foreign policy examination compare and contrast
A country’s foreign policy is a pair of goals setting out how the nation will connect to other countries economically, see, socially and militarily, and a lesser level how the region will interact with non-state celebrities. The aforementioned discussion is examined and watched in attempts to maximize advantages of multi-lateral intercontinental cooperation. Foreign policies are desired to support project a country’s national interest, nationwide security ideological goals and economic prosperity. This can happen as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations and even through exploitation.
Overseas policy research is the organized study of and analysis into the procedures and hypotheses of overseas policy.
This paper seeks to gauge the relationship (economic and military) that has been around between Nigeria and the United states. (U. T. A) in two different epochs. (1960-1966), post self-reliance, and among 1999- 2003, the immediate democratic era after having a lengthy post-militaryinterregnum. The paper shall incorporate an introduction and segments on conceptual annotations, theoretical construction, X-ray of topic under study, plus the conclusion drawn from the study shall also be provided.
Worldwide Relations: Rossenau, (1961). Landscapes international relations as study regarding the orders, contacts, moves of information among and between separately prepared nation point out. Holsti, (1972). Defines intercontinental relations to encompass every forms of conversation between the people of distinct societies. Adeniran, (1983). submits that foreign relations is definitely an area of study which in turn focuses on the political, monetary and other interactions among international actors as well as the inter-state devices. Economic relationships: is a romantic relationship between two or more states that revolves around the promotion, exchange of fund, industry and general trading activities.
Military relations: A military is usually an organization approved by it is nation to use force, usually including utilization of weapons, in defending its country simply by combating real or recognized threats. The military comprises of a power or makes with a power to execute nationwide defense coverage. Military relations deal with the interaction between and amongst nation declares to enhance capacity development specifically as it affects the proper, operational, logistic and tactical requirements all their military pushes. Military contact are seen as the exchange of combat arms and support companies. THEORETICAL STRUCTURE
The theoretical framework within just which this study shall be conducted, is the decision making procedure. The theory concentrates attention within the processes of public making decisions. A politics action has got the character of your decision taken by some actors in a certain situation by using a particular process. Political activities can be recognized by talking about the person who have took the choice and the inter-active processes with which the decision was reached. While following the making decisions approach, the political science tecnistions has to encounter a complex group of social psychological and institutional processes. Consequently, this approach needs to draw in several principles developed in sociology, cultural psychology and psychology. Mahajan, (2000: 39).
The decision producing approach has two fundamental purposes you are the identification of “crucial structures in the political sphere where changes take place, in which decisions are created, where activities are initiated and completed. While, the other is actually a systematic research of the making decisions behaviour that leads to action. In other words, the decision approach concentrates inquiry on actors known as decision makers and on the state of hawaii defined as the choice unit. Therefore, the activities of the point out are seen through the actions in the decision creators. The crux here is that if a enough knowledge of the behaviour and activities of the known celebrities is established, it can lay the inspiration for the explanation of a decision. Okere, (2000: 115) NIGERIA’S FOREIGN INSURANCE PLAN OBJECTIVES
Overseas policy objectives are built upon some general principles or perhaps national passions which is put in the nation’s constitution. International policy goals of any nation may be classified to a trinity of military proper, political/diplomatic and economic/cultural imperatives. In the 1st republic, (1960-1966) which creates a part of this study’s focal point the principal aims that guided Nigeria’s foreign policy, had been enunciated by simply sir, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa the initial prime ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) of Nigeria, to include among others; -Respect intended for the sovereignty and local integrity of other states. – Non-interference inside the internal affairs of other states.
-The campaign of useful cooperation between African states. Chapter II, sub section 19 from the 1999 metabolism outlines the foreign policy aims of Nigeria between 1999-2003. Which constitutes the second calf of the study’s time frame. What is however specific is that beneath the two several epochs that Nigeria’s overseas policy shall be subjected to scrutiny by this analyze, the principal objective of the international policy have been to promote and protect the country’s countrywide interest in its interactions and relationships with specific countries in the foreign system. (Abdullahi: 2004). NIGERIA-AMERICA RELATIONS: Reasons for Cooperation
President Kennedy once observed that:
“Every land determines its policies in term of its own interest
The traditional American foreign policy encompasses the two moral idealism and organic self-interests. The United States’ primary desire for relation to Nigeria is essential oil. As a voracious consumer from the country’s “sweet (i. e., low-sulfur) petroleum, America acknowledges Nigeria’s well worth as the largest oil manufacturer in The african continent and the 6th largest inside the OPEC. Nigeria has been one of many largest exporters of commodity future trading to the United States. American businesses such as cover, Exxon Mobil, and Quarter have considerable investments in the lucrative Nigerian oil market, which, along with other Western petrol companies, they dominate. Nigeria led a peacekeeping objective as part of the Economic Community of West Africa States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) that helped to stabilize long-time U. S. allies Liberia and Sierra Leone. A third U. S. fascination is the maintenance of America cultural-historical linkages for the country of Nigeria. A large number of Americans track their beginnings to Africa. Many of those Us citizens, including entertainer-scholar Paul m. Robeson (1898-1976), trace individuals origins to Nigeria. Last, but most certainly not least, America needs Nigeria’s help in their campaign against international drug trafficking.
The economic challenges in Nigeria, resulted in the emergence of the significant drug-dependent culture and in the alteration of Nigerian borders to a major course for the trafficking of cocaine and heroin into the United States. The us also wants Nigeria in reducing the number of People in the usa victimized by offer of Nigerian work at home opportunities that are “too good to get true. according to one estimate, “Americans lose $2 billion every year to light [collar] criminal offenses syndicates based in Nigeria. Nigeria views in the United States a steady buyer of its essential oil. Although Nigeria’s share of the U. T. market offers fluctuated through the years, the United States continues to be a primary buyer of Nigerian crude oil. Second, Nigeria principles political ties with America. The United States is among the most powerful countries in the world, plus the two countries share identical demographic features such as ethnic, economic, and religious complexities. Nigeria depends on these politics connections mainly because it experiments using a presidential type of government. Third, like a large number of developing countries, Nigeria tries to tap into America “technological capabilities for its manpower advancement needs.
Tens of thousands of Nigerians have got flocked to the United States looking for higher education. Nigeria will maximize the benefit of their relationship together with the United States by simply identifying and exploiting the points when the two nations’ interests terme conseillé. Nigeria and U. H. interests are staying with respect to the purchase and sale for crude oil and the necessity of maintaining cordial political relations. (Aka, 2005) It has to be taken into account that inside the period beneath review, (1960-1966), it was the prime minister that maintained a near monopoly of control of the country’s foreign policy (Aluko, 1977). For Nigeria on the other hand, there was clearly a powerful need to industrialize the economy and modernize culture immediately after self-reliance. To achieve this targets, the country could require foreign aid as well as the diversification with the country’s offshore market ” America was one of the countries she researched to for the injections of the needed capital to finance her creation plans. NIGERIA UNITED STATES’ RELATIONS (1960-1966)
For centuries, Usa foreign policy has been outwardly characterized by the diplomatic and economic confidence of fledging democracies around the globe. In particular, the nations of Africa and particularly Nigeria are seen to benefit from America’s idealistic overseas Agenda. (Aka, 2005). It should however become noted that few international political actions are structured entirely in good can; they are more regularly rooted in prudence and rationality. Although promoting democracy may, while was previously stated, become a sufficient nationwide interest in associated with itself, such idealistic hysteria is usually augmented by even more concrete or perhaps material factors. This is certainly the case for the United States’ interest in relationships with Nigeria. (Aka, 2005). There are a wide variety of ethnical, historical and political reasons why Nigeria has become important to the U. H. These range form population, oil, reference and strategic military importance. Nigeria’s colonial history put aside external economic relations insurance plan that was closely related to the western world. This ongoing to have profound impact on the country’s exterior behaviour also after self-reliance on initial October, 60 (Aluko, 1977). Therefore , The Nigerian foreign policy between 1960 ” 1966 was politically and economically in-line (in revenge of the nonalignment principle) to the west especially Britain and America. In main, as a result of
colonial time hangover (Abullahi, 2004).
In recognition from the newly self-employed Nigeria’s potentials for a mutually beneficial marriage, the United States of America was represented on the independence get-togethers by the Chief excutive of New-York State, Mister. Nelson Rockefeller. Immediately after, upon October 7, 1960, Prime Minister Balewa traveled to New-York to register Nigeria as the 99th member of the Un thereby to become recognized part of the intercontinental community. While in the U. H, the prime ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) met and invited Chief executive Eisenhower to go to Nigeria at the earliest prospect. Thus, it can be clear that from the first week of independence, Nigeria had established a cordial romance with the Usa. (Clark, 1991). It was inside the spirit of this warm romantic relationship between those two giant claims that Leader Kennedy extended an request to Nigeria’s prime minister to visit the U. S. on twenty-first July 61. While in America, the Nigerian Head of Government was approved the exceptional honour of addressing a joint period of the United States our elected representatives. Wherein this individual stated, “Our affinity with all the U. S i9000 is two parts ” as well as of common struggles to obtain freedom by anything that is definitely oppressive to the human nature. Also, a blood affinity- between the two countries, there lives the largest attention of individuals with Africa blood. (Clark, 1991)
The Americans stated that Nigeria was a extremely important friend of the United States. Balewa placed a meeting with President Kennedy at the oblong office as well as secretary of state Dean Rusk to discuss military relationships between the two states as well as the situation in Angola and Congo. Situations where the two nations had conflicting pursuits. On the monetary front, Nigeria appealed to the U. S for assistance in building the Niger dam pertaining to power era purposes, contrasting the job to the Tennesse Dam Expert. At the end in the visit, a joint affirmation was released by the two nations emphasizing the U. S monetary aid to Nigeria inside the areas of agricultural production and public health care services. American investments in to the Nigerian economy grew and amounted to over $800 , 000, 000 and over a 3rd of American total investments in The african continent. (Clark Ibid, Aluko: 1977)
In concluding this section of the work, it really is evident that America a new profound reliability, political, and economic interest in Africa and Nigeria like a regional electricity was seen as bellwether nation in the period under research. This clarifies the warm economic and military contact between the two nations. NIGERIA ” AMERICA: 1999 ” 2003
(The years of Restoration)
The election of Olusegun Obasanjo, a retired general and former armed service head of state from 1976 to 1979 marked a traditional point in the of the Nigeria-U. S relations. Obasanjo’s ascendancy to the Nigerian Presidency was warmly received by the Usa especially for the reason that preceding regime of Style. Sani Abacha had a very strained romance with the Us over a wide range of issues that included Human rights violations and Democratization.
The optimism and excitement of the Americans derived from a previous experience of friendly relations with General Obasanjo as Brain of express. In fact , the first American President to see Nigeria was Jimmy carter when Obasanjo was army Head of state. (Abdullahi, 2004). With the political level, shortly after presumption of office in May 1999, president Obasanjo had paid a visit to then Chief executive Bill Clinton to hold bilateral talks and also with incumbent President Rose bush. American-Nigeria associations grew in bounds through this period. The removal of visa limitations, increased high-level visits of US officials, discussions of foreseeable future assistance plus the granting of the national interest certification about counter-narcotics effective in March 1999, increased the connections of companionship between the two nations and Nigeria come about as a essential partner of the U. H on the region. (Msn. com)
Two American Presidents, Bill Clinton and George Bush visited Nigeria in August 2k and This summer 2003 respectively. ECONOMIC CONTACT
Monetary assistance from the U. S to Nigeria increased in the period below study. Rising to $78. 5 mil in 2000 from twenty three. 6 Mil in 1999. In 2003, US economic assist with Nigeria is definitely estimated for $ 66. 2 mil. The American challenge in its policy to Nigeria was to formulate a substantive relationship against the qualifications that Nigeria provides 8percent of Many oil requires. (Msn. com) The United States performed closely while using central lender of Nigeria and other relevant institutions to boost the environment to get investment in agriculture through policy reconstructs at the national and express levels. Different trade pursuits by the U. S government included capacity building in customs functions, policy reforms to inspire trade exchanges, African development and prospect act (AGOA) incentives to get bilateral control. Nigeria also benefited from your initiative to finish hunger in Africa plan, among several other programmes. (Msn. com) What all of this illustrates is the fact that between 1999-2003 the economical relations among Nigeria was not only very cordial and interesting, but it was characterized by the inflow of several technological aid plans intent to support boost the prospects of the Nigerian economy. ARMED SERVICE RELATIONS
In regards to defense relationships between Nigeria and the U. S, the us has recognized the peacekeeping and simulation centres at the war college or university in Abuja-the only one of its kind in Africa. Other areas of U. S i9000 Nigeria defense relations in the period under review included personnel training, developmental and technical aid, arms revenue to Nigeria, law enforcement co-operation in edge control and against hands smuggling and oil theft. Military cooperation between Nigeria and U. S continues to be clearly manifested in the work at fixing the Liberian crises. Where the U. S presented logistical tools to the Nigerian military.
Ideal to start of Nigeria military personnel in American institutions intensified. The United States likewise offered to give specialized schooling and some establishments to the Nigeria police through this period. However , the army relationship between Nigeria and America has not been without challenges or even tensions, for example , Nigerians, civilians and military equally were not keen on U. S military occurrence in their nation. Many continue to attribute General Obasanjo’s replacement of Victor Malu as army chief to Malu’s open up opposition for the increased armed service co-operation while using United States. It is the thought out thoughts and opinions of this newspaper, that Nigeria-U. S associations within this period, especially mainly because it concerns the economic and military jewelry, was in a situation of progress and expansion (Aka; 2005). A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH THE TWO EPOCHS
American ” Nigerian relationships in the initially republic (1960-1966) was
predicated upon a common need for one another by the two nations. It was a romantic relationship of mutual respect and friendliness. But most importantly, it was a sensible relationship to get Nigeria which will though an extremely young independent state, had effectively mobilized her assets to make a sincere height in the community of countries in such a limited time. (Clark 1991). Nigeria had cause to request for the in flow of American capital into her economy but even this kind of did not minimize her perception of satisfaction and freedom. Whenever the importance arose, Nigeria did not avoid taking a diverse position to this of America. e. g. on the division of the world into blocs, Angola etc . Your head of Nigerian government from this period, Sir, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was awarded a honorary doctorate of laws by the university of New York. He was likewise made a great honorary citizen of 3 cities: Chi town, New York and New Orleans (Clark: 1991). Between 99 and the year 2003, was a amount of reengagement for the two nations around the world after a around total breakdown in relationships. But this, time the energy dynamics had been radically totally different from what acquired between 1960 and 1966.
In 1999, the United States’ of America was not just an alternative electrical power bloc in the world that had another electrical power bloc to contend with. Your woman was now a singular, undisputed universe power with an unmatched economic and military may well. (Abdullahi, 2004), whereas Nigeria, in spite of the potentials she’s endowed with and the guarantee she experienced held in 60, was a region almost on her behalf knees, a nation that had retarded in just about every aspect of it is life and was seeking to rediscover by itself. Prior to 99, the U. S experienced stood while using Nigerian persons in their have difficulty against dictatorship. In this age, it was not only a relationship of two equates to or close to equals, Not any! It was an interaction between a world electricity and an oil generating strong state, that acquired fallen to a deep socio-economic comma. It absolutely was a “hand out romance. Nigeria researched to the United states of america for every kind of assistance. The U. S i9000 provided much for Nigeria supposedly, inside the spirit of encouraging democratic governance. Especially, in form of economic and military aid packages. Yet , American olive oil corporations got unfettered usage of Nigeria’s essential oil in return. Yet despite the exchange of sessions between the presidents of the two countries, and the increased co-operation between the two countries, America refused to grant Nigeria’s request for a debt cancellation. It managed that Nigeria had the time to pay off her debts. The very best Nigeria was offered is definitely adebt rescheduling. CONCLUSION
In summary, this operate was released within the body work of foreign coverage analysis, a conceptual logic of relevant theoretical framework inside which the study is located have been stated, Nigeria’s foreign insurance plan objectives has become examined, reasons for the collaboration among Nigeria as well as the U. H was X-rayed. The work also attempted an incisive analysis of the economical and armed forces relationship between the countries in the two diverse epochs as it was required to perform. This work shall today proceed to express some suggestions that should make up the basis of a policy of relationship between Nigeria and the United states. First, increased consistency in the U. S-Nigeria military-security relationship. Washington ought to recognize that their national curiosity is best served if Nigeria is able to become a force to get democracy and stability in the region. Military and security cooperation between the two countries in addition to Africa generally, can only increase, given the threat of terrorism world wide. Second, elevating America’s diplomatic reach within Nigeria simply by establishing circles for U. S. Exchanges with crucial areas, just like its oil-producing areas inside the Niger Delta and in Northern Nigeria the place that the U. T closed consular offices. Such diplomatic reach could help the U. S i9000 to make a contribution to discord management in Nigeria.
Third, developing a strategy for an economic action agenda in Nigeria, which usually must require business and government celebrities in the U. S and Nigeria, and inviting type from the non-governmental sector. These kinds of a strategy should focus on 3 priorities: initial, an acknowledgement of the business community’s responsibility to be a constructive player in Nigeria’s economical and democratic transition; second, a focus about restructuring the extractive industry to suppress corruption; and third, a spotlight on repairing agricultural industries to help reduce rural lower income, curb rural-urban pressures and strengthen trade and export. Fourth, getting rid of debt hang over and purchasing education, health insurance and human advancement; and 5th, strengthening democratic institutions and governance structures which involves assisting democratic conversation across the political spectrum, along with assisting in training for elections and parliamentary and politics party advancement. Lastly, Many support intended for Nigeria should now be better than ever, with all the re-institution ofdemocratic government. The touchstone should be “genuinely reciprocal and mutually beneficial associations unaffected by the vagaries of power and party association in Washington; a policy that constantly engages the people as well as the leaders of Nigeria, which is not an addendum of any kind of general policy that constantly engages the people and the commanders of Nigeria, that is not an appendage of any general policy, and that recognizes the very fact that only a significant restructuring with the political and economic systems can bring about true democracy in Nigeria. (Aka, 2005; Clark, 1991; Abdullahi, 2004)
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