoses and sequential compression products as approved. 20. Antiembolic devices, such as TED hose and SCDs, increase venous blood flow to the heart and minimize venous stasis, which could stop a blood clot (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007).

xxi. Intervention #3: Nurse is going to administer thrombolytic and anticoagulant agents while ordered. 21. Rationale: Prophylactic anticoagulants will reduce the risk of deep problematic vein thrombosis and thrombolytic medicines may decrease the complications if the blood clot does develop (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). g. Implementation/Evaluation: Patient was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively for neurovascular status. Individual was watched closely for just about any signs of ineffective tissue perfusion. Nurse motivated use of antiembolic devices and patient followed regimen. The goal was met mainly because ineffective cells perfusion has not been a problem and never deep line of thinking thrombosis designed. V. Medical Diagnosis #5: Deficient know-how related to a brand new procedure and unfamiliar with the discharge prepare as proved by patient questioning medical team members about the process. they would. Expected End result: Patient verbalizes understanding of treatment and relieve instructions.

xxii. Intervention #1: Assess the person’s current knowledge of process in hospital and discharge instructions. 22. This allows the nurse the individualize the educating plan for the person and instruct only what the patient will not understand (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xxiii. Intervention #2: Nurse can review total knee arthroplasty precautions relating to what the patient does not know already, for example , making use of the walker, keep proper bodyweight, and when to notify the physician. 23. Rationale: Researching the information is going to reinforce faithfulness to the treatment program (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). xxiv. Intervention #3: Nurse will certainly explain the discharge followup instructions, and reinforce the requirement to continue with home overall health for essential.

24. Reason: Home into the physical therapy will increase the patient’s strength to possess a full restoration. When the affected person understands the procedure, he will become more motivated to continue with the plan (Gulanick & Vallerand, 2007). h. Implementation/Evaluation: This goal was attained. The patient had a full knowledge of the limitations of any knee arthroplasty, in the clinic and after release. He comprehended the follow-up appointments and exactly how home health would help in his restoration. VI. Breastfeeding Diagnosis #6: Constipation associated with inactivity and medication use since evidenced simply by patient having frequent nevertheless nonproductive prefer to defecate. VII. Nursing Diagnosis #7: Risk for infection associated with invasive process. VIII. Breastfeeding Diagnosis #8: Risk for is catagorized related to unsteady gait and pain in left lower leg.

References

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