handwashing study dissertation

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The hands are the many used human body organ and therefore are exposed to pathogens at higher level of00 than some other part of our system. For humans to maintain a state of good health, we have to reduce the transmission to pathogens. One particular proven solution to interrupt the transmission is by maintaining palm hygiene. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine the partnership between hand washing and incidence of health care affiliated infections (HCAIs) in healthcare settings and offer evidence based recommendations for the future directions intended for health care providers to avoid infections.

Importance of preserving hand care

Evidence to support the importance of hand hygiene in infection prevention dates back to the early 1800’s with Ignaz Semmelweis. The significance of limiting the spread of infections has been emphasized from the days of Florence Nightingale. HCAIs acquired during hospital stays might affect up to 10% of patients in the USA. The World health Organization (WHO) published national guidelines for hand hygiene in healthcare to increase patient safety and limit the spread/exposure to organisms.

Medical personnel frequently skip hand washing between patients either because they were not near a sink or they just didn’t have the time. Compliance for hand hygiene by all healthcare workers on average is 50%. Literature review

I reviewed five journals on hand washing. Makie et al. (2013) identifies 4 primary objectives to prevent infection that all need to be used in parallel: (1) hand washing; (2) protective barriers (3) decontamination of the environment, items and equipment used for patients; and (4) antibiotic surveillance. One used with the other three will put your patient at risk for exposure. Despite an extensive amount of research/data and evidence supporting these interventions, healthcare workers’ translation into their daily practice is lacking. The writer promotes compliance and consistency of these objectives to control the spread of infections within their healthcare environment. According to Hiremath et al. (2012), hand washing is one of the most effective means of preventing infections. The author feels “it’s a personal vaccine. To foster support of the hand washing initiative on a global level we must raise awareness of its importance. People need tobe educated and understand the risk of not washing their hand, when to wash their hand (after toilet use, diaper changes, food handling, or visibly soiled) and how others can become exposed to organisms.

They also need to understand the proper technique. Beggs, Sheperd et al. (2008), study used the Ross-Macdonald model to apply hypothetical data to a medical ward. This model simulated the transmission of staphylococcal infection by contact from colonized hands of heath care workers. The aim was to evaluate the impact of imperfect hand hygiene on infection. The study concluded that hand hygiene was an effective control measure, but little benefit was found for high levels of hand washing (>50% norm). forty percent compliance was found to get enough to prevent an outbreak. Borges, Rocha et ‘s. (2012), provides recommendations on bettering hygiene inside hospitals simply by promoting program observation and feedback to healthcare staff. They enhance implementation of any campaign: (1) repeated monitoring of complying, (2) performance competency, (3) education, (4) visual tips and complying feedback. These types of procedures by hospital will have been extremely cost effect/justified. Inamulhaq & Haq (2012) observed hand washing among medical and paramedical professional in clinics. These types of authors as well felt that hand cleansing was valued as an intervention to prevent infection unfortunately he often overlooked. They showcase staff education/training and cleaning soap dispensing tools/washing station insertion. They also advised that older team member arranged an example for all staff upon proper tactics.

I feel that the articles simply by Borges ainsi que al. (2012) and Makic et approach. (2013) very well support hand washing initiatives we’ve found in research to work when implemented. As physicians we find ourself asking the “5 W’s when we are confronted with evidence that may drive our day to day practice. They will pull together the WHAT hand washing it, FOR WHAT REASON we take action, WHEN and WHERE it ought to be done and by WHOM. The other four articles as well support the findings although don’t have the complete package with the elements have to support clinical compliance.

This article Borges ainsi que al. (2012) had the best research design of all five. It was a quantitative research study with meta-analysis synthesis over the 12 month period. They have well-defined ideas that the a couple of observers had been awareprior to the start of the info collection period. The method of information collection was observation only. The sample size was large enough (52 sessions and 119 opportunities) to provide statistical significant data for an effective conclusion being made.

As I compare these types of five articles or blog posts with the nationwide guidelines review they all have a similar element that hand cleaning is essential towards the reduction of infection. The national standard encouraged cleaning of individual environments, medical education, cueing for compliance, competency monitoring and records surrounding personnel training. Conclusion

Evidence-based nursing jobs practice is essential to the delivery of premium quality care that optimizes patients’ outcomes. Side hygiene is one self-care practice which could go a long way in keeping a large number of ailments away for both the health-related worker plus the patient. Health care workers should certainly work non-stop in promoting the self-care methods, holding their peers responsible if they aren’t compliant and hardwiring this practice into daily operations. This is a simple task that has a lot of many benefits. As me move ahead with federal reimbursement, health-related organizations might find a decline in their refund for attention if sufferer get infections while hospitalized. So it most starts with us as healthcare workers to be able to the method and start environment a good example by simply adhering to these kinds of simple delete word practices of hand washing.


Beggs, C. B, Sheperd, S. Kerr, K (2008). Increasing the frequency of hand washing by health-related workers would not lead to commensurate reductions in staphylococcal contamination in clinic ward. BMC Infectious Diseases; 8(114) Hiremath RN, Kotwal A, Kunte R, Hiremath SV, Venkatesh (2012). Hands Washing with Soap: The best “Do-It-Yourself Shot? Natl T Community Med; 3(3): 551-4 Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e Borges, Lilian Alves Rocha, Maria Jose Nunes & Paulo Pino Gontijo Filho. (2012). Low Conformity to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Medical center. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Disease; Content 579781, 5 pages Makic RN, Matn, RN, Can burn, RRT, Philbrick, RN & Rauen, RN (2013).

Putting Facts Into Breastfeeding Practice: 4 Traditional Practices Not Supported by Evidence. Critical Care Doctor; 33(2): 28-43 Mirza Inamulhaq, Azis H. A., Haq S. M. (2012). Role of Hand Washing in Prevention of Communicable Conditions and Techniques Adopted in Private Treatment centers. Canadian Log of Techniques; 2(1): 196-201

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