Data communications system Essay

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Q-17) Explain the between an online draft and a suggested standard? – An Internet draft is a functioning document (a work inprogress) with no standard status and a six- month lifetime. – A proposed common is increased to draft standard status after atleast two successful independent and interoperable implementations. Q2-5) A number communicates with another web host using the TCP/IP protocol package.

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What is the device of data sent or received at each in the following layers? a. app layer: Message b. network layer: Datagram c. data-link layer: Shape Q2-12) Whenever we say that the transport layer multiplexes and demultiplexes app layer communications, do we signify a transport-layer protocol may combine a number of messages in the application part in one box? Explain. The TCP/IP process suite uses several protocols at some layers, we can declare we have multiplexing at the source and demultiplexing at the destination.

Multiplexing in such a case means that a protocol at a part can encapsulate a bundle from many next-higher layer protocols (one at a time); demultiplexing means that a protocol can easily decapsulate and deliver a packet to several next-higher layer protocols (one in a time). To be able to multiplex and demultiplex, a protocol needs to have an area in its header to identify to which protocol the encapsulated packets belong. In the transport layer, either UDP or TCP can recognize a message from several application-layerprotocols.

At the network layer, IP can agree to a section from TCP or a customer datagram coming from UDP. IP can also acknowledge a box from other protocols such as ICMP, IGMP, and so on. At the data-link layer, a frame may well carry the payload coming from IP or various other protocols including ARP. P1-4) For each with the following 4 networks, talk about the consequences in the event that a connection does not work out. a. Five devices set up in a mesh topology. Investment decision you won’t failed n. Five equipment arranged in a star topology (not counting the hub).

It Will not failed c. Five devices organized in a coach topology. It will failed g. Five gadgets arranged within a ring topology. It will failed P2-11) Process layering can be obtained from many aspects of our lives such as air exploring. Imagine is made a round-trip to spend some time on vacation in a hotel. You need to proceed through some processes at your town airport prior to flying.

You should also try to go through some processes at the time you arrive at the resort air-port. Show the protocol layering for the round trip using some tiers such as suitcases checking/claiming, boarding/unboarding, takeoff/landing.

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