disintermediation and reintermediation of the

Category: Travel,
Words: 3156 | Published: 12.25.19 | Views: 768 | Download now

Business travel around


Nowadays, the travel distribution channel is very complicated and characterized by the presence of quantity of intermediaries which run in a very competitive market. Because the beginning of the travel around industry, intermediaries have always performed an important role for the introduction of tourism products and services. Indeed, intermediaries have the ability to organize and aggregate a large amount of info into one selling price. Moreover, they have a fundamental function for guidance and delivering a customized service according to the specific require of customers (Kracht and Wang, 2009).

Prior to the advent and additional development of conversation technology, the marketplace was focused by the significant suppliers including airlines, resort chains and resorts. Travel agents were the standard intermediaries that were independent via each other and represented a percentage of the prominent players in a noncompetitive marketplace (Gharavi and Sor, 2005).

Later on, with the high propagate of ICT and the want of expense reduction the position of the travel agents have been threatened.

New kind of middlemen emerged adding additional layers of intermediation, disintermediating specific players simply by bypassing the standard intermediaries (Buhalis and Rules, 2008). Technology has also allowed suppliers to directly get in touch with consumers that have seen their particular choices significantly increased. It has increased your competition and the difficulty of the industry and features raised a significant issue to get the occurrence in the market of traditional travel agents. The aim of this kind of paper is to investigate how disintermediation and re-intermediation have affected how travel agents run and whether there is even now a place and a possible of progress for travel agents in the market.


In the last twenty years many changes took place in the travel distributional funnel. Every component of the cycle value has become affected and particularly travel companies. Traditional travel around agencies happen to be being threatened not only by integrated tour operators, which control their own division channels, but also by expansion of alternative distribution stations such as the Net, Teletext, call centers, and in many cases travel TV channels. This technique is called disintermediation (Kracht and Wang, 2009). According to Bennett and Buhalis (2003) disintermediation is definitely the process of removing intermediaries inside the distribution route driven simply by electronic signifies that enable customers to access and transact straight with suppliers and destinations. Before 93, the traditional travel and leisure system contains consumers, traditional retail travel companies, corporate travel agents, tour operators, GDS’s and suppliers. The 93 was the year of the initial commercial usage of internet. After that year a large number of changes took place and many more players enter into the industry thanks to the reduction of hurdle entry costs. However , the starting point of disintermediation is at the sixties, when the American airline lunch time the initial GDS enabling consumers to obtain tickets directly from the airline company (Kracht and Wang, 2009).

Travel and leisure agents’ primary source of earnings at the time was commissions paid out to all of them by the air carriers on entry pass sold by them around the airlines’ behalf. Pressures to minimize costs within an increasingly competitive industry brought on airline companies to look for ways to reduce their particular payments to visit agents. Initially, airline companies progressively decreased the amount of commission paid going agents although, at the same time, that they opened up new channels and expanded existing channels to succeed in travelers directly. Airline businesses encouraged travellers to book direct route by different means with a very successful results. As an example, easyJet, an excellent British cheap carrier, in 2002 had been selling 90% of it is seats through its own web page (The Economist, 2002). Following the public debut of the web, suppliers began establishing internet sites to connect directly with customers, thereby starting the disintermediation of classic retail travel agents(McCubbrey, 99; cited by simply Kracht and Wang, 2009).

For example , Hotelsalso created their own websites to get to their buyer. Establishing a direct relationship with clients enables suppliers to do place numerous price rules and commitment schemes. Suppliers believe they will no longer require an intermediary to sell many. They discover the internet to become powerful and cheap distribution channel, and not merely an online sales brochure (The Economist, 2002). Without a doubt, using technology to develop source chain relationships can reduce costs and provide higher quality of travel items into the market. Internet, probably, has been the most effective means of disintermediation and they have radically altered the travel and leisure industry, adding more layers of intermediation plus more players (Kracht, 2009) The travel industry, in fact , will probably be one of the most interesting sector in terms of the possibilities proposed by the internet. Internet travel bookings have elevated dramatically in the last years with additional and more users confident with the technology, and it represents the speediest growing portion of electronic commerce (Bernstein and Awe, 1999; mentioned by Anckar, 2003).

The achievements of internet to that end, is perhaps because of the nature from the tourism item, which is a bit more than an information product, easy to convey throughout the web (UNCTAD, 2000; reported by Anckar, 2003). Nevertheless , as stated simply by Palmer and McCole (1999; cited by Bennett and Lai, 2005) “the net does not replace the principal part of intermediaries who are present to easily simplify buyers’ decision processes. Without a doubt, even though net allowed suppliers and consumers to connect directly decoding the travel agents, there were several important issues related to the net. According to Bloch ain al. (1996, cited simply by Wynne 2000), when potential tourists make an effort to book straight with suppliers on the net, they encounter a wide range of concerns. For example , they need to know by which website to look. It takes at wide range of time taking into consideration different options and prices. Often , it is not necessarily possible to book on-line. Thereby, the necessity for one stop-shopping, aggregation info and a comparison of price led to the formation of new e-mediaries or perhaps cybermediaries.

Disintermediation indeed, push back to re-intermediation with fresh players getting into the markets and existing kinds which re-intermediate themselves by reinventing their particular business. Re-intermediation has been described by Bennet and Buhahs (2003) as “the using ICT and internet equipment for the development of either fresh intermediaries or perhaps new options for existing intermediaries thatenable these to re-engineer the tourism circulation channel. Re-intermediation is obvious through the progress new electronic intermediaries such as Expedia, Bing Travel, lastminute. com and Travelocity that happen to be based simply online. Based on the premise that intermediaries can be found because they provide value added solutions, these e-mediaries have the potential to pass economies of scale right to the consumer, supplying reduced deals as well as the ease of making concerns 24/7 (Lai, 2005).

Due to both disintermediation and re-intermediation travel agents have been completely reduced in numbers and possess to face a very competitive market. In fact , from side they are threaten by the disintermediation put in place by the suppliers, and from other simply by online booking and therefore, by the e-mediaries or perhaps cybermediaries. These, in particular, without established high-street presence, jeopardize established suppliers by changing the distribution channel intended for consumer goods. Reservations built online are probably the most important threat that traditional intermediaries like travel agents need to face. Figures show a growth of online bookings over the years both in European countries and United States but likewise in other markets (http://www.emarketer.com). According to Cheung and Lam (2009), for getting their placement in the marketplace, and avoid disintermediation, travel companies must be able to acquire the new-technology and be able to compete into the fresh channels since electronic-able intermediaries, without losing their advantage inside the conventional marketplace. To minimize the chance of disintermediation, travel companies need to decrease their dependence into simple transaction and increase earnings by focusing on more complex actions, like counseling and customization of the service.


In spite of the severe competition, and the likelihood for arranging online, various customers even now prefer to obtain travel agents. TTI chairman, Tony adamowicz Allen explained that there would regularly be people who “didn’t trust the internet and wanted face-to-face advice (Taylor, The Mom or dad, 2003). Certainly, travel agents have got still various cards to play and can reap the benefits of several advantages in the marketplace: * They are located wherecustomers arrive, in shops and in large streets; 5. Aggregation from the offer by various suppliers into one bundle; * They can offer a personalized service;

2. Human marriage;

5. Travel agents will offer an exhortatory service, and assist the purchasers in making a choice before control with deals; * A fraction of the time spent by customers to acquire a travel product. It is also argued, not all the associated with the disintermediation and re-intermediation have had a poor effect on travel companies. Gharavi and Sor (2005) have recommended, in fact , that because of internet and other varieties of disintermediation, the bonds between the small travel companies and the prominent large suppliers like the flight companies, resort chains and resorts owners, was finally broken. Because of that, various independent travel agents, which always based their very own business on conventional methods such as commissions from suppliers, were pushed out of the industry. However , many more entrepreneurs had been stimulated to reinvent their particular business. Travel companies were allowed to deal with a variety of suppliers and organize into cooperative. Moreover, others internet marketers developed franchises or merged, in order to have even more bargaining electric power against rivals. Therefore they will fight back the disintermediation and re-intermediate themselves.

Organizing into franchising or perhaps into other forms of cooperation has allow several positive aspects to travel real estate agents. First of all, this leads to gain more bargaining power which will make more convenient to get travel agents to dealing with suppliers. Second of all, it will help travel agents to concentrate only for the front workplace activities, while the centre business office is in charge of the administrative methods and of the marketing activities, such as manufacturer building and advertising. Another reason, why this sort of collaborations are successful is that they can allow a much better training of human resources and lead to better prospects intended for income. A great example of travel agency organized in to franchising is definitely Harvey Community Travel with over 170 stores nationwide and more than 70 in the united kingdom which offer to its twigs a very sophisticate software to create a very customized package for customers (Harris and Duckworth, 2005). In order to battle disintermediation many travel agents differentiate themselves and/or focus on niche markets.

They try to provide something different that clients cannot find online. EuroTravel is a wonderful and good example of what sort of small 3rd party travel agent can be competitive in the market. This provider was able to leveraging technology successfully in order to are skilled and fight against disintermediation. It focuses primarily on sales to only the Western destination, yet has used the world wide web as its principal communication funnel in order to get customers from a wider geographic location. This strategy has paid off. In fact , in 2004, sales were 6. 5 meters and in 08 they reached more the 8. 5 m (Haris and Duckworth, 2005). Similarly, Thomas Prepare food is another powerful experience. If it is the initially travel agent in the UK, Jones Cook may count on a very long background tradition. Through the years it has experienced many within order to adapt to a competitive market. In 2007, this merged with all the competitor MyTravel, and currently Thomas Cook is the UK’s largest full travel network. It aims to dominate the two, conventional and innovative route (Williamson A., 2001). Thomas Cook has indeed, a very strong situation online and continually open new branches annually. Therefore , Thomas Cook displays not only how a travel agent can deal with disintermediation, yet also the right way to grow and prosper in the marketplace.


After the introduction of Net technology, travel around industry continues to be strongly impacted by electronic commerce that contributed the most for the disintermediation from the channel. This is correct in particular for travel agents. It is clear that disintermediation and re-intermediation are present in the travel and leisure sector. Inside the intermediate period, traditional travel and leisure agencies master the market. Yet , as new EC-only travelling agencies come up in the market and create up all their competitive talents, traditional travelling agencies dropped over 50 percent market shares (Cheung and Lam, 2009). As a result of that many travel firms merged or organized themselves into some kind of collaboration including franchising. In order to survive with this competitive travelling market, agents need to shift themselves since travel consultants, but as well must be even more technologically focused. They must give attention to consulting and niche marketplaces. As suggested by the Economist (2002), travelagents future will be based on assisting customers to obtain what they want, instead of selling precisely what is left unsold by suppliers.

They now must look out for customers’ best interest for it resources to help these groups find the best merchandise. Indeed, it is very important an integration of regular business together with the new opportunities offered by the net, in order to add value intended for the client. That is probably one of the most difficult challenge that travel agents have to face. ICT must seen as an opportunity more than being a threat which allows travel agent to reach even more customers, get more information and therefore, increasing the value for the latter. The ability to use new-technology will also help to make possible for travel companies to contend with the e-mediaries. Porter (1999, cited by Anckar, 2003) claimed that the internet is going to be the fatality of a lots of intermediaries. Yet , if this kind of prevision can be true for certain intermediaries, at the moment and perhaps in the end, it appears not to be valid for travel agents.


Anckar, B. (2003) “Consumer Motives in Terms of Digital Travel Distribution. E-service Record, Vol. two, No . a couple of, pp. 68-86 Anckar, M. (2006) Reassessment of the Efficacy of Self-booking in Travel around. 39th Hawaii islands International Conference on Program Sciences. Offered at: http://www.virtual-community.org/images/e/ef/250760132b.pdf Bennet, M. and Kevin Tegul C. Watts. (2005) The impact of the net on travel around agencies in Taiwan. Tourism and Hospitality Research, Volume. 6, No . 1, 2005, pp. 8-23. Bennett, Meters. and Buhalis, D. (2003) The Future intended for Internet Travel and leisure Distribution: the travel agent perspective, Insights, English Tourism Council, January 2003, pp. D. 25-30. Available at: http://www.buhalis.com/buhalis/page/publications.htm Bray (2006) “The have difficulties over travel around distribution,  Financial Occasions (15 Might 2006) Buhalis, D. and Licata, Meters. C. (2001) The future eTourism intermediaries. Travel and leisure Management, (2002) 207″220. Offered at: www.elsevier.com Cheung, R. and Lam, S. (2006) How Travel Agency Endure in elektronische geschäftsabwicklung World? Sales and marketing communications of the IBIMA, Volume 12, 2009 ISSN: 1943-7765. Available at: http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/CIBIMA/volume10/v10n11.pdf Chircu, A. Meters. and Robert Kauffman, J. (1998) Strategies for internet middlemen in

the intermediation / disintermediation / reintemediation cycle. The International Record of Digital Commerce and Business Multimedia, 9, two, 1999, pp. 109-117 Doherty, N. and Ellis- Chadwick, F. (2010) Internet selling: the past, this current and the long term. International Record of Selling & Circulation Management Volume. 38 No . 11/12, pp. 943-965. Available at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0959-0552.htm eMarketer Inc (2005) “Travel Firms Online Report. http://www.emarketer.com Gharavi, H. and Sor, L. (2005) Populace ecology, institutionalism and the net, Travel agencies evolving in middlemen. Journal of Organizational Change Administration, Vol. nineteen No . a couple of, 2006 pp. 104-118. Available at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0953-4814.htm Harris, L. and Duckworth, T. (2005) Travel companies future. Published online in Wiley InterScience. Available at: www.interscience.wiley.com

Hoontrakul, G. and Sahadev, S. (2006) Application of data mining associated with the on the web travel industry, Marketing Cleverness & Organizing, (2008), Volume. 26 No . 1, pp. 60-76. Sold at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0263-4503.htm Huang, H. H. et ‘s. (2006) Exploring Customer Satisfaction, Trust and Destination Loyalty in Tourism. The Journal of yankee Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. twelve Knight T. (2003) Can they fix it?, The Guardian. Sold at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2003/oct/05/observerescapesection1?INTCMP=SRCH Kracht, J. (2009) Examining the Tourism Circulation Channel: Evolution and Modification. Pre printing of conventional paper, Emaral group Publishing. PDF document offered by: http://www.hospitality.ucf.edu/faculty/raywang/documents/HFT7715/Technology%20strategy/Examing%20the%20Tourism%20Distribution%20Channel.pdf Kracht, J. and Wang, Y. (2009) Analyzing the travel distribution funnel: evolution and transformation. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Supervision, Vol. 22 No . five, 2010, pp. 736-757. Offered at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0959-6119.htm Rules, L. and Lau, W. (2004) Research of the Perceptions of Hk Hotel Managers on the Potential Disintermediation of Travel Organizations. The Haworth Press. Available at: http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JTTM Law, R. and Lau, W. (2004) A Study of the Perceptions of Hk Hotel Managers on the Potential

Disintermediation of Travelling Agencies. The Haworth Press. Available at: http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JTTM Law, R., Leung, K., and Wong, R. (2004) “The Effects of the Net on Travelling Agencies.  International Log of Contemporary Hospitality Management, pp. 100″107 Lawton, L. J. and Weaver, B. D. (2007) Travel company Threats and Opportunities: The angle of Good Owners. Worldwide Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Operations, 10: 68″92, 2009 McCubbrey, D. M. and The singer, R. G. (2005). Disintermediation and Reintermediation in the U. S. Flights Distribution Sector. Communications from the Association for facts Systems, Volume level 15, pp. 464-477 Rosenbloom, B, (2007) Wholesaler’s Function in the Promoting Channel: Disintermediation vs . Reintermediation, Int. Revolution. of Selling, Distribution and Consumer Analysis, Vol. 17, No . 5, 327 ” 339. Rosenbluth International. http://www.Rosenbluth.com/

Rowley, J. (2002) Synergy and strategy in e-business. Marketing cleverness & preparing. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregisters Taylor 3rd there’s r. (2003) Producing on the wall membrane for travel companies, The Mom or dad (12 04 2003). Offered at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2003/apr/12/travelnews.guardiansaturdaytravelsection1?INTCMP=SRC The Economist (2002) “Fit for DIY; Travel companies,  (1 June 2000). Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/1159511?story_id=E1_TTVJVTT Travel Industry Association of America.


Williamson A. (2001) The Gold Age of Travel and leisure (Thomas Cook), ISBN: 1900341336 Wynne, C. (2000) the impact of internet on the distribution benefit channel. International Marketng Assessment, Vol. 18, N. 4, pp. 420- 431. Offered by: http://www.emerald-library.com


[ 1 ]. Global Reservation System applied as a one point of access for reserving flight seats, hotel rooms, rental cars, and other travel related items by simply travel agents, on the net reservation sites, and large businesses (www.businessdictionary.com) [ 2 ]. Travel and leisure Technology motivation: www.tti.org


< Prev post Next post >