critique of imogene king s goal attainment theory

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Theory Of Caring

Nursing Theorist, Target Statement, Internal Environment, Ethnographic

Excerpt coming from Article Review:

Imogene King’s Attainment Theory

King’s Attainment Theory

The pushed of Imogene King’s theory of objective attainment can be described as loosely-coupled alliance between the nurse and the sufferer that enables communication about the patient’s state, their health goals, and a plan of action to offer the patient’s goals. The conceptual framework is dependent on systems theory – and King uses the three vintage systems in her manifestation of her theory: (1) the personal system, (2) the interpersonal, and (3) the social system. As the conceptual framework takes condition for the private system of the individuals in the schema (Yonge, 2007), a lot of constructs come out: Body image, personal, growth advancement, perception, space, and time. As the conceptual platform moves to the interpersonal systems, the constructs take on a more integrated type: communication, connection, transaction, time, and space. In the last element of the conceptual framework, the constructs of authority, position, power, decision-making, and business become essential.

Elements of the theory. Undergirding King’s theory may be the principal a patient has the capacity to develop and grow, going toward achievement of your life goals – it is not illness or disease that erodes this kind of ability to always be goal-focused a great deal as it is the constraints from the roles with the individuals, and issues of stress, period, and space (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). The internal and external environments from the patient and nursing circumstance are the foundation for the interactions that take place during care or perhaps treatment (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). The patient plus the nurse need to make adjustments in answer to the stressors in the inner and the exterior environments, because they encounter these people (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011; Zust, et ing., 2010). The external environment entails the informal and formal social arrangements in the lives from the patient and the nurse (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). The internal environment is not directly observable, nonetheless it is the context in which energy is altered, which makes it possible for adjustment to and disparition of the exterior environment (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). The relationships of these devices form the foundation the breastfeeding relationship (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). Nursing is qualitatively defined in the theory as the actions, reactions, and interactions between the health professional and the sufferer as they reveal information about their particular perceptions inside the nursing-patient condition (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). It ought to be apparent, in respect to Full, that the focus of the nurse must be squarely on individual care, plus the goal of nursing and health care can be quality caretaking of the patients (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). The extension of this alignment toward breastfeeding is the hard work of the registered nurse to help people be and stay healthy to enable them to function in their life roles (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011). For the nurses’ component, the aims are to give and understand information about the nursing process, to plan for the provision of care, to implement proper care of the patient in a best practices structure, and to measure the nursing treatment provided in an effort to carry out the first two objectives (Stizman Eichelberger, 2011).

Philosophical underpinnings. King’s theory of objective attainment is usually fundamentally a humanistic theory in which the patient retains the rights and strengths and liabilities of any social being, regardless of physical, mental, and emotional states described (Zust, ou al., 2010). Without clearly articulating this principals, King makes it nevertheless clear that certain attributes of breastfeeding care is going to color the patient-nurse interactions (Yonge, 2007). These components reflect the best order of relationships, which include an overarching reverence intended for living things and then for life, a determination to behave on expertly and personally held values, and a fundamental respect from the autonomy, dignity, individuality, and worth of each and every patient. These kinds of three parts are the honest and philosophical building blocks of nursing theory (Tomey Alligood, 2002). Idea is held in the mind and heart, but it is conditioned by goal, and demonstrated in practice (Plager Conger, 2008). Purpose is usually connected to a nurse’s assumptive foundation as a nexus between philosophy and practice. Practice is all of the observable nursing actions aimed meeting patients’ needs and working for the entire good with the patients under her proper care (Tomey Alligood, 2002).

Transactional need declares. Three primary and fundamental needs happen to be accorded to the patient in King’s theory. They are (1) the need for information regarding their well being or condition, (2) the advantages of healthcare that is certainly focused on stopping or treating disease, and (3) the advantages of a profound level of treatment should the individual be unable to give self-care. The paramount aim in the nurse-patient relationship is to foster achievement of the person’s goals pertaining to becoming healthy (Leipert, 2007). This is a multistep as well as multistage procedure that is just like a dance shared by the patient and the health professional (Plager Conger, 2008). Since the registered nurse is in a position to translate information and use understanding to assess and diagnose the sufferer, these early on actions will be the precursors intended for subsequent actions between the individual and the registered nurse (Plager Conger, 2008). When a diagnosis have been accomplished, the nurse moves to the next level, which is making a plan of actions and interventions that are designed to help solve the problems which might be associated with the prognosis and any subsequent examination (Plager Conger, 2008). The next step is that an action plan will be established to aid the individual in attempts to achieve healthier goals. Finally, an evaluation of the effectiveness from the intervention or perhaps treatment plan is definitely conducted to be able to determine if the patients’ goals have been met.

Theory into practice. In complex nursing situations or perhaps roles that occur in situations characterized by multiple system – such as relatives nurse practitioners – King’s theory provides a system for keeping the purpose of nursing top rated of head while simultaneously offering versatile guidelines to get practice (Yonge, 2007). Two distinct strong points of King’s theory is usually that the theoretical underpinnings can be designed to contexts that may be within a state of flux, in order to reframed as being a nurse moves from one type of context or environment to another (Jukkala, ainsi que al., 2010).

An research of the attributes of a theory must consist of an study of the following: Well-known paradigm, reasonable structure, generalizability, hypotheses, ability to extend the literature through research, acción guidance, cross-theoretical consistency and validity (Jukkala, et approach., 2010). Account of these advantages of theories for King’s theory follows:

Recognizable paradigm. King’s goal attainment theory can be manifested against a background of purchase analysis, funding from mindset and sociology, as well as medication. The theory presumes that the patient is an independent, goal-directed agent capable of interacting with environmental and social aspects of life.

Logical framework. The goal attainment theory is based in systems pondering which utilizes a very rational structure of interlocking components, each self-employed as a great entity, although unavoidably impacted by other systems that exist within the framework. For example , not necessarily possible to separate the actions of the health professional from the medical center or medical center environment. Two systems – one individual and one organizational – coexist and are mutually influential.

Generalizability. For a theory to be valuable, it must exhibit the capacity being generalized to other identical situations. The goal achievement theory, after that, must apply to clinic-based and home-based proper care, to affected person care in urban hospitals and to individual care in rural treatment centers. The research implies that this characteristic applies to King’s goal attainment theory (Leipert, 2007; Williams, 2001).

Ideas. Certainly King’s goal attainment theory can be subject to precisely the same empirical rigor as different social sciences, such as psychotherapy and interpersonal work. Hypotheses related to the goal attainment theory will tend to be based on data collected about the evaluation and diagnostic category of patients, the communication and planning processes of patient proper care, and organizational issues including role filtration and, the natural way, goal attainment.

Extend the literature. The capability of the objective attainment theory to bring about and extend the research is limited only by the creativity of nurses to conduct speculation testing or perhaps carry out ethnographic research.

Praxis guidance. Various approaches to research are available to practicing nursing staff, and one of the most effective – given that qualitative and quasi-experimental approaches could be dominant in patient treatment research – is action research. Sneaking in the research inside the nursing practice can result in nuanced change and a further understanding of the right way to improve sufferer care when the unit of research is the purchase between sufferer and health professional.

Cross-theoretical uniformity and quality. Given that objective attainment theory is multidisciplinary, King’s theory demonstrates consonance with other cultural science ideas (Jukkala, ou al., 2010). The same dangers to validity that sit on the research space of these shared theoretical constructs and linked research apply to goal achievement theory – the same level of scientific rigor is required, if quantitative or qualitative strategies are employed.


The art of breastfeeding is a great overlay of the philosophy, purpose, and practice of nursing jobs. It consists of the knowning that the nurse

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