enhancement future maritime capacities in gugusan

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Asia, Nature

Malaysia, Marine Life

The Spratly Islands, becoming the center from the claims within the renowned Southern region China Ocean (SCS) international dispute issue is famous for its wealth of economical resources and in addition its proper position. The importance of Spratly is unquestionable. Further to this, the proclaiming issue remains to be pending despite various alternatives have been completed solve this challenge. Therefore , this demands the respective countries to definitely increase their existence and actions in order to improve their assert. Safeguarding these claims is important for the prosperity and Malaysia’s future. Malaysia offers several pursuits in the SCS. The most important component is to maintain Malaysia’s promises. Within the SCS, Malaysia says a number of maritime features inside the Spratly Island destinations and uses up five of which. To date, there are a total of six countries, namely China and tiawan, Malaysia, Brunei, Vietnam, Filipino and Taiwan that actively claiming their sovereignty above numerous islands and reefs bounded by ocean. Says made by these kinds of countries concerned have brought on an overlapping of the ocean going border, and this problem can bring about threats towards the security from the countries involved. There are also exterior actors including the United States and Japan which usually involved themselves in the work of balancing the power in the region.

The Royal Malaysian Navy blue (RMN), becoming the main ocean going defense service in the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) organization, performs a major function in guarding maritime hobbies within Malaysia’s EEZ. The goal of RMN is always to guarantee the sovereignty and sincerity of nationwide and ideal interests in just about any situation involving the interests of national security. While in peacetime, RMN has a part as part of ocean going law enforcement companies of all kinds of illegal actions such as invasion by foreign fishing in the EEZ, piracy at ocean and safety of shipping and delivery lanes. Gugusan Semarang Peninjau (GSP) is the name used by the RMN in referring to their very own occupying region. GSP consists of five reefs which filled by RMN namely Pulau Layang-laying, Terumbu Mantanani, Terumbu Ubi, Terumbu Peninjau and Terumbu Siput. These reefs are referred to the RMN offshore areas which were built on these specific reefs. These five channels are RMN Station (STN) LIMA, RMN STN ROBERT, RMN STN UNIFORM, RMN STN PAPA and RMN STN SERRANÍA. All five stations that existed today were simply coral saltwater a long time ago. That turned into an artificial tropical isle after the concept of development and promotion with the reef was expressed by simply Tun Doctor Mahathir Mohammad, Malaysia’s Prime Minister during the time[1]. As 1979 when ever Malaysian Map has been set up, the total part of the Malaysian waters is 256 000 miles and it has petroleum, gas and underwater products just like fish and coral reefs. Thus, it is undeniable the particular marine gifts become an important element in traveling the economy national economy. The actions in the government to ascertain the pay outs on the island destinations or reefs are sensible to protect the interests from the ocean. The establishment of the stations on the islands or reefs inside the Spratly Destinations in particularly will result in the aggressive response from other countries which in turn involved that the claim. Hence it is important to offer the permanent business of MAF elements, not merely limited to RMN ships in strengthening the settlement.


The essence this essay is to highlight the current expansion and circumstance facing by Malaysian authorities in the SCS, particularly in managing the GSP. Based upon the situation raised, several modernizations and transformations are proposed to render the GSP as the FOB to get the development of the MAF maritime functions in facing the risks.

Current expansion

In the current modern combat scenario, the maritime warfare capability isn’t just concentrated and limited to warships. It requires various dimensions and levels which cover from the space until the ocean’s deep, and these protection capabilities need various application of functions, not only restricted to the nautico assets however the joint armed forces in total. For any small region like Malaysia, the involvement of joint forces is essential to support each other as the capability of each service is limited. As a result, it will be in a position to fill the gap which usually lacked in every single single services. In the current creation, China is raising its armed service activities while using development of many artificial destinations. These improvements, supported by the declaration of Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) offers significantly elevated the Chinese suppliers capabilities inside the SCS. In addition , the presence of Us, with the allies like The japanese with their Independence of Course-plotting Operation (FONOP) in countering and balancing China at this time has also increased the possibility of armed forces confrontation inside the area.

When we discuss Malaysia’s capacity in the disputed area, 4 stations specifically RMN STN MIKE, RMN STN STANDARD, RMN STN PAPA and RMN STN SIERRA are currently built based upon a flip platform attached to the reef. They are created from small themes manned by RMN workers and pre-loaded with the nav radar intended for limited cctv surveillance capability and also numerous small caliber guns for self-defense. The navigation radar, the industry type of business navigation is definitely fitted in each station when it comes to limited cctv surveillance around the module as well as the navigation safety. You will discover no larger caliber guns been built in at these modules apart from personal weapons and general-purpose machine gun. These channels are also equipped with the blow up boats with regards to short distance patrol and search and rescue (SAR). This type of motorboat is very limited in term of power to be operated during the undersirable climate due to tiny size. It includes also limited endurance as the boat is merely propelled by the outboard engine. However , there is a small amount of larger boat referred to as CB 80 used by several stations. This boat has better capability to always be operated further and with better security.

The heavy equipment gun may be fitted onboard this CB 90. To be able to receive virtually any heliborne support, all of these areas are equipped with helipad which capable to receive up to the medium-range heli. Among all five RMN channels within the GSP, RMN STN LIMA is a only station equipped with airstrip and refuge which in a position to accommodate and offer immediate assistance in the dexterity with the various other four RMN stations. This has proved the importance of RMN STN LIMA in the Spratly. Besides like a forward functioning base, additionally, it plays a role in managing and matching all matters involving all stations within just GSP. The rich natural resources and the marine life is usually precious, indirectly provide a very clear picture of how important the existence of RMN STN LIMA in Pulau Layang-Layang. In addition , the importance is additionally reflected inside the roles performed by the stop itself. Quite roles can be seen through the security or safety of the island which is seriously armed with the 40/70 type guns along with Very Brief Air Defence System (V-SHORADS) for low-level air defense system compared with the other stations. The support of RMN in the station not only restricted to the army operation nevertheless also the city who settled on the island, particularly with the tourism industry and marine studies.

The other promoting elements which usually fitted with this station may be the Electronic Warfare (EW) selection capability been able by the Royal Signal Regiment of Malaysian Army. A control tower system, functioned since the control center for almost any aircraft clinching and taking off in that area has also been tasked as the observation tower to screen visually virtually any movement surrounding this island. Apart from that, The Malaysian government motivation to develop Pulau Layang-Layang has received much interest from tourists, especially diving scuba enthusiasts. The us government has started to produce special locations for plunging tourists on this island with out interfering together with the habitat and other marine life. In addition to growing the diving sites, the development of infrastructure pertaining to tourism actions is also carried out. To support the living in that island, the us government began to develop the construction of fresh water desalinization system and the electrical energy supply system through blowing wind and solar power. Among all the islands of the SCS, Pulau Layang-laying is the simply island which will opens for tourism. Entry to the island is additionally very easy and fast with light aeroplanes with the building of a 1367 meter-airstrip. The RMN warships, with the support from the Royal Malaysian Airforce (RMAF) cctv surveillance aircraft, are usually conducting program patrol throughout the GSP being a part to enforce Malaysia’s EEZ privileges.

Following a current development in the SCS conflict, when the current problems remain pending without any answer, the informed conflict could be one of the most probable solutions which may be taken by particular nations to strengthen their claims. China, becoming the only significant power active in the dispute has already developed the areas without any permission from the additional nations, and this has increased the concern of different countries just like Vietnam to improve their army capabilities, as well as the Philippines and Taiwan. With the intention of balancing the energy, the United States in addition has involved in the issue with the support of allies such as Asia and Quotes. The weighty presence of advanced armed service warships and also other assets in this particular disputed region should be stressing to all nations including Malaysia. Since the business of the GSP back in the eighties until the completing all areas, not much expansion in term of increasing the defense capacities has been done by the government to boost the defense and sovereignty of the GSP. The location and function of the RMN STN LIMA in the GSP is seen as proper Forward Operating Base (FOB) to enhance the near future Maritime Features for the MAF, therefore the modernization and transformation should be considered.

Enhancing the maritime capabilities

The surveillance and protection of airspace in Malaysia are beneath the responsibility with the RMAF, which will involve many air security radars and monitoring systems that are located all around Malaysia. This system namely the Malaysian Air Defence Ground Environment Sector Operations Center 3 (MADGE SOC III) (Figure 1) can be an integrated atmosphere surveillance system comprises of many radars which usually strategically put in both Peninsular and Sabah and Sarawak to ensure the best possible coverage[2]. There are also command word and control (C2) centers for monitoring purposes. Apart of the radar systems that placed in both equally Peninsular and Sabah and Sarawak, there may be still a gap which is discovered by the not enough radar program placed in the middle of SCS facing the north in featuring further early on warning protection for the MADGE SOC III. An entire air security radar program, which is included to the MADGE SOC 3 can be placed in RMN STN LIMA to fill the gap.

MADGE SOC III Air Cctv surveillance System

The tactical location of the radar will certainly enhance the air flow surveillance capacity for the RMAF in supporting the MAF early warning capability. The introduction of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) functionality in the MAF will also provide an opportunity to incorporate several other systems to support the joint operation concept. The creation of new Cordon Combat Dispatch (LCS) in to RMN stocks soon is viewed also since the opportunity to integrate its surveillance systems with the MADGE SOC III program. The new technology Thales Smart-S Mk 2 3-D cctv surveillance radar note of the LCS has the optimum detection capability of 250 km[3]. The moment fully detailed, at least one LCS can be requested permanently surrounding the GSP in order to enhance the atmosphere surveillance ability with the integration to the RMAF MADGE SOC III positioned in STN LIMA. In the effort of enhancing mid-air surveillance functionality, the RMAF might have the advantages of Airborne Early on Warning and Control (AEW C) plane in their planning. The procurement of this kind of aircraft is additionally seen as the advance atmosphere surveillance program which can cover a vast location due to the éminence and speed of the airplane. These primary air cctv surveillance systems, in the event integrated, can provide a complete Recognised Air Photo (RAP) in ensuring matched surveillance together with the other assets such as fighter aircraft and other RMN warships.

While the RMAF air flow surveillance system is concentrating on the airspace cctv surveillance, with the support of the AEW C plane and RMN warships, the dedicated ocean going surveillance systems must be likewise considered to provide the Recognised Maritime Picture (RMP). Selected GSP modules may be fitted with the surveillance adnger zone for surface area surveillance. This really is in support of the RMN warships which in the permanent patrol around the GSP. For example , the Thales Smart-S Mk a couple of 3-D cctv surveillance radar onboard LCS is capable of offering the long range RMP and is linked and integrated into several platforms to possess a complete situational awareness of the RMP. Like a maritime nation, the procurement of Maritime Patrol Airplane (MPA) is essential to enhance Malaysia’s capabilities to control its huge waters. A dedicated MPA with Anti-Submarine Combat (ASW) capacity is the excellent platform to conduct the maritime cctv surveillance in this area. This sort of MPA may be equipped with different sensors which includes optical, infra-red, acoustic, permanent magnetic and stationary aperture radar which in a position to provide a bigger resolution photo for better RMP. This image could be networked in to various platforms as part of the NCW. The work of passive EW collection in a proper location within the GSP is viewed as essential to support the present effective surveillance program. Currently, an element of Electronic Support Measure (ESM) from the Regal Signal Routine is stationed at the RMN STN LIMA to perform EW interception in the AO. The presence of this kind of element will enhance the capability of MAF to intercept any kind of EW via foreign audio receivers, and at the same time can assist the repository collection pertaining to the EW database centre.

Whenever we discuss the disputed area, it is the area itself which in turn need to be guarded against the hostility of different forces. Understanding this, Malaysia has to be really familiar of its Part of Operation (AO) which covers the GSP plus the adjacent. Initiatives must be taken to establish a complete operational environment around this place, in which, in case there is emergency will probably be useful for the MAF to completely exploiting the surroundings for each of our interest and advantages. The National Hydrographic Centre (NHC) can be deployed to execute detail surveillance of character within this place in term of oceanography, meteorology, and hydrography. Your data and stats established by the survey will be soon useful for any objective to be prepared especially in relation to the ASW and boat operation by itself. The submarine can be used to collect the data with regards to the events underwater including bathymetry profile, underwater current, biologic composition etc . The defense of FOB in the GSP must be increased to guarantee a whole protection in term of air security, surface protection, the underwater defense along with defense against sabotage. Currently, the channels in GSP are only safeguarded by the manual gun program with the support of personal weapon. For air defense, particular stations are merely equipped with V-SHORADS like the amazing Starburst plus the present Starstreak for very low level and incredibly short-range atmosphere defense. When compared, China and Vietnam have located longer selection batteries of air defense system to defend their areas.

The employment of any multi-layer air flow defense system from short, channel to long-range is essential in providing better defense against any air flow threat. A medium selection defense system such as Aster 30 SAMP/T (sol-air Moyenne Portee terrestre or surface-to-air moderate range/land)(Figure 2), combined with the Jernas short-range product is a complete meet to ensure this kind of protection[4]. This is because, even though the air monitoring radar devices are capable to supply long-range diagnosis, this edge must be likewise taken by equipping this type of advanced missile system into the built-in air defense, particularly inside the projection of the forces in the disputed location. In support of the missile system, remote control weapon system just like Oerlikon Skyshield (Figure 3) is also capable to provide short-range defense against incoming plane or razzo. This system system on its own consists of two 35mm cannons with a charge of fire of 1000 times per minute, a fire control program, and a detached order post. This Skyshield product is easily deployed using pickup trucks and other land transportation systems and it can end up being networked with other air immune system for larger and more powerful air coverage, expanding it is capability coming from point defense to location defense.

Being at marine, the prevention of warships or submarines must be considered. It is not necessarily the role of the FOB solely, but it really is bundled with the other assets surrounding such as warships, helicopters, maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) and submarines. Pertaining to the FOB or the station itself, the Naval Reach Missile (NSM) or Harpoon (Figure 4) which can be introduced from property are the correct choice to boost this capability. While other platforms which will operating inside the AO can also provide the safety of the FOB. In the security against the overseas submarine attack, the coordinated patrol by the LCS together with the variable interesting depth sonar (VDS) and the MPA can be carried out in the possible boat position or perhaps in the randomly area. STN LIMA may be equipped with a permanent helicopter distance to provide support for any operation conducted just like patrol, search and recovery (SAR), personnel and logistic transportation and spotter. This permanent helicopter detachment will allow faster response in the event of an emergency in the lack of other air flow assets close by.

The FOB plus the stations are also exposed to conceivable sabotage by the foreign special forces. Effort must be taken to reinforce every modules with state of the art diagnosis and security system. The threats can be in many varieties including quickly boat, diver, swimmer, floating explosive, and remote-controlled car. A sharp search system has to be fitted to provide early diagnosis capability of the approaching hazards. The best system is to use individual themselves as the lookout. However , new technology such as thermal imaging camera with zoom, night vision goggles and closed-circuit television set (CCTV) (Figure 5) may enhance the diagnosis performance specifically at night the place that the human vision is poor.

The active profession and strong presence of MAF elements and other related communities or perhaps agencies inside the GSP will certainly continue to task our maritime capabilities inside the area. Since discussed previously mentioned, these joint elements from your MAF, when ever fully deployed are able to organize effective measures to strengthen the claim. In order to totally integrate the joint efforts in this area, the Joint Pressure Headquarters (JFHQ) should be requested to coordinate the procedure under the joint operation. This single order and control will ensure better coordination in term of assets deployment and information sharing. At this time, the Pulau Layang-laying encased a hotel and a survey centre for the fishing division. The development of facilities including the resort and several diving spots had been done to support these travel and leisure activities. The government has developed the freshwater desalinization system plus the electrical energy source system through wind and solar to compliment the surviving in that tropical isle. In term of diplomacy, Malaysia provides adopted very soft diplomacy because the beginning, particularly if dealing with the power involvement. However , the modernization with the GSP as a complete BALLOON will permit Malaysia to acquire more choice in dealing with virtually any conflict in the area. To balance the advancing of aggressive reactions, particularly from China, the Malaysian government with its playing safe approach is using a combination of diplomatic, legal, secureness and economical measures to generate its says in the SCS while at the same time ensuring that it preserves its special romance with China and tiawan[6]. As well, this will allow Malaysia to continue its relationship to countries including the United States. Like a member of ASEAN, it is a great example of a regional community that is aiming to remain neutral by preventing any outside the house power via influencing any country within the region. This community is usually able to absorb tension and uphold stableness in Southeast Asia.

In conclusion, the modernization and transformation in the GSP because the BALLOON, particularly the RMN STN LIMA is essentially necessary to project each of our forces in strengthening the claims inside the disputed location. This power projection will enhance and ensure optimum insurance coverage of security for Malaysia’s sovereignty while the FOB is situated near commercial establishments in the middle of SCS between both equally Peninsular and Sabah and Sarawak. The only command and control under JFHQ will make sure better skill in term of power deployment and information sharing, as well as enforcement of rules around the disputed area. Malaysia’s soft diplomacy policy around the SCS concern could change in the next few years if the circulation of the issues changes. While diplomacy is the best solution when ever dealing with a superpower, Malaysia should never deny the importance of armed forces capabilities in case the diplomacy did not solve the conflict. Consequently, the modernization and change of GSP as the FOB has to be considered to confront these unpredicted scenarios.

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