hofstede s cultural measurements china and germany

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Gerard Hendrik Hofstede (born October two, 1928 in Haarlem) is actually a Dutch expert in cultural studies [GHW]. Hofstede (1980) selected 88, 500 IBM personnel working in 66 countries then ranked the countries on different social dimensions. His research triggered four measurements (power length; individualism vs collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; and masculinity and femininity). In the beginning, China has not been included in this analyze but later on Bond and Hofstede looked over Chinese principles. From this research they included a fifth cultural value dimension called: long-term versus short-term positioning [SKR].

Power Distance Index (PDI)

The ability Distance index shows how less powerful individuals recognize and anticipate an bumpy distribution of power. Excessive power length means that power is erratically distributed; low power length means that electricity is more distributed [TIP]. According to Geert Hofstede’s 5 dimensions China is found in the higher ranking at 70. That means that this society “believes that inequalities amongst folks are acceptable [GER]. The energy is centralised and the supervision is autocratic. The subordinate-superior relationship is commonly cleaved and “there is no defence against power abuse by superiors [GER].

This means that “people are less willing to obstacle authority which can be likely as a result of old communism beliefs which in turn still have a solid influence on people’s behaviour [SKR].

Managers expect subordinates to obey them. Subordinates quickly show respect and realize that they have to earn their admiration. They also expect to be told how to handle it. Therefore cultural interactions are formal. In general we can admit the China are “optimistic about householder’s capacity for leadership and initiative [GER]. The general attitude of the Chinese is that you must not fulfil any duties away from rank [GER]. In class I have pointed out that the status of the tutor has to be well known and benefits are expected. To hear a different case in point: In Cina it is very prevalent that the employees should come 15 minutes before to a appointment and the administrator with the many power is always five to fifteen minutes afterwards. That implies that the managers enjoy even more privileges. I used to be able to notice that the compliance ofthe structure is managed very strictly.

Individualism vs Collectivism(IDV)

This index shows the magnitude to which individuals are integrated into groupings or not [TIP]. In communities with a substantial IDV index particularly individual rights are protected: self-determination, I knowledge and personal responsibility are important. In a collectivist lifestyle with a low IDV-index distinction, the integration rules in any kind of networks. They spirit is more characteristic of such a culture [GHW]. According to Geert Hofstede China is located in the bottom ranking by 20. “In collectivist ethnicities such as China and tiawan, people come together in groups and often place the needs of that group ahead of their own personal wants [SKR]. They share responsibility. The Chinese language who performing business often stay with the same partners and suppliers to keep loyalty but not worsen relationships [SKR].

In China the community acquired always the priority. Tian xia wei gong said the ancients ” within the sky everything serves the city. In the Confucian influenced cultural system everybody expects from your individual subordination, self-control and willingness to create sacrifices to ensure that the as well as state can usually benefit from it. Individuality is a term which has often had a unfavorable connotation in China, individuals associated it with egoism. The Chinese language prefer a healthy thinking. An illustration, if a Chinese writes his address straight down he will get started with the country, then the city plus the street including the end his own brand. The traditional Chinese medicine is a excellent example for holistic thinking.

Each disease is always noticed in the circumstance of the entire body. Collectivism encourages harmony. In China people focus on tranquility and avoid the direct confrontation. Harmony is attained by giving “face to others and avoiding dropping your own “face. After i talked to my Chinese friend “David Zhang and asked him about his study he will probably begin in Germany, he explained that this was a family decision. Of course , it had been his wish but with no consent in the family he could under no circumstances study in another country. Even if he previously the money for it he would not do so, mainly because his family is much more vital that you him.

Masculinity / Femininity(MAS)

This PORÉM index shows the expression from the dominant values that areestablished in the two sexes. Hofstede ranks for the female principles of treatment, cooperation and modesty. Since masculine principles ‹‹Hofstede specifies competitive openness and self assurance. A high CONTUDO index displays a dominance of “typically male values, a low CONTUDO index reveals a dominance of “typically female values [GHW]. ‹‹According to Geert Hofstede China is located in the higher rating at sixty six. It is even more a manly society ” a contemporary society which is success oriented. You will see it on the truth that many in the Chinese sacrifice their spare time to operate [SKR]. I have noticed that shops will be open right up until very past due at night. Officially, nowadays females enjoy the same rights while men in the workplace. The Communism Party in China made efforts to set both genders on practically the same level.

Anyway classic Confucian thinking does not in shape easily with this term of sexuality equality. It appears to be a bit ironic which the liberalisation guidelines of the last decade may have turned around lots of the advances of women beneath the prevalent conditions of the hard-line regimes. Through the traditional beliefs it is the young boys who have solid preferences. The men own the majority of the power and responsibility although there is a high level of acceptance between genders in China [SKR]. Sadly, women in executive positions enjoy a low appreciation. You will discover successful girls in all domains, they are among the list of winners with the economic reconstructs, but as well among the duds. If the economy in the factories is poor and staff is decreased, they are the 1st to be fired. If high school fees are too high, as well as the daughter, who leave school and must go to work [BUC].

Uncertainty avoidance(UAI)

The UAI index shows a society’s tolerance intended for uncertainty and ambiguity. Ethnicities with a high UAI, wish to avoid the uncertainty and are characterized by a large number of uncommitted laws and regulations, policies and security steps. Members will be emotional and nervous. Nationalities which are tolerant to accept doubt have a number of rules that are changeable and therefore tend to relativism. The users are phlegmatic and expect from their environment not to demonstrate feelings [GHW]. Relating to Geert Hofstede Cina has a low score of 30 in uncertainty avoidance. China includes a high degree of acceptance of uncertainty. This kind of society would not try to take control of the future, and for that reason China’s contemporary society is not really afraid of unanticipated situations [SKR]. TheChinese consider drafted and oral arrangements sceptical.

Contracts should be structured so that there is continue to the possibility to modify the deal afterwards. The Chinese are extremely flexible. In case there is conflict, a mentor is utilized, which protects the problems of both households instead of going to court. Uncertainty avoidance means for the Chinese first: What does my employer want? If he will abide by my ideas, then I can easily put it on. Nevertheless I do certainly not certainly understand if he will probably like my personal ideas, We rather not ask him indeed We better await instructions. In this instance, I can do no wrong, because the director is responsible for almost all decisions, and so the uncertainty is definitely resolved. I possibly could observe that the Chinese continue to be calm when unforeseen situations occur. They just do not get annoyed about the situation. They will quickly accept the situation and adapt their surroundings.

Long term or initial orientation(LTO)

This kind of LTO index “deals together with the issue of virtue. Long lasting cultures worth thrift and perseverance; initial cultures benefit tradition, the fulfilment of social responsibilities and guarding one’s ‘face’ or honour. A long-term orientation is definitely associated with East Asian countries [TIP]. According to Geert Hofstede China includes a high credit score of 118. Hofstede analysed that China has the highest ranking of countries in long-term alignment. It is 30% higher than the Asian normal score. Customer a country with a strong long-term orientation. It could be seen from the fact that Cina preferred a long-term creation and indirect enforcement approaches [SKR].

According to the Chinese way of thinking not necessarily the shortest route leading to the vacation spot but the harder path. Which means Chinese are designed for complex conditions without a wide range of stress nor they permit push themselves through period. The key for the China is to increase strong, trusted, lasting human relationships. Before any decision is met there must be obtained a certain amount of trust. Obviously this kind of takes much longer to finish a company deal. They cannot like to dash into things [SKR]. Once you build up the trust and a strong romance you can count on it. This kind of culture can be marked by loyalty and respect. If you are willing to preserve this marriage you can trust your entire life upon Guanxi.

Comparability between Chinese suppliers and Germany

As you can see there are a few differences between Germany and China. Unlike China the ability is decentralised. The German culture is definitely marked with a low electric power distance plus the subordinates be ready to be consulted as well as they will expect to give their suggestions to the managers. Flashing to my job history I can admit I generally had to have initiative. Often people are confronted by the pensée: “think by yourself. The other difference is that the supervision and subordinates respect each other and deal with one another as equals. Usually it is because described, nevertheless there are of course exceptions. In most cases, nevertheless , I have experienced the experience that I had a good relationship to my manager. Compared to China, Germany provides a highly individual society. Personal responsibility, freedom, self-determination and I-experience are really valued in Germany. A prolonged stay abroad is much respected. It shows that you can on their own fulfil tasks.

Companies want workers with international encounter due to developing globalization. That individualism is important, can also be observed in the fact that you put your name first the moment writing an address. This really is totally different to China where you put the region at first?nternet site have already pointed out. According to Hofstede Philippines and Cina have the same CONTUDO index. Typically it is the guys who hold the most of the electric power. I have observed women drive more moreattract and more popularity in the man dominated business world. For example today we have a woman (Angelika Merkel) as chancellor and never a man. I will see increasingly more woman participating in higher positions. Therefore I could rate Australia at fifty-five because there is without a doubt about the increasing popularity of women. Another example demonstrates a ladies quota needs to be introduced in Germany, which include that by least 10% of women ought to sit in the top administration.

Furthermore Indonesia is a region full of bureaucracy. We have regulations for almost almost everything, insurance companies are meant to protect all of us and the corporations should control everything you can possibly imagine. We want to have everything handled in order to control the future. Consequently we make contracts after which we act accordingly. This is certainly totally different for the Chinese Traditions where persons like to maintain your possibility to alter things after. The highest big difference between China and tiawan and Indonesia is the LTO index. In contrast to China, Germany is more initial oriented. Managers in Germany try to generate high profits in no time. We all puttruth and directness just before diplomacy. Furthermore I have noticed that German business employers are impatient because they would like to get fast results.


Unfortunately, I possibly could not find out if I would spread as much points as Hofstede because there was too less time to make an intensive investigation. However , I found out through discussions and research that Hofstede was pretty accurate together with his assumptions. Furthermore, I want to talk about a couple of criticisms of his study. The real key is listed simply by critics the drawn selections were not consultant. So in the original study(1967-1972 ) information were applied from a global survey of IBM.

Thus, it is unsure whether the program actually resolved measures of national civilizations or rather variations in corporate traditions between the countries. Furthermore, Hofstede’s approach neglects differences within a nation. The model doggie snacks a country as a homogeneous state of people who most share the same value program. This is generally incorrect. Additionally , criticism with the validity with the items was practiced [4]. Hofstede cites simply no theoretical justification for selecting items. House and other people criticizes in particular the failing to distinguish between values ‹‹and behavior. This is certainly problematic mainly because negative principles ‹‹and tendencies are associated.

Source Materials:


Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Outcomes: Comparing Ideals, Behaviours, Organizations and Organisations across Nations around the world (Place: Corwin Press, 2001). http://www.tiplady.org.uk/pdfs/LEA502-5-culturalissues.pdf


The Hofstede Hub:



Hofstede a comparison of Germany and China:

https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDgQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbuinternationalmanagement.wikispaces.com%2Ffile%2Fview%2FHofstede%2Bcomparison%2Bof%2BGermany%2Band%2BChina.doc&ei=vDRYUb6mKo7EswaMoICQAg&usg=AFQjCNHgjNwXhFqhxu015my2P3qIqIftMQ&sig2=MGY08eJFzKV1E”Q6iME-w&bvm=bv.44442042,d.Yms [GHW]

Geert Hofstede



Der China and tiawan Knigge; Yu-Chien Kuan, Petra Häring-Kuan; September 2006 ISBN: 978-3-596-16684-8

Persons I have talked to:

David King (Banker / Chinese)

David Zhang (Student / Chinese)

Primel (Chinese Lady who research German)

Kim Lao (Chinese Business Man as well as employed by an American company) Embrollo (Student / Chinese)


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