drinking water management essay
Future wars are likely to stem from a prefer to control sufficient water assets. The concept of trinity revolves around normal water resources, water management and utilization. Water management remains pivotal for this all important source of national your survival and advancement. The Government’s “Water Vision is a part of the same way.
Pakistan has recently embarked after a street of monetary prosperity. The need for energy in next 10 years will increase a lot more. Similarly, the agricultural outcome will have to keep pace with the population surge.
Keeping in view the appearing challenges, present Government provides initiated the feasibility analyze of 3 to 4 water reservoirs. However , inter-province rivalries, personal political agendas, lack of understanding of rising requires and decrease of faith inside the central government are some of the impediments in the construction of these water reservoirs.
Analyse the future requirement of normal water for culture and energy, water potential of Pakistan, steps initiated by the Govt to ease provinces’ worries and advise suitable actions to help the water management as well as construction of new drinking water reservoirs in Pakistan.
Water forms basis of human living. In the past we’ve been overlooking this precious present of nature but since quite some time world has acknowledged it since very important normal resource. The general depleting drinking water resources and escalating human population have forced the comity of nations to formulate water management tactics for its optimum utilization. Therefore water supervision has become the leading topic of research and development today. Pakistan for being an agrarian country relies more on this source as cultivation is the again bone of your economy.
Furthermore hydel strength being the least expensive source of energy the abundant riv water resources provide us with all the opportunity to fulfill our energy requirements through this all-natural source, as long as we could utilize them optimally. Mutual doubtfulness among the provinces is the biggest hurdle in the building of new atteinte. Consequently huge quantity of drinking water flows in the Sea, when we deal with the danger of waterscarcity. This conventional paper covers a defieicency of water administration in its entirety. All factors related to the advantages of water to get our energy as well as farming needs have already been covered in greater detail. The very essential issue relevant to the construction of recent water reservoirs and its political implications has also been covered in fair fine detail. TABLE OF CONTENTS
NORMAL WATER RESOURCE SUPERVISION
Pakistan is blessed with a various geography rendering her with all essential organic resources by the bucket load. Number and alignment of our rivers is among the most obvious symptoms of this endowment. Rivers work along the length of the country therefore making water sources of the area very hassle-free. Himalayas are mainly responsible for nourishing our lake system. Despite loss of 3 Southern waterways under the agreements of Indus Basin Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan in 1960, the three north rivers up till have proven powerful enough to fulfill the requirements of 150 , 000, 000 people. Yet , for some years now the water deficit has been felt, particularly in agriculture sector.
This has necessitated the serious thinking for taking successful measures for water management. Pakistan can be unfortunate never to have constructed sufficient range of dams to manage the movement of the rivers. Indus Basin Treaty compelled Pakistan to build public works in order to move the water to its The southern part of rivers while primacy of India’s correct over the water of these waterways was known.
Tarbela and Mangla Public works were Pakistan’s response. Even so these two mega dams were only the very first step in a long-range water managing policy. Kalabagh was the internet site chosen for Dam. Sadly neither the Kalabagh nor any other big dam has been built however. The issue of Kalabagh Dam received politicized and became so questionable that regardless of the desire of successive governments it could not be built. Central Government’s fixation with Kalabagh project prevented the progress upon any other potential dam as well. Being unable to take care of our water resources effectively we have not been able to optimally utilize our hydel energy potential and today will be struggling to fulfill our strength requirements. Likewise by faltering to institute modern irrigation and farming practices we’ve been responsible for spending water, the most precious gift idea of the mother nature. Itis crucial to study the matter in detail and suggest suited measures for the best management of your water assets.
To carry out an in depth analysis of existing normal water distribution program and foreseeable future water requirements for energy and culture in order to advise suitable steps for effective water administration.
Part ” I
water resources of pakistan River Normal water Resources Indus River System. The average total annual flow from the Indus riv system is 144 million acerbo feet (MAF). However there are huge variations in the movement at several times of the year. The 81% of the water flows and 65% of the precipitation occurs in three monsoon a few months. The ever before expanding normal water needs for a growing economic system and the inhabitants for appointment its meals and fibers requirements and the interchanging happening of massive amounts and droughts adds difficulty to the water management concern.
Current Using the Lake Water. Of 144 MAF 105 MAF is diverted for water sources purposes whilst rest moves into the marine. Indus Container System residences 3 super dams besides 68 large dams, nineteen barrages, 12 canal instructions and 18000 km of drainage network. Away of a hundred and five MAF of water that becomes available in canal head 42% infiltrates to ground water, 3% is shed to evaporation, unintended expansion on financial institutions and breaches and only 54.99 MAF exists at farm building gate. Creation Potential. Away of a hundred and forty four MAF of total riv flow 32 MAF escapes below Kotri annually. Therefore the development potential of Extrêmes river normal water system could be worked out because under: –
|Total escape listed below Kotri Barrage |38 MAF | |Max escape necessary according to 1991 drinking water accord |10 MAF | |Likely uses by India |5 MAF | |Water Available for advancement |23 MAF |
Rain fall Harvesting
8. Monsoon and westerly disturbances are two primary weather systems that contribute to the rainfall in Pakistan. The typical annual rain fall is 291mm (11. four inches). Nearly two-third is received in the Kharif (summer), while the relax in the Rabi (winter). Through the three Monsoon months (July-September) almost half of the rainfall is received. Whilst a substantial percentage of the rainfall occurring inside the cultivated parts of the Indus Plain is usually consumed simply by crops as being a consumptive use, in the foothill areas of Pakistan rainfall gives rise to flashy mountain torrents, and a major percentage of the flow goes waste materials, in the form of evaporation.
The total creation potential of hill torrents is about 17MAF of which 5MAF has already been conserved through the building of more than 500 structural surgery such as hold off action dams, reservoirs, dispersion/diversion structures, flood retaining walls, etc . As a result, gross equilibrium development potential is about 12MAF for which one particular, 204 sites have been discovered in 13 major hillside torrent areas, with economic requirements of approximately Rs 45 billion. Glaciers and Snow
9. Distante area of the Higher Indus is around 22, 500sq km, in which on an normal three to four yards of compacted snow occurs every year. The Upper Extrêmes catchments contain some of the greatest glaciers in the world outside the Extremely Regions. Glacier area of the Kabul River is located near Unai Pass from the Southern Hindukush, while despegado and snow melt area of Chenab and Jhelum rivers are located inside the Occupied Jammu and Kashmir. The right traditional bank tributaries of Jhelum Lake i. at the., Kunhar and Neelum estuaries and rivers carry key share with the snow melt, primarily, situated in Pakistan or perhaps along the Type of Control. Snow and snowmelt contribution is 85 per cent in the case of Extrêmes, 80 per cent for Kabul, 75 per cent for Chenab and slightly over 40 per cent to get Jhelum River. It is estimated that the whole volume of normal water stored in the glacial part of Indus Water is about 340MAF, while the amount of water stored in glacial part of Kabul, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers is definitely 300MAF. Earth Water
10. From the point of view of availability of groundwater, the country may be divided into two major areas, the mainly canal irrigated Indus Simple primarily positioned in Punjab and Sindh, plus the areas of the NWFP and Balochistan with a limited groundwater development potential in a few local areas. During the last 30 years possibly even, spectacular increase in the number of exclusive tube water wells has changed the underground paradigm entirely.
In several groundwater areas, there has been an entire Volta deal with. Where several years ago high groundwater was a major risk, water amounts have now rejected due to non-public tube wells development. However , the speed at which the groundwater exploitation has unfolded has added complexity of it is management. The amount of users has ended 2 . five million farmers, who get groundwater through their own tube wells or buy normal water from their neighbors. In many areas, the impact within the groundwater methods is worrying; levels are declining swiftly to infeasible pumping absolute depths, and there is invasion of saline water inside the fresh groundwater areas through lateral or perhaps upward motion. Existing volume of private tube wells in Pakistan is now over 700, 500 and annual groundwater removal through non-public tube water wells under the regular hydro-climatic circumstances is of the order of 42 MAF. The province-wise environmentally friendly development potential is: – | (MAF) |
|Provinces |Sustainable potential |
|Punjab |36 | |Sindh |8 | |NWFP |2 | |Balochistan |2 |
CURRENT WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND FUTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENERGY AND CULTIVATION
Energy Requires of Pakistan by 2025
10. Pakistan’s overall economy is starting significant improvements since 1998-99; the improvements made in the macroeconomic signals are, specifically, noteworthy. The actual GDP improved from your five. 1 per cent in 2002-03 to 6. 4 per cent in 2003-04 and was almost eight. 5 percent for the fiscal year 2004-05. The projected expansion rate for the next five years is estimated to be 7-8 per cent. With expansion in economy the necessity in strength will also increase.
Government of Pakistan’s Method Term Advancement Framework (MTDF) projects the expansion in the demand of electric power, petroleum goods, natural gas and coal at an average twelve-monthly rate of 8. 4%, 4. 3%, 7. 6%, 18. 9% respectively. Even though, both the require and supply of energy has been elevating for the last 10 years and a half, the per household consumption of energy in Pakistan remains low. As compared to their counterparts in Malaysia and China wherever per capita consumption of energy stands at 92 MBTU and 34MBTU, respectively. The per capita consumption in Pakistan is usually 14 MBTU. Figures one particular and a couple of shows a great upward trend in the supply and per capita accessibility to energy in tones comparable of energy (TOE) in Pakistan since 1990.
Figure one particular: Energy supply (million TOE) Source Economic Server 2004-05 [pic]
Figure 2: Per Household Availability in TOE
doze. Energy Usage. According to the most recent economic survey, in the past 14 years from 1990-91 to 2003-04 the consumption of petroleum products, natural gas, electricity and coal elevated by a average rate of 2. five per cent, 4. 9%, 5. 1% and five. 2%, respectively. However , one particular major difference in consumption pattern has been registered in the consumption of petrol. The use of essential oil has decreased since 2001, particularly inside the cement industry and electricity generation, for the reason that cement market has moved to natural gas and the electric power generation sector is significantly using gas. Similarly, the intake of various petroleum products in household and agriculture authorized marked decline of 18. 2 and 16. almost eight per cent, respectively.
This is primarily because of the availability of cheaper fuels like LPG and natural gas. However , the intake of petroleum products has increased in transportation, commercial and other authorities sectors. In the last 14 years, the transport sector saw the largest use of petroleum products having a share of 48. six per cent. The share of power sector, industry, households, other government sectors and agriculture stood at 31%, 12. 1%, 3. 8%, 2 . five per cent and 1 ) 5%, correspondingly.
The consumption of natural gas in the bare cement sector inside the first nine months of fiscal season 2004-05 registered a 75 per cent maximize. Similarly, for the same time period the consumption intended for industrial, electrical power, commercial and household industries jumped up by 15. 5%, doze. 3%, twelve. 5%, a few. 8%, correspondingly. In electrical energy consumption, the family unit sector happens to be the largest customer with a talk about of 41. 4 %. The talk about for commercial, agricultural, other government areas and commercial consumers for the similar time period (1990-04) has been 31. 1%, 16. 1%, seven percent and 6%, respectively. Sector Wise Gas Consumption Coming from 1990 to 2004
|Sector |Natural Gas Consumption | |Power sector |35. 4% | |Fertilizer |23. 4% | |Industrial |18. 9% | |Household |17. 6% | |Commercial |2. 8% | |Cement |1. 5% |
13. Future Strength Forecasts. In respect to 2004-05 Economic Review of Pakistan, the double digit growth in the large scale making sector features resulted in a rise in demand of electrical power in certain industrial sectors. The survey also assignments that demand in electrical power will grow at an normal yearly level of 7. on the lookout for per cent coming from 2005 to 2010. The table beneath summarizes the sector sensible power require till 12 months 2010. The recently permitted 25 12 months ‘Energy Protection Action Plan (ESAP)’ aims to increase Pakistan’s reliance on local fuels. Ahead of that the Poverty Reduction Technique Paper (PRSP) outlined comparable measures. That envisages a hydel-thermal rate of 39: 61 via an existing percentage of around 28: 72. The ESAP also envisages significantly minimizing reliance upon oil while increasing reliability on coal. The energy mixture plan for another 25 years while proposed in ESAP4 is given in under described table. Sector Wise Power Demand (2005-10)
|Year |Domestic |Commercial |Agriculture |Industrial |Other |Total | |2005-06 |7, 199 |1, 216 |1, 763 |5, 891 |1, 035 |15, 500 | |2006-07 | | | | | | | |2007-08 |7585 |1251 |1820 |6481 |1086 |16600 | |2008-09 | | | | | | | |2009-10 |8127 |1312 |1893 |7252 |1159 |17900 | | | | | | | | | | |8783 |1354 |1, 979 |8, 181 |1, 243 |19, 600 | | | | | | | | | | |9531 |1408 |2, 079 | | | | | | | | |9, 267 |1, 341 |23, 600 |
Source: Planning Commission
Energy Combine Plan (MTOE)
| |Energy Combine Plan Predictions | | | | |Current |Short Term |Medium Term |Long Term | | |2004 |2010 |2015 |2020 |2025 |2030 | |Total (MTOE) |50. your five |79. 39 |120. 18 |177. thirty-five |255. thirty seven |361. thirty-one | |Oil |15. a couple of |30. 0% |20. 69 |26. 0%
|32. 51 | |Tarbela(1976) |Indus |485 |147. 8 |9. 30 |3478 |I, P | |Mangla(1966) |Jhelum |380 |115. eight |4. 82 |1000 |I, P | |Chashma(1971) |Indus |- |- |0. sixty one |- |I, P | |Warsak(1960) |Kabul |250 |76. 2 |0. 04 |240 |I, G | |Baran(1962) |Kurram |107 |32. 6th |0. goal |4 |I, P | |Hub(1983) |Hub |151 |46. 0 |0. 76 |- |I, W | |Khanpur(1984) |Haro |167 |50. being unfaithful |0. 2009 |- |I, W | |Tanda(1965) |Kohat |115 |35. 0 |0. 06 |- |I | |Rawal(1962) |Kurang |114 |34. 7 |0. 04 |- |W | |Simly (1972) |Soan |215 |65. a few |0. 02 |- |W | |Bakhan(1900) |Pishin |35 |10. several |0. apr |- |I | |Manchar Lake |Indus |- |- |0. seventy five |- |I | |Kinjhar Lake |Indus |- |- |0. thirty-two |- |I, W | |Chotiari Lake |Indus |- |- |0. 78 |- |I | |TOTAL |17. 74 |4722 | |
Pakistan’s Hydropower Potential
|Station as well as Project |Capacity (MW) | |Hydel Channels in Operation |4722 | |Under Implementation |1653 | |Projects with Feasibility Studies Completed
| |Run of River |2865 | |Multipurpose |4340 | |Projects with Feasibility Studies in Hand | |Run of River |2565 | | Multipurpose |3412 | |Projects for which Feasibility Studies are to be Carried Out |21222 | |Total |40, 983 |
Dependence on Water for Agriculture
15. Existing Agriculture Potential of Pakistan
a. During the last five decades, the performance of agriculture continues to be quite impressive with farming production preserving pace with population growth. However , produces are still very much below the potential and are becoming exceeded far away with comparable agro-climatic conditions. Historical data of significant crop development and yields in Pakistan since 1947 is given by Annexure A. b. Irrigated agriculture gives 90% of food and fibre requirements of the country from about 18. 2009 Mha of land which can be roughly 80% of the cultivated area.
The agricultural creation is contributed by 4 Mha of Barani (rain fed) areas. The grown area of Pakistan has increased from about 16. 70 Mha in 1947 to twenty-two. 76 Mha in year 2005. c. Pakistan’s economy has always been based on agriculture, although the immediate share of GDP led by cultivation has gone down over the years and is now about 25%. Farming is also the foundation of most industries in Pakistan and thus is still a key drivers in the economy and is critical for the rural financial systems. 16. Obtainable Water Resources for Agriculture
a. The average total annual flow of Indus Pot Irrigation Program (IBIS) is around 144 MAF of which at present 105 MAF is being diverted forirrigation when a major percentage of the balance outflows into the sea. Of the one zero five MAF taken by canal network, about 42% infiltrates to floor water reservoir while 3% is misplaced as evaporation or through non-beneficial consumption. The balance 57% or 58 MAF receives at farmville farm gate for use in the domains. b. One other source of normal water is the immediate overland anticipation.
The irrigated area of Extrêmes Basin will get approximately 40 MAF of rainfall yearly. Studies possess indicated that considerable section of the quantity is usually beneficially employed by the crops. Rainfall conservation potential away from irrigated areas is predicted to be roughly 20 MAF. Out with this, nearly five MAF is being presently utilized through the development of more than 500 postpone action atteinte, dispersion and flood diversion structures etc . c. The third category of normal water usage may be the vast and readily available ground water of Pakistan. Surface water materials over 40% of plant water requirements of the country. Latest research indicate there is a further developing potential of approximately 6 MAF of groundwater. 17. Long term Agriculture Water Requirements
a. The population from the Pakistan inside the 1998 census was 130. 6 mil. The anticipated human population by the 12 months 2010 is 168 , 000, 000 with a increase of 2%, and 221 mil by the year 2025 with an average total annual increase of just one. 81%. m. Increase in inhabitants, rapid urbanization by the yr 2025, and better socio-economic conditions could put even more pressure upon food consumption. c. As mentioned above, the overall cultivated region in Pakistan increased from 14. seventy Mha in 1947 to 22. seventy six Mha in 2005, while irrigated place enhanced from 8. four Mha to 18. 09 Mha.
Cereal production increased via 5. two Million loads (Mt) to twenty-eight. 5 Mt during the same period. The spot under cereal crops elevated by about 250%; the maximum rise was in circumstance of rice which improved by about 318% and region under sugarcane increased by 544%, which can be high delta crops. Hence, both increase in area and increase in brings have written for higher creation. Under upcoming scenarios also, additional property and bigger cropping intensities (both necessitating more water) would be required besides the make use of better seeds, fertilizer, improved field administration practices etc .
It has been predicted that upcoming needs of food and fibre could be met both by added water inputs and non-water inputs with approximately 40: 50contribution by simply each supply. d. Raises in gardening production will be thus being obtained by using a combination of: – (1) Increasing yields, which in turn requires an increased agricultural insurance plan environment, creation efficiencies, rates and advertising as well as better research and extension companies (2) Raising irrigation power of the existing cropped property, which needs additional drinking water to be available which will must be achieved by using a combination of increased water management and improved efficiency and additional water availableness at essential times of the year. This would need expansion of existing water sources infrastructure. (3)Increasing the irrigated area, requiring additional/new water sources infrastructure. e.
To meet the season 2025 requirements with a nominal annual maximize of 2% in export, the agricultural water requirements at plantation gate happen to be estimated to get about twenty MAF of more water if, perhaps 50% embrace crop produces due to non-water inputs. Pertaining to comparative functions, the requirement for farming will be around 50 MAF at the farmville farm gate presuming 25% embrace yields. f. The additional normal water requirement (at farm gate) for all groups under the two scenarios is really as under: – (1)Assuming 25% benefit of increase in agriculture brings (non drinking water inputs)-48 MAF (2)Assuming 50% benefit of increase in agriculture yields (non water inputs)-28 MAF (3)Assuming 25% benefit of increase in agriculture brings (non normal water inputs-at canal head) ” 60 MAF (4)Assuming 50 percent benefit of embrace agriculture produces (non normal water inputs-at apretado head) ” 37 MAF g.
Consideringg past encounter, the target of 50% increase in agricultural brings (non drinking water inputs) is definitely achievable and therefore, additional drinking water of thirty seven MAF with the canal brain should fulfill all farming requirements. h. As opposed to the added water requirement of 28 MAF, the water offered is 23 MAF which will limit each of our developmental potential in various sectors. Water Management Policy
18. Priority Areas for National Water Insurance plan. The existing National water policy was approved by the cabinet in 2006. The coverage recognizes that water is now an increasingly scarce resource, requiring appropriate institutional, economic and environmental managing. It requires thatattention be focused on key goal areas including: – a. Establishing a water useful resource data bank to act as a database of all drinking water resource info collected by various companies. b. Making a comprehensive structure for designing water assets investments, guidelines and establishments. c. Implementing water prices and incentive policies that will achieve cost recovery, normal water conservation and better allocation of normal water resources. deb. Decentralizing normal water service delivery, involving users in planning and managing of water projects and inspiring stakeholders to contribute toward policy ingredients.
e. Fixing and conserving aquatic ecosystems, improving normal water quality and guarding against over-exploitation of ground water resources. n. Avoiding water-logging and salinity problems connected with irrigated investments by monitoring water dining tables and implementation of draining networks as well as best managing practices to regulate water pollution. g. Establishing a strong legal and regulatory structure to ensure that social concerns will be met, environmental resources happen to be protected, and monopoly costs is avoided. Water Strategy
19. Government’s Water Perspective 2020
a. Away of seventy seven. 1 MA of terrain suitable for cultivation, only 44. 4 MUM are currently being irrigated whereas existing network of canals, barrages and dams caters for water requirements intended for only thirty four. 5 MUM (excluding barani and chahi). An additional 22. 5 MOTHER (Sindh 3. 6, Punjab 4. 3, NWFP three or more. 0 and Balochistan eleven. 6) can be brought under irrigated culture. b. Existing shortage is definitely 9 MAF which is very likely to increase to 30 MAF by yr 2025. Drinking water management and conservation projects like brick lining and many others are likely to lessen this shortage by 15-20 MAF. This kind of shortage needs to be addressed. c. We need further 2-3 significant storage reservoirs of six MAF every by 2020 making readily available around 18-20 MAF in least, otherwise we can face drought situation. twenty. Programmes Started by the Federal government. Extensive programmes for development of water solutions in the sub-sectors of irrigation, drainage and reclamation, on-farm water managing, and analysis have been well prepared.
The details from the programme can be bought in Pakistan Drinking water Sector Strategy report of 2002. In a nutshell, following a built-in and all natural approach, normal water availability will probably be increased by14. 67 MAF, 3. 2 MA extra area will be brought under irrigation, pilot projects will probably be started to recycle drainage effluent after treatment, 3. 0 MA of disastrous location will be reclaimed under drainage and reclamation programme, the remaining 68, 500 watercourses will be improved and 0. twenty one MA area will be specifically levelled beneath National On-farm Water Administration Programme. Drinking water Distribution Program
21. Overview of the Irrigation System of Pakistan. An overview with the existing water sources system of each of our country has at Annexure B: – 22. Water sources Systema. Irrigated agriculture is the major customer of the two surface and groundwater solutions of Pakistan. The average gross annual river diversions for water sources in the Indus Basin are of the purchase of 104. 7 MAF, to irrigate over 14. 6 Mha. Of this, 67. 11 MAF on average happen to be diverted throughout the kharif period, while 37. 63 MAF are diverted during the rabi period. n. Further level of 41. 6 MAF is pumped yearly from the ground normal water reservoirs, which more than 90% is used pertaining to irrigation. 3. Provincial Irrigation Infrastructure
a. Punjab. The general public irrigation facilities in the Punjab consists of 13 barrages, 2 siphons throughout major estuaries and rivers, 12 hyperlink canals and 23 significant canal devices over an aggregate period of 34, five-hundred km. That serves the of eight. 58 Mha. b. Sindh. Sindh has 14 publicly owned irrigation systems, which usually receive water from three barrages throughout the River Extrêmes. These devices, with an aggregate period of 18, 000 km of canals, serve an area of approximately 5. 32 Mha. You will find 13 existing surface draining systems in Sindh, which serve an overall total area of more than 3. your five Mha and also have an aggregate length of about 4, 800 km. c. NWFP
(1)NWFP has five publicly held irrigation systems in the Extrêmes Basin, which in turn serve a total area of zero. 34 Mha. These devices receive water from two head performs across Riv Swat and Warsak Atteinte. There are half a dozen other apretado systems as well which serve a total of 0. 13 Mha of land. (2)NWFP has over 200 “civil canals that happen to be community or privately possessed. These irrigate an mixture area of 0. 83 Mha. There are four surfacedrainage systems in NWFP comprising of 456 pumps out. These provide a total area of 0. 37 Mha. m. Balochistan. Balochistan has two canal devices, which receive water from the Indus Pot System through Guddu Barrage and Sukkur Barrage, located in Sindh.
These kinds of canal systems serve an overall total area of zero. 33 Mha. In addition , there are 431 impartial publicly owned small water sources schemes, which usually serve 0. 14 Mha. 24. Saliba ( Slipping Flood ) Irrigation. Sailaba cultivation is additionally carried out on about 1 ) 23 Mha of location in the country. However , agriculture potential of Saliba area is limited to one period only. 25. Irrigation Efficiencies. Pakistan, inspite of being an agrarian country, offers demonstrated really low water sources efficiencies. The latest estimated water sources efficiency in Pakistan is 35. 5%.
This means that only 35. 5% in the water that reaches the fields is in fact used by the crops. Water sources efficiency is known as a compound of three efficiencies i. electronic. canal-head effectiveness, watercourse productivity and farm efficiency. dua puluh enam. Water Distribution System Lossesa. The current every capita drinking water availability for 1150 m3/person is low, with Pakistan in the class of a high drinking water stress country. Per Household Water Availableness
|Year |Population (Million) |Per Household Water Availability (m3) | |1951 |34 |5650 | |2005 |150 |1150 | |2010 |168 |1000 | |2025 |221 |800 |
Source: WAPDA Annual Studies
b. The seepage failures in the irrigation system are also very high at 61%. Seepage Losses in Irrigation Program
|Location |Delivery for Head (MAF) |Losses | | | | % |MAF | |Main and Branch Canals |106 |15
|16 | |Distributaries and Those under 18 |90 |8 |7 | |Watercourses |83 |30 |25 | |Fields |58 |30 |17 | |Crop Employ |41 |” |” | |Total |” |61 |65 |
Resource: WAPDA Total annual Reports
28. Water Division and Posting
a. Till 1991, water was shared in historical normal basis figured out from 1977-1982. Share of provinces as per this normal was; Punjab ” fifty-one. 61%, Sindh ” forty one. 44%, NWFP ” five. 08% and Balochistan ” 1 .??? b. 1991 inter Provincial Water Apportionment Accord (1)On 16 Mar 1991 a contract was signed unanimously by four Key Ministers of the Provinces to get sharing of water such as periods of surpluses and shortages. The agreement is recognized as Water Contract 1991. (2)The accord acquired following two important features: – (a)It protected the present uses of canal water in every single Province. (b)It apportions the total amount of lake supplies, including flood surpluses and future storages among the provinces. (3)The province smart allocation of water is as under: – |Province |Kharif |Rabi |Total | | |( MAF ) |( MAF ) |( MAF ) | |Punjab |37. 07 |18. 87 |55. 94 | |Sind |33. 94 |14. 82 |48. 76 | |NWFP |5. 28 |3. 5 |8. 78 | |Balochistan |2. 85 |1. 02 |3. 87 | |Total |77. 34 |37. 01 |114. 35 |
(4)Balance River supplies which include flood materials and foreseeable future
storages were to be sent out as under: – (a)Punjab-37%
(5)As Sindh asserted 10 MAF as bare minimum requirement for escapage to marine, down stream Kotri, and studies mentioned a lower determine, the need for further studies to determine the exact requirement was recognized. (6)It was agreed that there will be simply no restrictions around the provinces to undertake new assignments within their agreed shares. (7)The para 18 (a) of the Accord says that ‘system wise portion will be figured out on eight daily basis and will be fastened with the Accord as portion and courier of it. ‘ (8) Pra 14 (b) of the Conform says ‘The record of actual common system uses for the period 1977 ” 1982 would form the guideline to get developing foreseeable future regulation pattern. c. Inter Provincial Ministerial Committee conference on Drinking water Issues ” 1994. In this meeting chaired by National Minister to get Water and Power, Mr Ghulam Mustafa Khar, Punjab proposed to share shortages of water between Sindh and Punjab on the basis of 1977-1982 normal use.
The champions with the Sind cause like mr Rasool Baksh Paleejo and Engineer Abdul Majid Kazi assert the fact that proposal was bitterly opposed by the associates of Sind oftmals as regarded as being in violation of 1991 Accord. In the a few minutes to the meeting it was demonstrated that Sindh had agreed to the subject proposal. Engineer Abdul Majid Kazi suggests that about historical average use basis, as desired by it, Punjab does not discuss any scarcity and instead each year draws 1 . 52 to 2 MAF more than it is share because fixed by 1991 Contract for the shortage period. Furthermore it is supposed that while exhibiting system sensible uses of water Punjab also included two canals that have been not operating at that time but were only projects into consideration. Thus because of these accusations whole contract lost the sanctity to become controversial.
PROPOSED DRINKING WATER RESERVOIRS AND APPREHENSIONS OF SIND AND NWFP Requirement of Dams pertaining to Pakistan28. In view of pivotal importance of agriculture inside the overall overall economy, water potential development merited a continuing and well prepared policy integrated over the years. However, Pakistan has witnessed an unusual complacency and lack of commitment since the construction of Tarbela. Pakistan offers certainly shed both in time and in countrywide productivity now is faced with a serious situation. This reflects on the severe situation the country will certainly face until a policy decision on the development of new atteinte is used, purely on technical and economical instead of on politics grounds. Long term Water Necessity
29. Foreseeable future water requirement for various uses will be as fol: – a. Normal water Requirement ” Per Capita. Per household water available in Pakistan in 1947 was 5000 sperm per annum, containing come down to 1200 sperm in year 2001 and will reduce to 800 sperm in season 2025. Every capita normal water requirement is definitely estimated to become 1375 ejaculate. b. Water Requirement for Developing Food. Pakistan has twenty nine. 9 Mha cultivable area out which 22. seventy six Mha can be under fostering, but simply 18. 2009 Mha of the area is definitely canal irrigated. All canal-irrigated areas of Pakistan produce a total of 114. 32 million tons of foods which is possibly below the present requirement of 137. 5 , 000, 000 ton. With 2% annual population development, the requirement will soon increase into a level of turmoil situation. c. Water to get Hydropower. In past 20 years hydropower share has already decreased from 60% to 34%. Thermal electrical power generation staying several times while expensive, the electricity contract price has gone up. At 8% growth level, power lack is likely coming from 2006 onward.
An Overview of Proposed Tasks
30. Kalabagh Dam is a suggested multipurpose task on the River Indus, located 92 mls downstream of its raccord with the Water Kabul in Pakistan, at the junction stage of the River Indus and River Swan, 100 mls south west of Islamabad. Specialized Aspects / Energy and Water Potential
31. Water availability on the site of Kalabagh dam will be 90MAF. Technical aspects of the dam are as under: – a. Prominent Features
| |Gross/Live Storage Capacity |7. 9 MAF/6. 1 MAF | |Retention Level |Max-915 Ft AMSL / Min-825 Ft AMSL | |POWER FACILITIES | |Unit Size/ Penstocks |300 MW/12 Zero | |Turbine Type as well as Design Mind |Francis Type/ 170 Toes | |Power House |Indoor Type | |Installed Potential |2400 MW (Initial); 3600 MW (Ultimate) | |Average Annual Energy |12400 GWH |
w. Resettlement Issues/Land Affected
|Province |Population to be resettled |Land Damaged (Acres) | | | | Barani | Irrigated |Total | |Punjab |78, 000 |21, 600 |2, 900 |24, 500 | |NWFP |42, 000 |2, 900 |100 |3, 000 | |Total |120, 500 |24, 500 |3, 000 |27, 500 |
32. Besides making up to get the capacity damage in reservoirs, KBD tends to make substantial contribution to firming up the water sources supplies not simply for new assignments but further allocation decided by the zone under Drinking water Apportionment Agreement (WAA) of 1991. Even more, it would put in a large amount of cheap hydropower for the National Grid through its installed electrical power. Following are certain elements to be regarded as while analyzing the priority of the atteinte and recommending timeline for its construction. a. Project Rewards. Benefits of the dam happen to be: –
(1)Availability of water round the Season.
(2)Cheap Electric Power in Large Scale. Kalabagh with its mounted capacity of 2400 MW (ultimate 3600 MW) will add to the program a very significant chunk of inexpensive hydro-power. In an average season, 11413 mil kilowatts hours (MKWh) of electricity can be generated in Kalabagh. Common power rewards are believed at Rs. 42 Bn per annum as well as the energy made at Kalabagh would be equal to 20 mil barrels of oil each year. (3)Flood Security. Kalabagh Atteinte reservoir will be drawn down at the start of monsoon flood season and may not be refilled right up until late inside the season. Therefore, it would reduce the frequency and severity of flooding over the Indus particularly between the atteinte site for Indus/Punjab confluence, 300 a long way downstream. (4)Benefits to the Economy.
On a preservation basis, the complete direct advantages of Kalabagh Dam would be around Rs twenty-five billion per year. Thus the investment cost of project can be repaid in a very short time of 9-10 years. n. Controversies. Kalabagh dam features gathered a lot of controversy, especially due to the apprehensions of NWFP and Sindh. The salient apprehensions of NWFP and Sindh regarding the Kalabagh Dam Job, along with the information gathered on the basis of technical studies are appended below: –
|NWFP’s Apprehensions |Factual Position | |Possibility of surging of Nowshera & Peshawar |Modern avalanche control program would provide | | |adequate warning (Tarbela also online) | |Adverse affects on Drainage of Mardan, Pabbi & |Conservation level of KBD is 915′- lower than | |Swabi |lowest gr lvl of these areas | |Fertile cultivated land would be immersed |2, 900/100 acres of Barani/ irrigated lands could | | |be immersed | |Large population displaced |Resettlement of affectees-Top concern | |SINDH’s Apprehensions |Factual Position | |No normal water is available pertaining to filling Kalabagh Dam |35 MAF getting wasted annually-15 MAF can be bought | | |for storage area | |Sindh will convert into desert|
Sindh’s Apretado withdrawals will increase by 2 MAF| | |after KBD | |Sailaba location would go away of creation due to |Flood peaks of 300, 1000 cusecs could still be | |construction over river |coming & water supply through tube wells will be | | |made round the year | |Indus Delta Mangrove Woodlands would fade |No significant impact-as minimum required normal water | | |will still be flowing listed below Kotri | |Fish creation would reduce below Kotri |No proof could be founded to support this | | |apprehension | |Project is usually Federally funded but Royalty would go to|It is a constitutional matter and can be resolved| |Punjab | |
33. The Diamer-Bhasha Dam job site continues to be identified regarding 314 kilometers upstream of Tarbela dam on the River Indus near to the Chilas River and about 165 km southern region of Gilgit city. The introduction of a high atteinte at Basha will create significant storage capacity inside the Indus area between Raikot bridge and Dasu-Sazin gorge. The selected axis is the first suitable site for the construction of such a atteinte downstream of the relatively large and flat reach with the river completely outclassed by the community of Chilas. Salient Features
34. Prominent features of the dam will be as below: –
|Description |Concrete Gravity Dam At Axis-D Roller Compressed Concrete Development | |Reservoir | | |Gross Capability |9. ’04 MAF (11. 15 Bcm) | |Live Capacity |7. 34 MAF (9. 05 Bcm) | |Full Water tank Level |B. 1170 M | |Powerhouses || |Location & Type |Underground, One On Each Bank | |No Of Models |12units, Each-375 MW(6 On Each Powerhouse) | |Total Mounted Cap |4500 MW (16, 770 Gwh) | |Cost (Approx) |$ 6. 721 Billion | |Const Pd |7 Years |
thirty five. Related Specialized Issues and Solutions. There was some problems by the technical experts upon certain technological grounds. Every such problems have been addressed. The significant types are: – a. Seismic Hazards. Diamer-Bhasha dam will probably be located in a seismically hypersensitive area. There are specific researches that indicate the fact that impoundment of water near faulted region poses any impact to increasing the entire world tremors. w. Power Transmission. Dam web page is located a long way away from the insert centre, therefore , the power made as an output with the project would be linked program the countrywide grid with lot of problems. First, the transmission lines have to be constructed through 325 Kms of rugged mountain range.
This option is incredibly costly and hard to construct and implement. The alternate indication routes will definitely cost US $ 986 , 000, 000, which is 15% of the total financial expense of the dam. c. Relocation/Up Gradation of KKH. one hundred twenty km with the Karakoram Freeway (KKH) is likewise expected to be submerged. To be able to carry large equipment for the dam internet site through KKH, improvement in the present condition would be needed. Therefore , KKH will have to be up graded and relocated to facilitate the development of the dam, transmission paths and other related infrastructure. Techniques
The Diamer-Bhasha Dam was inaugurated by the Prime Minister of Pakistan on twenty eight February, 2006. Following are some controversies surrounding the atteinte: – a. Settlement of boundary question.
n. Members of Northern Areas Legislative Council have raised the issue of the share of royalty accumulated from the revenue of project. As perconstitution the royals will go to the province through which it is becoming constructed. c. Some Individuals Representative companies raised the void of resettlement. About 40, 000 people would be affected by the Dam. Resettlement of the local people is an important factor, which turns into more serious exactly where individual landholdings are fairly small and the cultivable region is hard to find due to mountainous terrain. g. Members of Northern Areas Legislative Council and other Peoples’ Representative companies demanded transform of the term of Bhasha Dam to Diamer Dam. The task was has been renowned as “Diamer-Bhasha dam rather than Bhasha atteinte on their insistence. Skardu (Katzarah) Dam
37. The “Skardu Dam internet site is located in Baltistan, about a few km upstream of Ayub Bridge about River Indus, about sixteen km straight down stream of Skardu community, at a place named Katzarah. The dam site was initially identified with a Wapda group during 1960. This site did not receive much attention previous because of get problems. Afterwards reconnaissance level studies had been carried out by Chass T. Key (Consultants) during 1966. The cost for your five. 2 MAF and almost eight. 0 MAF reservoir capability projects were worked out since $509 million and 588 million correspondingly at that time, nevertheless , the latest creation of the Skardu Dam job contemplated by the present govt is of a much bigger dam. Technical Aspects / Strength and Water Potential
32. Pre-feasibility in the Skardu (Katzara) dam continues to be carried out. It is a project for the next generation. This kind of dam will be the world’s largest dam having a potential of up to 35 MAF memory space and up to 15, 000 MW of hydel power. The estimated a lot more reported since 1000 years. 39. Salient Features. Salient features of the dam are as underneath: – |Gross storage |8 MAF(Studies take for thirty-five MAF) | |Live storage area |5. a couple of MAF(Studies take for 15 to thirty five MAF) | |Power |5000-15000 MW | |Cost (approx. ) |$ 30-40 Bn | |Const schedule |By 2015 | |Water supply
|27 MAF |
40. Pre Feasibility Studies Including Environmental & Technological Issues. Pre-feasibility study of the dam is usually under approach. The crucial element of the task that would obtain special analyze is the back-water effect of big storage over a gorge and the area of property that would be full as a result of the construction. Large tracts of inhabited regions of Baltistan many all the created communication infrastructure would be submerged. According to the survey at Katzara site, even a dam with 8 MAF storage, might drown the complete Skardu and Shigar miles, and the population affected can be more than one hundred sixty, 000.
All of the strategic roads and the only airport as well as all the gardening land and fruit-bearing part of Skardu and Shigar will be submerged. Slope slopes rise vertically and no place for resettlement of displaced masse. There is no farming land offered by the top from the hills. The dam height required, pertaining to 8 MAF storage is usually 150 metres; for thirty-five MAF safe-keeping the dam height necessary will be regarding 300 metres. 41.
This really is an unprecedented height which usually neither geology nor seismology allows. Another aspect is that, though, the internet site has prospect of power generation, but the expansion of transmitting line all the way to the load hub through very hard terrain would pose serious construction and O&M concerns. The full hydel power era capacity cannot be utilized nearby. Similarly construction of the Atteinte itself in the future would require enormous logistic costs. Throughout the feasibility studies, these technological aspects would be investigated extensively. Outcome in the feasibility analyze would provide direction for further courses of action. Akohri Dam
forty two. The Akhori dam can be constructed in Nandana Kas, a left bank tributary of the Haro River which has a capacity of seven MAF and live storage capacity of six MAF. This particular availability in the site of Akhori is usually 14 MAF. Technical Aspects / Strength and Drinking water Potential
43. Salient features of the atteinte are while under: –
|Gross storage |7 MAF | |Live storage
|6 MAF | |Power potential |600 MW (2100 GWH Per year) | |Const schedule |By 2015 |
44. Pre Feasibility Studies. Presently, the technical feasibility progress in Akhori atteinte stands by 78% plus the financial progress at 64. 55%. The geological umschlüsselung of 25, 000 quadrat out of 74, five-hundred acres is usually complete along with daily news work on curve of drinking water, power route and spillways. 45. Environmental and Resettlement Issues. An overall total of 59, 217 miles of terrain would be submerged and a population of 49, 320 would be out of place. Analysis
46. From the study of previously mentioned following have been analysed: –
a. By 2010 Pakistan will face a power debt of 4401 MW. m. Currently Pakistan has an unhealthy energy increase significant reliance on the high-priced furnace essential oil to produce heat power. c. Private sector has only been associated with thermal electricity generation whereas there is lots of scope pertaining to private sector in hydro power sector as well. g. National Water Policy is quite comprehensive plan covering most aspects related to water management and syndication, but it does not have implementation. e. Government features recognised that 22. 5 MA of additional land may be brought below irrigated farming. In order to meet the existing deficit of 9 MAF, 2 dams are required to be constructed right away (before 2016), whereas to satisfy the requirements of 2025 added 2 atteinte are required to end up being constructed by simply 2025. n. Approximately 44 MAF of sub surface area water can be utilised for culture. g. Pakistan’s agriculture primarily relies on area waters offered through IBIS, however the readily available water can be decreasing as a result of distribution losses. h. Because of non availability of water especially in Rabi period the reliability on ground water has increased. i. Pakistan’s irrigation performance is quite low (35. 5%). j. These days the cultivation performance have been good yet it is much below the potential primarily due to inadequate accessibility to canal normal water at crucial times.
k. Rainfall preservation potential outdoors irrigated area is approximately twenty MAF.
Only two to three MAF is usually planned to get utilized by year 2025 as the remaining can even be utilized. l. 1991 drinking water accord apportioned about 15 MAF drinking water to pays over and above that which was available. Consequently assuming that drinking water storages will be built in future. m. Pakistan’s river runs are controlled by great seasons variations. Overall Pakistan offers sufficient drinking water to meet its needs. n. Due to inadequate storage capacity substantial water is flowing in to sea that can be used for irrigation purposes. If water solutions are not controlled Pakistan will eventually face critical water lack problems. um. Water challenge between Punjab and Sind immer wieder has the good more than a century. Sind immer wieder does not approve of any task that may change or block the cost-free flow of waters of Indus water system. In Sind profound mistrust of Punjab and Federal Government is out there over normal water sharing issue. p.
Pakistan lacks appropriate and trusted data base of it is river usages and goes. Almost all worried bodies and committees include presented different figures purporting them to end up being right. It includes added to the mistrust and allowed vested interests to challenge virtually any technical facts that Government may develop in support of the argument. queen. Kalabagh atteinte is an explosive political issue that if performed without general opinion can include disastrous consequences for the federation.
forty seven. Diversification of one’s Resources. Within a current unhealthy energy blend oil, gas and hydel power there exists a need to raise the share of hydel, fossil fuel and elemental energy. Current share of coal in total energy is only 6%. With all the available hold of 160 billion a lot of coal this share could be easily improved to 20% in 10-15 years. On nuclear part the talk about can be improved from 1% to 8%. Furnace Essential oil is the most costly form of producing thermal strength. There is a need to reduce it is share by current 16% to a more economical level of 5%. 48. Producing Hydro Energy Potential. Pakistan is luckily endowed with great hydropower potential as hydropower can be described as natural renewable source of energy, it is necessary to exploit this to it is maximum magnitude. Only 6459 MW is currently being used out of estimated hydro power potential of more than 40000 MW.
Pakistan will face apower source deficit of 7200 MW by 2010. Even if it is not possible to make irrigation dams now, continue to the work on hydro projects should be continuing. Private sector should be urged to invest in tiny size hydro projects, for which sites are actually identified. Besides this there is a need to greatly cut the present level of 22% transmission losses of WAPDA. 49. Water Conservation Measures. To increase the amount of water sold at farm gate we need to stone line all our water channels. Though a costly option yet it will conserve a substantial amount of water. Besides this we also have to educate each of our farmers upon modern water sources practices and make the needed equipment available at affordable prices.
Recharging the charge for irrigation water through installation of water meters may help in convincing the farmers in conserving water through more economical methods like sprinkle or perhaps drop water sources. More over change in plant cultivation method can also conserve substantial quantity of drinking water. In Malaysia 28% conserving in normal water use was achieved after they changed by practice of transplanting rice to moist seeded rice. 50. Assurance Building Actions for Sind immer wieder
a. Interpretation of 1991 Accord. Drinking water accord of 1991 is known as a blessing pertaining to the Federation. Consent of Sindh was obtained after lot of initiatives. Any make an attempt to scrap this in an effort to reach a better arrangement will wide open a Pandora’s box. Turmoil exists in the interpretation of para 16 a and para 16 b. We recommend that interpretation of the two provisions be reported the Substantial Court of Pakistan. No matter what verdict it must be accepted by both Punjab and Sindh. b. Authorities of Prevalent Interest. Council is a constitutional mechanism intended for solving matters of question among pays.
However in past in hope of locating early general opinion through additional means it has been frequently bypassed. Almost all other measures like technical, impartial and parliamentary committees include ended in controversy. It is suggested the constitutional discussion board of Authorities of Common interest be provided with due moment for debate. It can be slow but solution arrived at will be more long lasting. c. Drinking water Policy Plank. It is recommended that a premier water physique with equal representation from all provinces be produced.
The candidate selection of members be be subject to approval by Senate. It must have power to take decisions for water sharing and development of water resources in Pakistan. Decisions should be used onsimple the greater part basis. The appeal against its decisions be made just to the Authorities of Common Interest. IRSA should work as secretariat with this board. g. The Data in Water Goes. Much of the misunderstandings has risen because WAPDA in past has been showing different data about drinking water flows by different events. WAPDA must maintain yearly data that be made general public on an agreed date. Telemetry system mounted by WAPDA can help to maintain accurate data of normal water flows in to various programs.
IRSA is reluctant to consider over this technique because of not enough funds and manpower necessary for operating this system. Federal Government will need to intervene to supply the necessary way to IRSA while this will reduce the mistrust among provinces. It is additionally recommended that representatives by all provinces should be placed at all syndication sites and telemetry stations. e. Studies for Ecological Impact of Dams in Sindh. Studies to determine environmental impact in various areas like sea intrusion, fisheries, mangroves etc must be undertaken simply by well reputed international experts.
The studies must be revealed. Instead of refuting their statements plans to off established the bad impacts should be prepared and published for all those to know. f. Financial Package for Sindh. As in the truth of Indus Water Treaty coming to negotiating table with a financial package can prove to be a sufficient incentive for a breakthrough in reaching negotiating. A government funded project for upgradation and improvement of Sind’s irrigation system to include strengthening of the apretado structures, brick lining of water stations and laserlight leveling of agricultural areas is required. g. Time Particular Allocations of Water. As Sindh requires water sooner than Punjab for sowing of it’s Kharif crop, the requisite share out of its total annual talk about of water, must be plainly specified for provision during a certain time frame. However , since Punjab will then need to rely on pricey ground normal water through pipe wells during this time period, an offsetting subsidy can be given to Punjab farmers issues tube wells during this period. 51. Incentive pertaining to NWFP. NWFP must be given an appropriate bank cacera from Extrêmes to irrigate its formerly un-irrigated parts of southern NWFP. Upto 500, 000 massive areas of land can be irrigated in PADA Khan area alone.
This is certainly likely to demonstrate a sufficient motivation for NWFP to consent to the construction of Kalabagh atteinte. 52. Construction of Dams. Construction of dams even though vital to get the protect future of Pakistan yet are unable to supersede the importance of itsexistence as a federation. Therefore not any arbitrary decision should be taken over the debatable issues like Kalabagh atteinte. Meanwhile almost no time should also be wasted intended for the development of normal water resources through construction of reservoirs. Just for this it is suggested basically on public works which are certainly not marred in controversy needs to be initiated quickly. Government’s decision regarding Basha dam is prudent. Akhori dam is yet another such job that can be began right away. To begin with only bring over dams should be constructed instead of water sources dams. This can lead to restoration of confidence and pave method for irrigation dams like Kalabagh. Conclusion
53. Fresh water is known as a precious resource. With increasing population worldwide it will continue to keep dwindling, getting ever more hard to find. Pakistan is blessed with sufficient solutions of fresh water. However with great increase in population Pakistan may no more enjoy the luxury of wasting the river marine environments. It is a fact agreed upon by every concerned get-togethers that we happen to be letting stream water into the Arabian Sea that could fill up 3-4 large dams. This only because we can not trust each other. Additionally our agricultural practices are outdated and our water sources system loses half of the unique amount of water that becomes available for canal mind. It is time that effective actions are taken up effect better management of the water methods. It is also very important to eliminate mistrust among zone and find a mechanism that may allow development of water methods.
SUMMARY OF PAKISTAN’S IRRIGAION SYSTEM
|No of key reservoirs |3 | |No of cl?ture |16 | |No of head performs |2 | |No of inter ” link waterways |12 | |No of canal
system |44 | |No of water courses |107000 | |Length of waterways |56073 Km | |Length of normal water courses |1. 6 Mil km | |Average anual water diversions |104. six MAF | |Ground drinking water abstractions |41. 6 MAF | |No of pipe wells |More than 550, 000 | |Irrigated area |36 MOTHER | |Average escapages to the sea |39. 4 MAF |
Resource: M. A. Bhatti, Water Resources of Pakistan: Position and Concerns, 1999
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