e waste management practices essay

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Electric technology can be described as cornerstone of modern society. That plays a significant role in our daily lives. Increasingly across the world, electronic technology has become a basic piece in daily living. From interaction, harnessing resources, to obtaining and talking, electronic equipment plays an essential role in the basic function of culture. However , as electronic gear grows in number because of the advancement of technology, and so does electric wastes. E-Waste refers to electronic digital products nearing the end of their useful existence which includes computer systems, printers, code readers, or any digital products.

Today, the earth has been adopting the age of technical changes. This kind of changes are adopted by simply various businesses particularly Net Cafes; leading them in replacing outdated electronic equipments to new ones, creating large tons of e-wastes, which demands the battle of having an appropriate e-waste management.

For instance, sixty percent (60%) of men and women interviewed in Congo, particularly internet cafe staff and owners, stated that they did not really know that ewaste has unwanted side effects on health and the environment.

Due to the deficiency of policy about management with this category of waste, people often mix ewaste with regular garbage and throw that in public containers. The waste is confused and delivered to the landfill without any pre-sorting (Niombo, 2010). Internet Restaurants should have an exclusive collection system, and a management option to handle these types of wastes correctly for a environmentally friendly development. With no adequate e-waste management, potential threats to health will occur and could threaten ecological balance.

To combat the problem, a study is usually conducted regarding E-waste Managing Practices among Internet Coffee shops, bookstores in the City of Dumaguete. This kind of study could determine the e-waste supervision practiced by internet restaurants and the info will be use in taking out valuable lessons from the analyze in order to enhance the effectiveness of the practiced e-waste management methods on Internet cafes. From the end result of this examine, a better way of management can be developed, a systematic management can be made and would be followed in which it could lessen their burden by providing guidelines that includes recycling method, the application of 3R’s, Reduce, Recycle & Reuse which are stipulated & very stressed through this research. It will also be used because the basis in creating an E-Waste Monitoring System which will be implemented on respective Internet Cafes in the City of Dumaguete.

Review of Related Literature, Research or Devices

Review of Related Literature

It contains background information and principles that talks about the existence of the challenge and the possible connection among certain elements involved in the study. This would help the researchers identify and determine issues that rationalize the need of studying the problem. This consists of the definition of e-waste as well as related issues that explain the existence of a proper e-wastes management. This kind of also includes the e-waste administration by several countries. When going though e-waste management, there should be understanding pertaining to e-wastes.

Electronic spend, or e-waste, is a term for electric products which may have become unwanted, nonworking or obsolete, and possess essentially come to the end of their useful your life. Because technology advances at such a higher rate, many electronic devices turn into “trash after having a few brief years of work with. In fact , entire categories of outdated electronic items contribute to e-waste such as VCRs being replaced by DVD MOVIE players, and DVD players being changed by blu-ray players.

E-waste is created via anything electronic: computers, Televisions, monitors, cell phones, PDAs, VCRs, CD players, fax machines, printers, etc . Additionally , e-waste is any kind of refuse made by removed electronic devices and components along with substances involved in their manufacture or employ (Rouse, 2007). According to Johri (2008), E-waste is among the fastest developing waste fields in the world. A few of the notable items under its kind include personal computers, mobile phones.

The technical enhancements and fast change in the models of these types of entities have generated big quantum of wastes. With increasing standard of penetration, supplemented by excessive rate of such equipments, the generation of electronic waste products is anticipated to rise. Kishore (2010) established that the quantity of “e-waste or perhaps electronic waste has now become a major problem. Convenience of e-waste is an emerging global environmental and public health concern, as this kind of waste is among the most most rapidly growing segment from the formal municipal waste stream in the world. Sales of electronic digital products, perhaps most obviously information technology and telecom (IT) equipment have steadily increased over the past twenty years (Brown-West, 2010).

Salleh (2013) revealed that the director of the Croucher Company for Environmental Sciences, Teacher Wong stated that “he might call e-wastes as a global time blast, referring to the growing heap of squander produced by old mobile phones, pcs and other gadgets. As much as 40 million a lot of hazardous e-waste is being developed a year in support of a small fraction of this can be safely got rid of. In a pc, for example , there might be lead inside the cathode ray tube (CRT) and soldering compound, mercury in buttons and real estate, and co (symbol) in stainlesss steel components, between other evenly toxic chemicals (Rouse, 2007). In many instances, the sole visible component to an electronic product is its outer shell. Except if that casing is cracked, we hardly ever see the multitude circuit boards, wiring and electrical links that make the product actually function. But is actually those internal mechanical organs that are so valuable and so toxic.

An entire bouquet of heavy metals, semimetals and other chemical compounds skulk inside your seemingly innocent laptop computer or TELEVISION SET. E-waste dangers stem by ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, copper, be (symbol), barium, chrome, nickel, zinc, silver and gold. Several elements are being used in circuit boards and comprise electric parts including computer snacks, monitors and wiring. Likewise, many electric products contain various flame-retardant chemicals that might pose potential health risks. Mort-aux-rats may disturb cell communication and interfere with the sets off that cause cells to grow, quite possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes in the event someone is usually exposed in chronic, low doses. (Toothman, 2001). With these issues associated with e-wastes, specifically on wellness, there is a important need to talk about ewaste managing.

The unsafe and ecologically risky procedures adopted creates great dangers to health insurance and environment (Shiga, 2007). E-Waste management gives guidelines for choosing the most ecologically desired methods for managing a waste stream. E-waste collection programs need guidelines to assure that products will be managed in a manner that protects public welfare and the environment and conserves valuable resources. The best option for dealing with E wastes is to decrease the volume. Designers should make sure that the product is created for reuse, repair and upgradeability. Pressure should be set on make use of less harmful, easily recoverable and recyclable materials which can be taken back for refurbishment, remanufacturing, disassembly and recycle. Recycling and reuse of material are the subsequent level of potential options to lower e-waste. (Recovery of alloys, plastic, a glass and other elements reduces the magnitude of e-waste.

These options have got a potential to save the energy a nd keep your environment free of toxic materials that would otherwise have been introduced (Joseph, 2007). E-Waste problems needs exceptional policies with strict enforcement taking into account its special characteristics. These policies need to talk about collection, finalizing, disposal and recycling of ewaste. These types of policies must also target education and public awareness regarding the dangers of ewaste for the better understanding of how to get rid of it, as a result of a general ignorance of the problems Abilities transference should also be advertised and functional proposals developed to deal with old technology once it extends to its end of your life. Legal measures should for that reason be combined with capacity expansion programmes.

Government and advancement partners ought to develop a clear national coverage for the gathering and administration of ewaste, encourage exclusive investment in recycling that takes into account both equally environmental and human overall health, implement programmes to educate the population about ewaste management. City society has to develop projects to raise awareness about taking and the dangers of ewaste (Burrell, 2012). Activities to be made are organized into three main groups: first, a management system to help effectively manage e-wastes; second, education and exploration to help further the knowledge of e-waste administration and build after the knowledge obtained through the management program to develop national policy for e-waste; and finally, a project core to provide guidance and unity from the entire e-waste project.

In accordance to a record put out by United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) entitled “Solving the E-waste Problem, the primary steps in the recycling string of proper management incorporate Collection; Sorting/Dismantling and Pre-processing (includes selecting, dismantling, and mechanical treatment which can use high-tech or low-tech processes); End-Processing (includes refining and disposal). The potency of the entire taking chain depends upon each step and exactly how well the interfaces among steps are managed. (Utkucan, 2010). Prior to E-waste Managing, “many of e-waste could be a new electronic digital item is purchased and after some time it might be obsolete. 4 options are then offered to the owner of the equipment. It could be used again ” perhaps resold or perhaps reassigned to a new user. Second, the original owner could retail store it.

Third, it could be reused, or next, the equipment could possibly be landfilled. Recycle for cash and landfill are the end points (Peralta, 2006). A number of countries get their way of controlling these e-wastes. According to Babington (2010), the Division of Environment (DOE) in Malaysia offers placed 309 recycle receptacles to collect utilized hand pones and its accessories in various places such as supermarkets, universities, authorities offices, but majority of the residence are yet to comply because of limited awareness. Subsequently, Section of Environment (DOE) have encouraged the establishment of e-waste recycling where possible facilities by private sector and since then 141 recycling facilities have been completely licensed by DOE.

The need for e-waste recyclers at different MRF and DOE to champion e-waste management cannot be over emphasized. In Chinese suppliers, 88. 843 million a great deal of recyclable spend were traded and recycled at a total value of 34. eighty-five billion USD (Asiimwe, At the. N. in. d. ). In 2008, an e-Waste Association of South Africa (eWASA) was established to assist establish an sustainable environmentally sound e-waste management system intended for the country (Waste management community, 2013). Terrain filling is the predominant by way of disposal of MSW at this point in Chinese suppliers with around 90% of China’s total MSW is disposed of in sanitary and simple landfills (Dong, 2011).

The city of Guiyu with its encircling towns in the Guangdong, an area of China is the largest E-waste recycling web page in the world. Recycling has been developing since 95. Guiyu contains a population of 150, 1000, most of which can be immigrants. Nearly 80% of families have members with engaged in E-waste recycling operations (Robinson, 2009). Moreover, all of the recycling is being carried out by the informal sector. It is estimated that a hundred and twenty, 000 city poor through the informal sector are involved in the recycling operate chain in Dhaka town. 15% from the total e-waste generated in Dhaka (mainly inorganic) equates to 475 tons recycled daily.

Of this volume, only twenty percent to 35% is recycled, while the rest is disposed of in landfills, rivers, fish ponds, drains, ponds and open up spaces (Hossain, 2009). On the other hand, Mexico has ratified the Basel Convention. UNEP offered Mexico being a country with great potential to introduce cutting edge e-waste recycling where possible technologies because of its small informal-waste sector. 5 years ago, in assistance with the US State of California, mostly of the state-of-the-art digital recycling services in Latin America was installed in Monterrey, the first key electronic recycling where possible operation in Mexico.

In addition , In Serbia, waste administration infrastructure is usually seriously underdeveloped, with couple of regulated landfills. Large amounts of e-waste will be being kept in warehouses and homes. There is an active casual sector, consisting mainly of disadvantaged persons such as the Roma. In general, collectors have low interest in e-waste due to its complexity and the deficiency of potential buyers; because of this, their top priorities consist of paper, plastic and discard metals.

However , there are extremely unorganized, relaxed e-waste recyclers who work with rudimentary approaches such as losing cables to extract water piping. These practices are not regulated, with no career contracts (Lundgren, 2012). Especially, different countries have their way of managing their e-waste; basically comprising from the informal as well as the formal sector. In view of the problems caused by e-wastes, a proper e-waste management is a wonderful challenge specifically to those places that are not mindful of the problems of those waste materials. There must be a great implementation program and governed policies reading the removal of e-wastes. With all pointed out practices in a variety of places, taking is the most commonly practiced by simply various locations. Furthermore, restrictions should be designed in conjunction together with the establishment of formal recycling where possible infrastructure, or any type of collection program towards a much better e-waste supervision to ensure the basic safety and defense against threats carried by these e-wastes.

Review of Related Systems

This consists of related research conducted by simply different research workers and advancement e-waste monitoring systems to keep track the generation of e-wastes. This includes principles about E-Waste Tracking devices developed by different countries to be able to track the generation of e-wastes. While instance, Swiss, the initially electronic waste materials recycling program was

implemented 20 years ago, beginning with variety of old laptop monitors; over time, all other electrical and electronics were little by little added to the machine. The opportunity should be to find better ways to control our applied and end-of-life electronics and avoid them finding yourself in landfills, and that is although e-waste management (Lanyard, 2000). Electronic Recyclers International (ERI) has designed a new monitoring and visibility system that provides customers total real-time use of the status of their organizational recycling attempts, the company says.

The MyTrackTech software gives organizations that recycle all their electronic spend through ERI up-to-the-minute access to their accounts and enables them to timetable shipments, assessment reports, and customize their very own recycling checking. The MyTrackTech software is the first extensive customer get portal of its kind in the industry (Shegerian, 2012). Department of Heritage and Safeguard (DHP) are developing a tracking system that the effective waste materials tracking program will be able to give EHP using prescribed information required by schedule 2 of the Spend Regulation. The knowledge from anybody waste handler should be able to be provided to EHP in batches.

The program must also have the ability to provide EHP with resistant (equivalent into a signature over a form) the fact that information has become authorized by simply an appropriate person. Such documentation may include conditions particular header for your data or a personal key or password/code word (Department of Heritage and Protection, 2010). In the article “A Global Pinball Video game: Tracking E-Waste that there are two common abruti for outdated electronics, recycling where possible or reuse. To track the reuse stream, the team collaborated with Universe Computer Exchange, World Train and the Peacefulness Corps, which all send outdated personal computers to countries the producing world.

Forty donated netbook computers were built with tracking computer software and branded with decals announcing that they recording their very own whereabouts. Following arriving at their destinations, the computers send out location revisions and pictures of their natural environment every 20 minutes. With this info, the team has the capacity to create a current visual narrative of these computers’ second hails from classrooms in Nepal and public libraries in Kenya.

“For the very first time, you can actually find where the old laptop computer ends up and who is benefiting on a everyday basis through your donation (Foster, 2011). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborates with the United Nations University ” Resolving the E-waste Problem Motivation (StEP) to jointly talk about the e-waste problem in expanding countries. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY and Stage signed a cooperative contract on this subject in The fall of 2010. EPA and StEP are working collaboratively on having a system pertaining to tracking global flows of e-waste, fortifying Ethiopia’s efforts to manage e-waste and engaging with China about e-waste managing practices (Adrian, 2003).

There are plenty of related systems that are being created in order to keep a record of the circulation of e-wastes coming from several sources. A great e-waste management system should be applied to avoid risks towards our health and wellness and environment. One way of having a proper e-waste management is definitely the creation of the e-waste checking system that offer users to keep track of the e-wastes disposed by Internet restaurants in the City of Dumaguete.

THE PROBLEM

Declaration of the problem

This kind of research aims to analyze concerns regarding e-wastes, study the e-waste management strategies utilized by Internet Cafes and use the data in order to create a better technique of managing e-wastes in an environmentally manner.

This study tries to answer the questions:

1 . Precisely what is the market profile of websites Cafes with regards to: a. Providers offered;

b. Volume of Computers;

c. A lot of operation;

d. Position;

at the. No . of personnel; and

farreneheit. No . of shoppers per day?

2 . How often do Internet Cafes change their digital equipments? a few. What type of digital equipments which might be usually got rid of by Internet Cafes? four. Where do Internet Eateries usually get rid of their digital wastes? five. What is the current e-waste management practiced by Internet Cafes?

Hypothesis

H0: Internet Cafes really should have an e-waste management regarding proper

e-waste removal; where and just how should these e-wastes be disposed in an environmentally way.

Technical Background and Project Description E-Waste Administration Practices among the list of City of Dumaguete is a research study about the mode/method of management of sites cafes associated with their e-wastes. In order completely achieve the aims with the study, researchers first described the design idea of the study which in turn incorporates the conceptual structure on the methods undergone by simply researchers inside the research procedure; from the understanding the requirements on the outcome of the study. The resulting outcome would be useful towards the implementation of a eco friendly e-waste managing. This also contains the approach used by research workers in gratifying the said framework.

Design Concept

Figure1. Conceptual Platform

Figure one particular illustrates the style concept of expanding the study exhibiting a conceptual framework; in the inputs, strategy used plus the outcome towards development of the research on E-Waste Management Techniques. With that incident, a study about e-waste administration practices can be conducted to help businesses inside the City of Dumaguete that would give those ideas on how to manage e-wastes within an appropriate and best way to manage them. The presentation with the conceptual construction of this study shown in Figure one particular is formulated towards the satisfaction of achieving the result; a great e-waste management practices amongst Internet eateries in the Associated with Dumaguete.

The Input factors includes demographic profile of the business when it comes to services offered, number of computer systems used, many years of operation, the place of the internet cafe, number of personnel, no . of customers per day, consistency of changing electronic tools, type of electronic equipments generally disposed by internet cafes, location to where internet cafes generally dispose their very own e-wastes and the current e-waste management approach practiced by internet eateries. The Type variables happen to be passed through a job of performing businesses called the a process.

These data will be utilized on the introduction of the study. Data will then be evaluated through agile method. This approach involves the first planning, figuring out the requirements, evaluation and design and style, implementation, screening and evaluation. After carrying out the task of processing individuals input parameters, an result is made. After the process, a result is created, a study on e-waste titled “E-Waste Managing among Net Cafes inside the City of Dumaguete. Design Technique

Figure2. Snello Method

Figure 2 displays a method used by researchers inside the development of the study. It shows an snello method employed by researchers. Souple Method is a practice-based technique for building and documentation of software-based systems. This will include number of practices ” guided by principles and values ” that are meant to be applied simply by software professionals on a everyday basis. It really is intended to be an amount of values, concepts, and techniques for building software that could be applied on a software development task in a more flexible manner than traditional building methods.

These are the methods that is used through the entire research study intended for obtaining the e-waste management techniques among Net cafes in the City of Dumaguete. It depends on the initial organizing. The analysts do the preliminary planning. Inside the planning stage, researchers determines the requirements from the planned research study, thus, experts come up with a concept of having an E-Waste Management analyze of E-wastes among Net Cafes in Dumaguete Town.

The next technique is the analysis and design and style. Here, analysts analyze the existence of problems related to E-waste. Together with the results from the analysis, research workers would be building a strategic program based on the look concept of having such examine. A strategic program that would be integrated within the Associated with Dumaguete to Internet Coffee shops, bookstores. Next technique is the implementation of the tactical plan. In the results of a survey, analysts determine the best practices means manage e-wastes in an eco manner. As a result, minimizing the threats of the e-wastes. Last but not least, researchers examines such analyze whether this kind of research is effective enough when you get rid of the hazardous effects of e-wastes plus the burden of having large a great deal of e-wastes about some Net Cafes, which usually would permit researchers to accomplish their aim of this examine entitled “E-waste Management methods among Net Cafes in the City of Dumaguete. 

RELEVANCE OF THE ANALYZE

This study will be beneficial because its setup can be an option in creating economically and environmentally eco friendly businesses among the list of licensed Internet Cafes inside the City of Dumaguete. To the City of Dumaguete: This kind of study will assist you to promote healthful and basic safety environment by providing Dumaguetenians self-awareness of how significant it is to get rid their electronic-wastes properly.

As a result, by doing this, that contributes to strength efficiency, preservation of assets and financial growth. To the Internet Cafe Companies: This examine will be helpful in optimizing eco-efficiency of handling the proper convenience of their digital wastes while keeping the productivity of its businesses. This is very important in the sense it provides concepts on understanding about the management of end-of-life electronic digital wastes, including their correct management through proper convenience, 3R’s, right extraction, incinerations and others.

Towards the Information Technology Students: This study will give advantage for them in their future studies with regards to E-waste Management. It will eventually serve as guide references for future research and will provide further information regarding E-waste Managing. To the Researchers: This research is very vital towards analysts for their fulfillment in expanding an correct E-Waste Managing for further setup towards Dumaguete Internet Coffee shops, bookstores, which might basically provide them with ideas regarding the best methods to be carried out towards e-wastes and use these like a basis in creating a great E-Waste Tracking System inside the second semester, thus, reaching the aim of their study.

QUESTIONNAIRES:

Respondents: Internet Restaurants in the City of Dumaguete.

Instruction: You should fill up the subsequent what is getting asked. Part I: Organization Profile

Business Brand: _____________________________________________ Owner: ____________________________________________________

Address: __________________________________________________

Instruction: Please check the package that corresponds to your solution. Part 2: E-Waste Administration Practices

I.

A. Precisely what are the services made available from your business organization? Scanning

Printing

Gaming

Research Stop

Copying

Other folks, please identify: __________________________

M. How various computers are being used by the organization?

15

twenty

40

thirty-five

forty five

Other folks, please identify: __________________________

C. How years have you been operating your internet coffee shop? 2

3

4

5

Others, make sure you specify: __________________________

D. Where does your internet cafe situated?

Near the freeway

Near to the school

Near the house of worship

Near the city hall

Faraway from the city

within a extremely crowded place

Other folks, please specify: __________________________

Elizabeth. How many attendants or personnel are there?

less than 5

less than 10

12-15 and above

Others, please designate: __________________________

N. What is the minimum range of customers that you just cater everyday? less than 15

Lower than 20

Less than 12-15

Less than 20

Less than 30

45 and above

Other folks, please designate: __________________________

II. How recurrent do you remove your e-wastes in a year?

Once

Twice

Thrice

Others, make sure you specify: __________________________

III. What type of electronic tools do you usually dispose?

Monitor

CPU

Mouse

Speaker

Headset

Keyboard

Printers

Scanners

Others, you should specify: __________________________

IV. In which do you remove your electric wastes?

Landfills

At home

Near the cafe

Losing holes

Junkshops

Others, please specify: __________________________

V. What is the current supervision strategy regarding your e-wastes?

Sell to Junkshops

Remove to landfills

Shop them to storage rooms

Recycling them

Donate to E-waste Processing Centers

Others, make sure you specify: _______________________________________

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Adrian, S i9000. (2013, Might 13). Cleaning Up Electronic Waste materials (E-Waste). Gathered from http://www.epa.gov/international/toxics/ewaste/index-cb.html. Last Current: May 2013.

Asiimwe, E. N. (n. d). E-waste Management in East Africa Community. Gathered from https://spidercenter.org/sites/default/files/master_theses_sponsored/Edgar_Napoleon.pdf

Babington, J. C. ou. al. (2010). Bridging the Gaps: A great Ewaste administration and recycling where possible assessment of fabric recycling establishments in Selangor and Penang. International Diary of Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, no . 3, 385.

Brown-West, B. M. (2010, May 14). A Strategic Evaluation of the Position of Uncertainty in Electric Waste Recovery System Economics: An Investigation of the IT and Appliance Companies. (Bachelor dissertation). Retrieved via http://msl.mit.edu/theses/BrownWest_B-thesis.pdf.

Burrell, J. (2012). The Import of Secondhand Computers and the Dilemma of Electronic Waste. Retrieved by http://www.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.7551/mitpress/9780262017367.001.0001/upso-9780262017367-chapter-7

Dong, Y. (2011, December). Example of the Guangzhou Likeng WTE plant. (Masters Thesis) Gathered From http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Dong_thesis.pdf

Foster, J. (2011, July). A Global Pinball Game: Tracking E-Waste. Retrieved from: http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/a-global-pinball-game-tracking-e-waste/?_r=0. Last Up to date: July twenty-five, 2011.

Hossain, S. (2009). Study in E-waste: Bangladesh Situation. Retrieved from http://www.esdobd.net/ewaste%20update.pdf

Johri, Ur. (2008). E-Waste: Implications, restrictions, and managing in India and current global techniques. New Delhi, India: Batra Art Press.

Joseph. (2000). Electronic squander management in India”issues and strategies. Recovered Fromhttp://www.swlf.ait.ac.th/UpdData/International/NRIs/Electronic%20waste%20management%20in%20India.pdf Kishore, et. ‘s. (2010). E-Waste Management: Being a Challenge towards the Public Health in India. Of india Journal of Community Medication. Volume 35(3), pages 382-385. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2963874/

Lanyard, D. (2000). E-Wasted: A step into the shadow of Information Age group. Retrieved coming from http://e-wastedmovie.com/index.php/e-wasted-timeline.html

Lundgren, K. (2012). The global impact of e-waste: Addressing the battle. Retrieved via http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/”ed_dialogue/”sector/documents/publication/wcms_196105.pdf

Niombo, S. ain. al. (2010). ICTs and Environmental Sustainability. Retrieved by http://www.giswatch.org/es/node/288

Peralta, et. al. (2006). E-waste Issues and Measures In the Philippines.

Retrieved from http://www.environmental experienced. com/Files%5C6063%5Carticles%5C9020%5C1. pdf

Rouse, M. (2007). E-waste. Retrieved from

http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/definition/e-waste. Last updated: March 2007.

Robinson, W. H. (2009). E-waste: A great assessment of global production and environmental affects. Science of the Total Environment. Volume 408ps, 183″191.

Salleh, A. (2013, September 16). E-Waste is a ‘global time bomb’. ABC Science, l. A5. Retrived from http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2013/09/16/3849737.htm

Shegerian, J. (2013, April 30). Electronics Recycler Roll-outs E-Waste TrackingSoftware. Retrieved by http://www.environmentalleader. com/2013/04/30/electronics-recycler-launches-e-waste-tracking-software/

Shiga, U. (2007). E-waste Management Manual. Retrieved by http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/spc/ewastemanual_vol2.pdf

Toothman. (2001). E-Waste Dangers. Retrived from

http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/everyday-tech/e-waste1.htm.

Utkucan et. ing. (2010). Eco friendly E-waste Managing: Using the FSSD in a Example at LEDIGLICH. Retrived from http://www.bth.se/fou/cuppsats.nsf/all/4a00250ea2cf25c3c12577430041ffb4/$file/Sustainable%20E-waste%20Management%20-%20Using%20the%20FSSD%20in%20a%20Case%20Study%20at%20NUR,%20MSLS,%20BTH,%202010.pdf.

Waste materials Management Globe. (2013). E-waste: South Africa’s Next Platinum Rush? Recovered from http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/print/volume-14/issue-4/featur

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