etiology of schizophrenia analysis paper
Excerpt from Research Paper:
Biopsychosocial Look at of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia can be a debilitating condition that detrimentally affects the caliber of life of sufferers and the families. Though clinicians in some parts of the earth view schizophrenia as a head disease that is definitely incurable, while many practitioners in the Western world view the condition as possessing a genetic or organic basis that can be effectively treated with prescription medications and psychosocial interventions. To determine the reality, this daily news provides a report on the relevant peer-reviewed and educational literature regarding schizophrenia using a biopsychosocial unit. The review includes proof supporting head localization to get schizophrenia, the genetic elements in the start this disorder and an evaluation of the environmental factors inside the onset of this disorder.
Review and Debate
On the one hand, a few researchers possess suggested that schizophrenia can be described as disease from the brain that is certainly common to almost all human societies, and that it is just a chronic state that does not have a cure (Saleeby, 2001). On the other hand, other experts maintain which the condition is a cultural item that has significant positive effects. For instance, Saleeby focuses on that, “In some nationalities, schizophrenia is certainly bringing unheard of insight and power [and] as a link with a great world, or a temporary alteration of the feelings and consciousness that gives with it special acumen into the very nature of things” (p. 54). By a biopsychosocial perspective, schizophrenia exists anywhere along a continuum among these two extremes. In this regard, Grover and Trevini (2014) report that a biopsychosocial view of schizophrenia is that it is “often a serious, disabling condition, associated with impairments in multiple domains of functioning” (p. 119).
Offered the significant impairments that can arise across multiple domains that are associated with schizophrenia, the biopsychosocial model would seem to represent an optimal structure for making efficacious concours, but some regulators argue that the condition requires a even more holistic way of treatment that the biopsychosocial style do not give. For example , relating to “” (2014), the biopsychosocial style maintains that mental disorders have hereditary or organic roots and stresses the importance of equally pharmacological as well as psychosocial treatments for treating schizophrenia yet does not take into account other existence factors. For instance , the conventional concours for schizophrenia are based on the biopsychosocial style that include medicinal and psychological elements, along with family affluence (Grover Truvini, 2014). Because Grover and Truvni explain, though, “This model of schizophrenia does not take into account the religious philosophy of the affected person. However , faith and spiritual techniques exert a significant role inside the lives of folks with schizophrenia” (2014, g. 119).
Notwithstanding this limitation, the biopsychosocial model really does take into account environmental factors that may exacerbate the schizophrenic state. In this regard, Bemak and Epp (2007) survey that, “Schizophrenia as a biopsychological model goes beyond current natural etiology and considers psychosocial stressors that exacerbate this kind of condition” (p. 14). Based upon their analysis of environmental stressors and schizophrenia, Bemak and Epp found that high numbers of dopamine may possibly exacerbate schizophrenia due to its inducement of internal stress. This method results in what these researchers term “loosened thought” that “contributes for the mind-body interaction and, sometimes, creative processes” (p. 15). This finding is highly congruent with the perspective of schizophrenia being an allowing condition in some instances described previously mentioned. In any event and irrespective of the pharmacological intervention applied, Bemak and Epp conclude that, “Psychotherapeutic interventions are viewed as indispensable towards the treatment of schizophrenia” (2014, s. 19).
Similarly, Farmer and Pandurangi (1999) cite the usefulness in the biopsychosocial style in developing a more knowledgeable understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia in manners that can help professionals develop successful interventions. As an example, Farmer and Pandurangi emphasize that, “In the area of major mental illness, specifically schizophrenia, not including biological or neurological factors from research is a liability for analysis and medical efforts mainly because schizophrenia is such a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon” (1999, p. 110). Because schizophrenia can be a debilitating condition in the event left untreated, recognizing the multifaceted mother nature of the disease represents an important part of diagnosis and treatment.
Although there will be organic sources of schizophrenia as noted over, there are also genetic sources that may increase a person’s risk of expanding the condition. In this regard, Farmer and Pandurangi include that the vulnerability-stress model holds that rather than inheriting the illness itself, the vulnerability intended for schizophrenia is usually inherited. The genetic predisposition for schizophrenia places many people at higher risk of developing a clinical circumstance of the state. For example , Player and Pandurangi conclude that, “Vulnerability, in conjunction with relevant causes, leads to the introduction of symptoms of schizophrenia” (1999, s. 112). In sum, then simply, the biopsychosocial model offers a comprehensive view of schizophrenia that considers a wide range of factors that can contribute to the prevalence of the condition in individuals and masse. In this regard, Player and Pandurangi emphasize that, “This point of view integrates biological characteristics with psychological and social facets of human behavior, providing a biopsychosocial understanding of the variables t a schizophrenic illness” (1999, p. 112).
Finally, research workers have developed a growing body of evidence of head localization intended for schizophrenia. For example , a study by simply Posner, Peterson and Fox (2009) known that the selective attention failures characteristic of schizophrenia can be due to localization of intellectual functions which can be affected by the disorder. These research workers, though, likewise emphasize that more research in this area is needed to verify these findings (Posner et al., 2009). Likewise, Fujii and Ahmed (2009) statement that, “Although there is standard consistency in the localization literary works of schizophrenia-like psychosis, contradictory findings also exist” (p. 714). There appears to be a preponderance of evidence depending on functional and structural brain-imaging research that indicates schizophrenia is associated with localization inside the temporal and frontal devices at the major neuronal and also anatomical amounts (Fujii Ahmed, 2009).
The research showed that via a biopsychosocial perspective, schizophrenia is considered to obtain genetic or organic beginnings and the state can be efficiently treated utilizing a combination of health professional prescribed medicines and biopsychosocial affluence. The research likewise showed that although there is not a universal consensus regarding this kind of perspective with a researchers browsing schizophrenia since an incurable “brain disease, ” the biopsychosocial style does supply a useful structure in which to higher understand the etiology of the state and to produce an optimum clinical treatment. The developing body of evidence with regards to the brain localization of schizophrenia contributes even more to this understanding. In the end, it is affordable to conclude that the biopsychosocial version represents a useful and evidence-based approach for clinicians whom treat people with schizophrenia.
Citing a paucity of relevant exploration as the condition, the purpose of a study by Cantor-Graae (2009) was going to systematically review recent study concerning the marriage between social factors as well as the development of schizophrenia. The intention of this study was to demonstrate a causal relationship between social factors and the development of schizophrenia. The scope of the research prolonged to research published between 1996 and 2007.
The author used a systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature went out with from mil novecentos e noventa e seis to 3 years ago using MEDLINE. The being qualified search conditions used by Cantor-Graae included studies published in the English terminology, and those studies that utilized standardized examination instruments intended for diagnosing psychotic symptoms and the ones studies that used standard diagnostic conditions. Although her research was limited to studies published since 1996, these studies included traditional information that extended to the sixties to provide benchmarks and a background and overview of trends in perspectives and views with regards to schizophrenia.
The author methodically reviewed 84 studies that satisfied the selection criteria. When appropriate, the author reported quantitative results or described the findings of the studies in qualitative conditions. Based on her analysis from the results that emerged from this exhaustive review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature, Cantor-Graae identified this clinical ramifications of these results:
Social factors may enjoy an etiologic role inside the development of schizophrenia;
A common denominator may be long-term experiences of social defeat and (or) exclusion, exemption, resulting in dopamine dysregulation or sensitization; and
The implementation of concours and preventive strategies may reduce the risk associated with interpersonal factors (2009, p. 283).
The researcher can be an associate teacher in the Label of Social Treatments and Global Health, Section of Wellness Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital in Malmo, Sweden who presented a thoughtful, extensive and methodical review of dozens of relevant research concerning the romantic relationship between sociable factors plus the development of schizophrenia. The author’s findings and clinical implications provide beneficial insights intended for clinicians up against the complicated schizophrenic state.
Bemak, F. Epp, L. R. (2007, Spring). Transcending the mind-body dichotomy: Schizophrenia reexamined. Journal of Humanistic Guidance, Education and Development, 41(1), 14-
Cantor-Graae, At the. (2009, May). The contribution of sociable factors to the development of schizophrenia: A review of the latest findings. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(5), 277-
Player, R. D. Pandurangi, A. K. (1999, May). Selection in schizophrenia: Toward a richer