# Chemistry thermo lab, Hess’s Law Essay

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Introduction: In this lab, we will be determining the difference in enthalpy pertaining to the burning reaction of magnesium (Mg) using Hess’s law. Procedure: 1 . React regarding 100 mL of 1. 00 M hydrochloric acid with 0. 80 g of MgO.

Be aware the change in temperature and any qualitative data. 2 . React regarding 100 cubic centimeters of 1. 00 M hydrochloric acid with 0. 55 g of Mg. Notice the change in temperature and any qualitative data.

Organic Data: Quantitative: Reaction, trial Mass (± 0. 01 g) First temperature (± 0. 1â° C) Last temperature (± 0. 1â° C) Volume of HCl (± 0. 05 mL) Effect 1, Trial 1 zero. 80 22. 0 21. 9 90.

00 Effect 1, Trial 2 0. 80 22. 2 26. 9 75. 00 Effect 2, Trial 1 0. 50 21 years old. 6 forty-four. 4 90. 00 Effect 2, Trial 2 zero. 50 twenty-one. 8 43. 8 100. 00 Qualitative: 1 . Hydrochloric acid is usually colorless and odorless installment payments on your Magnesium strapping is shiny after washing it coming from oxidants, increasing its purity. 3. In both reactions, the solution started to be bubbly. some. There was a powerful odor in the reaction. Data Processing: Trial 1: Effect 1: Initially, we have to compute the? T by subtracting the final temperature by initial temperature: 1 ) 2 . three or more. Now we calculate the mass from the solution, supposing it has the density since water: 1 . 2 . three or more. 4. At this point, we can employ q=mc?

Capital t to determine the energy received by the option: 1 . installment payments on your 3. For that reason: 1 . Now, we have to estimate the number of moles for MgO: 1 . installment payments on your 3. We could now calculate the difference in enthalpy by simply dividing the q of the reaction by the moles in the limiting reagent: 1 . Today, we perform reaction a couple of, trial 1 so we could use Hess’s law to calculate the change in enthalpy of formation, but first we are going to calculate the uncertainty from this expression: Initially, we calculate the uncertainty for the: 1 . installment payments on your 3. Today for mass: 1 . 2 . As for the power gained: 1 ) 2 . At this point for the power of the effect: 1 . It really is multiplied by an integer (-1) it is therefore the same unc. As for the moles: 1 ) 2 . Finally, the difference in enthalpy: 1 . 2 . 3. Reaction two: First, we have to calculate the?

T by simply subtracting the ultimate temperature by simply initial temperatures: 1 . 2 . Now we calculate the mass in the solution, presuming it has the density because water: 1 . 2 . 3. Now, we can use q=mc? T to calculate the power gained by solution: 1 ) 2 . As a result: 1 . Today, we have to compute the number of skin moles for MgO: 1 . installment payments on your We can right now calculate the change in enthalpy by separating the queen of the response by the skin moles of the restricting reagent: 1 ) I will today calculate the uncertainties: 1st, we calculate the concern for the: 1 . 2 . Now for mass: 1 ) 2 . For the energy received: 1 . installment payments on your Now intended for the energy from the reaction: 1 . It is multiplied by a great integer (-1) so it is a similar unc.

Concerning the moles: 1 . installment payments on your Finally, the change in enthalpy: 1 . 2 . 3. Right now, we employ Hess’s law to estimate the change of enthalpy of development: 1 . MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) 2 . Mg (s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2 (g) 3. H2(g) + zero. 5 O2(g) H2O(l) (given) By curing reaction best, we can get each of our targeted reaction: Mg (s) + 0. 5 O2(g) MgO(s) Today to calculate the change of enthalpy, which will be the transform of enthalpy of creation? 1 . 2 . Our result is: 1 ) Mg (s) + 0. 5 O2(g) MgO(s) Random error and percent mistake: We can calculate the random error by simply adding the random problems of the aspect reactions: 1 ) 2 . three or more. As for the percent mistake: 1 . 2 . 3. Trial 2: Reaction 1: 1st, we have to compute the?

Big t by subtracting the final temperature by first temperature: 1 ) 2 . Now we compute the mass of the option, assuming it includes the density as normal water: 1 . 2 . 3. Right now, we can make use of q=mc? To to compute the energy received by the answer: 1 . 2 . 3. For that reason: 1 . Today, we have to calculate the number of moles for MgO: 1 . 2 . 3. We could now determine the change in enthalpy by dividing the q of the reaction by moles in the limiting reagent: 1 . Right now, we perform reaction 2, trial you so we could use Hess’s law to calculate the change in enthalpy of development, but first we will calculate the uncertainty in this expression: 1st, we calculate the concern for the: 1 . installment payments on your 3. Now for mass: 1 . 2 . As for the energy gained: 1 . 2 . Right now for the energy of the response: 1 . It really is multiplied by simply an integer (-1) so it is the same unc.

As for the moles: 1 . 2 . Finally, the enhancements made on enthalpy: 1 . 2 . 3. Reaction 2: First, we have to calculate the? T simply by subtracting a final temperature by initial temperature: 1 . installment payments on your Now we all calculate the mass from the solution, supposing it has the density since water: 1 . 2 . three or more. Now, we are able to use q=mc?

T to calculate the gained by solution: 1 ) 2 . Therefore: 1 . Today, we have to calculate the number of moles for MgO: 1 . installment payments on your We can now calculate the change in enthalpy by dividing the q of the reaction by the moles of the restricting reagent: 1 . I will today calculate the uncertainties: Initially, we determine the concern for the: 1 . installment payments on your Now pertaining to mass: 1 ) 2 . For the energy received: 1 . 2 . Now for the energy of the reaction: 1 ) It is increased by an integer (-1) so it is similar unc. Concerning the moles: 1 . installment payments on your Finally, the change in enthalpy: 1 . 2 . 3. Now to calculate the change of enthalpy, that is the alter of enthalpy of creation: 1 . 2 . Our final result is: 1 ) Mg (s) + zero.

5 O2(g) MgO(s) Arbitrary error and percent mistake: We can compute the random error by simply adding the random problems of the aspect reactions: 1 . 2 . a few. As for the percent mistake: 1 . 2 . 3. Prepared data: Trial 1 Trial 2 of reaction one particular -104 kJ/mol (± installment payments on your 10%) -99 kJ/mol (± 2 . 19%) of response 2 -463 kJ/mol (± 0. 509%) -446 kJ/mol (± 0. 525%) of MgO -645 kJ/mol (± 2 . 61%) -633 kJ/mol (± installment payments on your 72%) Conclusion and Analysis: In this lab, we determined the standard enthalpy change of formation of MgO using Hess’s law.

First, we reacted HCl with MgO for the first response and got -104 kJ/mol (± 2 . 10%) for trial 1 and -99 kJ/mol (± 2 . 19%) intended for trial 2 . As for effect 2, to react, I obtained -463 kJ/mol (± zero. 509%) to get trial you and -446 kJ/mol (± 0. 525%) for trial 2 . When we use Hess’s Law, we must reverse reaction 1 to get the targeted equation, Mg (s) + 0. 5 O2(g) MgO(s), and get an enthalpy transform value of -645 kJ/mol (± installment payments on your 61%) intended for trial you, and -633 kJ/mol (± 2 . 72%) for trial 2 . For trial one particular, my benefit got a percent error of 7. 14%, which is not that bad thinking about the weaknesses this kind of lab experienced that will be reviewed in the evaluation. However , in trial 2, I got a better percent problem, which is five.

15%, we got a better value because we had a bigger? L values as a result when adding them (since one of them is usually positive and the other two is negative) we get a compact value to get the enthalpy change of formation therefore bringing us closer to the theoretical worth. The biggest weak point in this research laboratory was the impurity of the chemicals, the assumptions that we produced about the HCl option, for example , we assumed that the specific high temperature capacity with the solution is equivalent to water, which is an presumption that is not a 100% correct and damaged our? They would values intended for both reactions and eventually each of our final?

Hf value. To repair this, Inside the different array of specific high temperature capacity values, 4. 15 j/g k would have recently been more appropriate to get closer to our assumptive values, whenever you get a bigger qrxn ideals thus greater? H ideals.

Another thing i noticed would be that the theoretical benefit that I acquired was the “Standard” enthalpy modify of development. Standard meaning at common conditions which can be at 293 K and 101. 3 kPa to get pressure. These kinds of weren’t situations in the lab when I performed the experiment.

This might customize experimental worth closer to the theoretical benefit reducing the percent problem.