inner fish dissertation

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INNER FISH CHAPTER one particular

1 . The writer and his fellow workers wanted to use 375 , 000, 000 old rock and roll, because inside the 385 million year old dirt they located what look like fish. Inside the 365 mil year old dirt they located amphibians that did not look like fish, in like manner find the change the look at the 375 million year old ordinary to find transition between the two. In their paleontology work in 2004 they discovered sedimentary rocks in Philadelphia and on the east coast of Greenland, but their many successful rock and roll was seen in the Artic of Canada.

2 . The fossil Tiktaalik has a flat head with eyes on top, it is just like an ca?man. Tiktaalik likewise looks like a fish as a result of scales and fins. This fossil concurs with prediction as the fish consists of a part of all of us. 3. Neil Shubin believes that Tiktaalik says something about our own body, because of the the neck and throat. In Tiktaalik “the head is completely clear of the shoulders (26). The fish prior to Tiktaalik acquired bones linked the skull and the shoulder muscles together.

The layout is distributed to other pets and human beings. Shubin thinks that this precious is a component to our history.


In the event this statement was authentic, humans might have the answer to evolution plus the controversy to it would have recently been ended. Also, Shubin’s expedition to the Canadian Arctic probably would not have been a big story and he would not have traveled to the Arctic in the event that fossils had been easily discovered. The fact demonstrate that this declaration is phony, because there are changes in the earth that disallow for fossils to remain in exemplary conditions or be found whatsoever. One example, Shubin discussed inside the first section regarding the changing temperatures inside the Arctic, which in turn “crumbles the area rocks and fossils (Shubin 20). As well the seismic and volcanic activity will either ruin the fossils present, or perhaps it would cover the fossils with debris and mountain which tends to make them hard to get at.


Shubin, Neil. The Inner Seafood: A Voyage into the 3. 5-Billion-Year Great the Human Body. Ny: Pantheon, 08. Print.


1 ) The patterns discovered by Sir Richard Owen was found in every one of the bones noticed of mammal limbs. The “one bone- two bone- lotsa blobs-digitspattern refers to the bone position of the equip and the lower limbs. This pertains to his tips of exceptional commonalities, which is that every creatures with limbs have a common structure. The patterns that this individual refers to is definitely or was your blueprint for mammal braches. 2 . Charles Darwin declared that bat’s wings and human’s arms when shared one common ancestor that had prevalent skeletal patterns. 3. After examination of Tikataalik’s fin, it was certain that the fish a new wrist. The wrist was similar to the human wrist it might bens, and can push up. The movement was useful for the fish to navigate to the underlying part of the lake or fish-pond.


The fish and human will vary, our environment, demands, diet, sociable interaction, put in place the food string, etc . Shubin’s main communication in the second chapter is usually discovering exactly what is underneath the area. By just a glance, fish and human may appear to be different, but when functioning past the skin, there are some commonalities. The first one being bone composition as the result of Shubin. Shubin discussed the Owen bone tissue structure “one bone, two bone, lotsa blobs, and five toes (32). This kind of structure exists in the fish and the human being. Furthermore, nearly the fish and human being have a common limb composition, we may also have a common ancestral roots. Shubin promises that the seafood he discovered could be an ancestral of the two fish and humans in which case, fish and humans are similar.


Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the three or more. 5 Billion- Year- Great the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Produce.


1 ) Biologist Edgar Zwilling and John Saunders observed chicken breast embryos by cutting and moving cells to discover the embryos effect. Applying microsurgery that they discovered two patches of tissue that control subject in the bone fragments pattern. If the tissue was removed the particular upper arm developed. Because it was eliminated later the arm totally developed. The findings with this observation lead to the knowledge that appendages are made by related genes. Findings also suggests that the major transformation of fins in limbs did not involve fresh DNA only genes coming together in differentways.

2 . Hedgehog gene was originally found in fruit flies as a gene that makes several region effects similar to poultry region effects. The poultry hedgehog was discovered and renamed sonic chevy Hedgehog. The gene was found in the chicken’s wing bud. Every animal with limbs acquired the hedgehog gene. If the sonic hedgehog gene will not activate inside the normal embryo it can bring about an extra pinky or thumb. This test confirmed that the sonic hedgehog gene plays a role in the development of appendages.


The body has specialised cells, bringing about specialized tissue, organs, and etc .. The specialty area is not really due to the exceptional set of DNA because the GENETICS in your bodies is a same for every individual. But instead, it is the gene in our GENETICS like the Sonic Hedgehog one that controls the specialization in our cells. Tabin, McMahon, and Ingham noticed that “this gene manufactured one end of a body segment look different from the other (Shubin 52). The hedgehog gene creates a unique DNA by simply turning on / off at arranged times, the gene is able to create deformities in certain cellular material. These deformities are what create the cells within our body turn into muscle cells or pores and skin cells. Consequently , it is not a distinctive set of DNA, but family genes activated at certain times that allow cells to build muscle tissue whereas other folks are hands.


Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the several. 5- Billion-Year History of our body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print.


1 . Teeth are hard as rocks due to high articles of hydroxyapatite, seen even more in the teeth than in bone fragments. Teeth are more unlikely to rot and will be the best preserved part of a precious. 2 . Conodonts are organisms with spikes protecting away of their body. They became used mainly by jawless fish to use up their meals. Overtime the fish necessary the Conodonts gene to create teeth through the process endosymbiosis. 3. Scale, feathers, breast, and the teeth start the lower layers in the skin folded away inward. Coming from each fold the structures emerges. Shubin claims that teeth came up first then simply changed to creating other skin surfaces.


First off, the earliest recording of any hard body part bone or perhaps tooth was the “Conodonts inside the primitive lampreys and those had been teeth (Shubin 75). The lamprey is definitely not a ttacker or prey, rather this can be a parasite. The lamprey uses its hard body part for its own gain. Likewise, we can turn to one of the ocean’s most simple fish as well as its most feared predator, the shark. The shark’s inner supporting product is that manufactured from cartilage, certainly not bone, and its hard part is its tearing tooth. The shark and lamprey are two examples that bones came up after tooth as a great adaptation to get protection. The teeth came as a beneficial variation for potential predators since the creation of teeth allowed predators to tear apart its prey. Bone tissues came as a sort of body system armor up against the tearing tooth.


Shubin, Neil. The Inner Seafood: A Trip into the three or more. 5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print.


1 . The trigeminal and face cranial nerve fibres appear to just be a mass of tangled muscle and nerves, with no order, nevertheless they demonstrate “a pattern that reveals the order about what initially appears chaotic (Shubin 82). Cranial nerves comes directly from the brain, arising from the base of the mind to be exact, and these nervousness control face actions such as chewing, discussing, and shifting our sight and mind. The trigeminal and face cranial nerve fibres are the two cranial nerve fibres that are “very complex functions and consider tortuous routes through the head to do their very own job (Shubin 84). The trigeminal and facial nerve are talk about when it comes to complicated nervous pathways. The trigeminal nerve limbs out in to an array of twigs forming a network of nerves, and serving the primary function of transferring information from our encounter back to the brain.

The branches from the trigeminal neural however also serve for feeling sensation in the origins of several teeth, along with rendering feeling towards the entire face through their very own complicated network of neurological endings. The facial cranial nerve also controls muscle groups and sends information from the brain, and it is “the key nerve that controls muscle tissues of face expression (Shubin 85). There seems to be zero reason to the numerous and varied features of these spirit. 2 . There are four mainarches involved in embryonic development: the first mid-foot forms the upper and reduced jaws, malleus and the incus, which are two ear bone fragments. The second mid-foot forms a little ear cuboid called the stapes, a throat bone tissue, and muscle tissues involved in face expression control. The third mid-foot from bones, muscles, and nerves deeper in the neck use to swallow. The fourth mid-foot forms the deepest parts of the neck (Shubin 87). 3. Hox genes are really important mainly because they “instruct cells to help make the different portions of our head (Shubin 93).

Each gill arch contains a different parts of Hox genes in it, allowing for the arch to develop in the structure in the head, whether that is the chin, throat, nose, or other structures. With knowledge of how Hox genetics work, we are able to make a map of your gill. 4. The Amphioxus an invertebrate, but it shares many attributes with vertebrates, it is a good specimen intended for study, as it helps when ever analyzing the differences and similarities between vertebrates and invertebrates. Even though the Amphioxus does not have a back bone, that shares the characteristic of experiencing a neural cord that runs along its again like vertebrates. Rather than creating a spine to get support, the Amphioxus has a “notchcord that is filled with a jelly-like material. While the Amphioxus keeps its “notchcord, ours breaks up and ultimately becomes “part from the disks that lie between or vertebrate (Shubin 94).


Fishes and humans do appearance different. However , the gill arches during the embryonic level create comparable structure in use, not appearance. The initially gill posture creates “the trigeminal neurological in equally humans and sharks (Shubin 91). The cells in the second gill arch provides us cartilage and muscle mass that helps the creation of the stapes, as well as another bone, the hyoid, that aids in swallowing. In a shark, the same posture “helps with jaw production that compares to hyoid (Shubin 92). Inside the third and fourth gill arch, intended for humans that produces constructions necessary for speech and take and for fishes it includes areas of tissues that support the gills. Sharks and individuals have gill arches inside the embryonic stage, but unlike the statement proposes, they do develop into related structures in each affected person.


Shubin, Neil. The Inner Fish: A Voyage into the a few. 5-Billion-Year Great

the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 08. Print.


1 . A. “Ectoderm ” Epidermis of skin as well as derivatives (including sweat glands, hair follicles), Epithelial cellular lining of mouth and and can, Cornea and lens of eye, Stressed system, Sensory receptors in epidermis, Adrenal medulla, Tooth enamel, Epithelium of pineal and pituitary glands, Notochord, Skeletal system (Shubin 101).  B. “Mesoderm ” Muscular system, Muscular level of abdomen and intestine, Excretory system, Circulatory and lymphatic systems, Reproductive program (except bacteria cells), Skin of epidermis, Lining of body cavity, Adrenal cortex (Shubin 102) C. “Endoderm ” Epithelial lining of digestive tract, Epithelial lining of respiratory system, Coating of harnröhre, urinary urinary, and reproductive system, Liver, Pancreas, Thymus, Thyroid and parathyroid glands (Shubin 102).

2 . The fertilized egg continues to divide which leads to the creation associated with an inner selection of cells with an external shell. This stage is known as a blastocyst. The inner selection of cells come to be an embryo while the outer group of skin cells turns into the membranes that support and shield this. The blastocyst reaches the uterus around day your five, and implants into the uterine wall upon about day time 6. The mother’s period causes the liner of the womb to develop and put together to support a runner fetus and ultimately an infant. During the being pregnant the blastocyst sticks tightly to the womb where it receives nutrients through the mom bloodstream. (Shubin 100-101)

three or more. “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny means the study of the development of an embryo that displays the replication of an evolutionary stage during development and growth of a group of organisms (Shubin 103). While studying embryos, a craze could be viewed that the additional along you decide to go in the phylogenetic tree, the more stages of development the organism could pass through, yet there are many samples of organisms who do not look like previous major ancestors when they are developing. some. Noggin is actually a type of HOX gene that helps with the physique plan, and it is also included in other bodily organs. It is also connected with another gene called “BMP-4 when identifying the top bottom axis, where BMP-4 is the bottom gene and Noggin is the leading gene (Shubin 112). 5. The body-building genes of sea anemones and individuals are the same.

Marine anemonesand humans have similar major body system plan genes along mammalian head-to-anus axis of anemones. Sea anemones have comparable belly-to-back genes to humans, but instead of along a belly-to-back axis, it was along a hidden axis called a savoir axis that differentiates the sides with the organism in a left and right side. Humans and sea anemones may look different, number of years of changes accounts for the visible difference between the human body plans of a human and a sea anemone.


First of all, scientists will not work in remoteness. Throughout all the examples given by Shubin and all clinical education, it really is evident a scientist are unable to simply operate alone and achieve a medical breakthrough. In the instance of the “Organizer’s discovery it had been not only Mangold but as well Spemann whom helped come up with that thought (Shubin 106). Furthermore, it is far from counter-productive to repeat an additional scientist’s experiments or to consider their study because usually it is the analysis and experiments of the earlier days that give us insight plus the background information necessary to produce fresh information. While using the experiments more and utilizing their research is certainly not counter-productive, because their success and failures can help other scientist to find and fix the previous problem.


Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Seafood: A Quest into the a few. 5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Printing.


1 . The most interesting thing about the timescale is how recently modern day humans has been around since. This is unexpected to me, as the events we all learn of all time seem thus numerous and ancient, in fact it is difficult to think about an globe without man life. installment payments on your The most common proteins found in the body is “collagen (Shubin 125). When amplified it appears like a rope, with a large amount of tiny molecular fibers. Collagen is “like rope, it is strong when ever pulled, nevertheless weak when ever relaxed (Shubin 125).

3. Cells are held with each other by a natural ‘glue’ that also allows them to speak. It contains a variety of different molecules and provides our tissue and internal organs theirdistinct appearance and function. A few tissues include cells in organized whitening strips, while others possess cells which can be randomly scattered or usually attached to one another. For example , the molecules in the middle bone cells determine the effectiveness of the bone tissue and more freely attached aminoacids in sight make them more squishy and yielding.

5. Cells generally communicate with one another by mailing molecules forward and backward. Basic cell-to-cell communication entails one cellular emitting a sign that connects to the membrane of the cellular receiving the transmission. Once attached to the outer membrane layer, the molecule sets off a chain reaction of molecular events that travels from the outer membrane all the way, most of the time, to the nucleus of the cell. 5. “Choanoflagellates are single-celled microbes, known to be the closest microbe family of animals with body and a sponge. Because of the breakthrough discovery of choanoflagellates, the hereditary distinction between ‘single-celled microbe’ and ‘animal with body’ completely broke down because almost all of the genes lively in choanoflagellates are also active in family pets, with many of those genes offering as part of the equipment that builds bodies. These types of organisms provided biologists a road map pertaining to comparing the bodybuilding equipment to microbes (Shubin 133-134).

6. Ideas explaining the appearance of bodies add a very simple a single: bodies came about when bacterias developed innovative ways to eat the other person or prevent being ingested. Another justification for development of bodies was obviously major function. Numbers of oxygen were not high enough in ancient the planet until around a billion years ago, when the amount of oxygen elevated dramatically and when enough fresh air was show support them, bodies popped up.


First of all, tissue in the human body have skin cells similar with regards to cells inside that same tissue. For instance , cells in brain tissue will be comparable to other cellular material in the same brain tissue, not to cellular material in a heart tissue. Only some cells connect the same way and there is not always one common cell membranes. Rather that while there are certain sorts of cells just like muscle skin cells that might do that other skin cells like bone tissue cells no longer. Bones stay “by way of tiny molecular rivets, and several bind cells like “cement holds with the soles of shoes together (Shubin 127). This kind of rivet twigs to cell membrane of 1 cell and another cell and acts like a glue. Thus, creating a connect that holds these bone fragments together. These rivets just bond tothe same sort of rivet. Hence, not all identical cells connect to each other within a similar trend. Furthermore, only some tissues inside the human body are constructed of similar cells.


Shubin, Neil. The Inner Fish: A Trip into the three or more. 5-Billion-Year Good the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Printing.


1 . Flying in the air happen to be tiny elements that we register as scent with our à nous. We draw in these scent molecules inside our nostrils as we breathe or perhaps sniff. From there, the scent molecules head to an area behind our nose area where they can be trapped by the mucous cellular lining of our nasal passages. Inside this liner is a patch of muscle containing countless nerve cells, each with little projections into the mucous membrane. If the molecules surrounding this time bind towards the nerve skin cells, signals will be sent to each of our brain and our brain then information these alerts as a smell. 2 . This kind of occurrence is sensible because mammals are highly specialized smelling pets, which takes a large number of odor genes in order to recognize the odor. A larger number of stench genes can be done because the “extra genes in mammals are variations of a theme: they are like replications, albeit altered ones, from the genes in jawless seafood. This means that our large number of scent genes came about by many models of duplication of the small number of genes.


First of all, “three percent in the human genome is focused on olfactory senses, which is had to detect different odors. (Shubin 144. The sole thing true and connected with regards to olfactory genetics and pets or animals is that they are present in the same number in all organisms able of finding smell. In the event this declaration were accurate, dogs and humans may have the same sense of smell as one another. The only thing comparable is the quantity, other than that everything is different. For example , although human beings and dogs both have three or more percent of genome committed to the smelling of odors, the dog may have more of their 3 percent actually working compared to human beings.


Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Seafood: A Journey into the 3. 5-Billion-Year Good the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Printing.


1 ) Humans and Old Community monkeys possess similar eye-sight due in major part to the analogous structures in the optical systems. Both individuals and the Aged World monkeys are enabled to have this kind of vivid color vision due to three exclusive light receptors that permit the understanding of different varieties of light. Selection in plants gave this world apes an evolutionary benefit to being able to see different colors to be able to differentiate different fruits, cherries and such. 2 . “Eyeless genetics were at first discovered the moment Mildred Hoge observed fruit flies that lacked eye in their whole. This gene when within other varieties can lead to deformities in the eyes of the provided species. Deformities in human beings due to the eyeless gene could cause conditions such as acarida.

It is often observed that eyes in flies, mice and humans all comes from similar sequences of DNA of the eyeless genes. These eyeless genetics and the DNA fragment primarily responsible had been studied a whole lot. Biologist Walt Gehring could use the eyeless gene to active the DNA pattern similar consist of areas of the body. In areas of account activation of the gene, an vision would expand. This was an astonishing discovery. The analogous composition to eyeless genes in mice, Pax 6, confirmed similar results when activated. Depending on these findings it can be determined that eyeless, or Pax 6 is a overarching control gene of eye production in all animals that have eyes (Shubin 156).


Almost all organisms with vision you don’t have similar eyes. When looking at the diagram on-page 151, he makes a clear distinction inside the eyes of humans, scallops, nautili, and limpet. There is also a clear variation provided in the graphics in the structure of their eyes, therefore their eye-sight. Even when functioning at the tightly related take flight, their your-eyes not comparable to that of human beings. Humans have one main vision and our vision structure is more like that of any camera, not a kaleidoscope. Monkeys would benefit because “color vision allowed them to discriminate better amongst many kinds of fruits and leavesand select the many nutritious among them (Shubin 153).


Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Fish: A Trip into the several. 5-Billion-Year Good the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print.


1 . There are three parts to the ear; the lining ear, midsection ear, and outer ear canal. The pinna, or the flap of the exterior ear, is a only exceptional body portion found in mammals. 2 . The discovery the ear our bones of mammals may have some correlation to the jaw bones of reptiles commenced with Karl Reichert, a German anatomist. Mammals possess three bones in the middle hearing, while lizards and amphibians have merely one. Thus, these bones had to come from someplace. He noticed gill curve in several species to see in which they wound up within the head, and learned that two of the ear bone tissues present in mammals corresponded to bones inside the jaws of reptiles. This individual concluded that “the same gill arch that formed section of the jaw of your reptile produced ear bone tissues in mammals (Shubin 160).

By 1913, embryologists and paleontologists began to work together, and with Gaupp’s theory, began to look at these types of fossilized skeletons. They discovered that the most reptilian of these skeletons only a new single bone fragments in the middle headsets, just like current reptiles perform, and a jaw consists of many bone fragments. However , a lot more mammalian of these skeletons confirmed the bones at the back of the reptilian mouth getting smaller right up until they eventually became part of the middle ear of mammals. This proved that the malleus and incus started out jawbones. a few. The Pax 2 gene is mixed up in ear and starts a series reaction that enables for the lining ear to produce. If a veränderung in humans or mice knows this gene out your inner hearing cannot effectively form. This is a major gene that is necessary for proper development.


Birth defects to the ear canal often effects the eye, and vice versa. The reason is , the use of the ear is far more than just hearing. The headsets gives all of us a sense of stability and direction via the rocks, gel, and nerves in the inner ear canal. Every time our “head tilts or techniques, the rocks sitting on the gel in our inner hearing moves as well (Shubin 165). This activated the neural hairsin each of our inner ear canal. The nervousness report this kind of shift towards the “brain and our head tells the eight muscle groups in our attention to direct our eye as well (Shubin 167). It’s a chain effect. If this kind of statement suggested were accurate, and the vision and ear canal were self-employed to each other, the eyes would be looking lifeless ahead despite the fact that our brain might be rotated a full eighty degrees.

This may happen because the head could tilt yet here’s the one thing. There is a little thing named the brain which makes the connection between the brain as well as the eye. Each and every time our brain tilts fast, our sight aren’t able to evidently catch what is in front of us because the fast tilting will not give the brain enough time to send the sign to our sight for every placement of our brain. In the end, the eye, the ear canal, and the mind are all linked.


Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Fish: A Trip into the three or more. 5-Billion-Year Good the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Printing.


1 . Shubin’s natural “law of everything is the fact every living thing that is known has parents and this regulation is so essential because it is one true rules that everyone is able to agree upon. This allows experts and taxonomy experts to hypothesize parental lineages since this legislation “defines motherhood in a way that reaches the actual natural mechanism of heredity and allows us to put it on to pets like bacterias that do not reproduce the way we do (Shubin 174). This pattern of descent with adjustment defines an organism’s family lineages and, more importantly, is a undeniable “law of everything (Shubin 174). 2 . By incorporating the “Bozo example in his text, Shubin is able to effectively explain to his readers just how descent with modification can be used to create hypothesized family lineages by unlocking biological history.

For example , “Let’s take a hypothetical humorless, quite unclown-like couple who have children. One of their very own sons came to be with a genetic mutation that gave him a red rubber nose area that squeaks. This son grows up and marries a lucky girl. He goes by his mutated nose gene to his children, and in addition they all have his crimson rubber nostril that squeaks. Now, imagine one of his offspring gets a changement that causes him to have huge floppy feet. When this mutation goes by to the next generation, all of his childrenare like him: they have a red rubberized nose that squeaks and large floppy feet. When this mutation passes to the next era, all of his children are just like him: there is a red rubberized nose that squeaks and large floppy toes. Go a single generation further more. Imagine that one of those kids¦has one more mutation: orange colored curly hair.

Once this veränderung passes to another generation, all his children will have orange colored curly hair, a rubber nasal area that squeaks, and huge floppy feet¦ (Shubin 175). 3. Overweight: Obesity is now one of the leading reasons for death in humans today and much than it is due to the very fact that individuals have a body for an active pet; however , we have now a lifestyle of a lazy passive. In 1962, James Neel suggested that “human ancestors and forefathers were modified for a boom-bust existence (Shubin 187). He believed our ancestors were hunters and gatherers that constantly undertake a circuit of party and starvation, and this resulted in increased rates of obesity. As our systems were made to store food for times of need. This leads to obesity since humans consume excessive amounts of food, although there are zero periods of famine to use up the salvaged fat (energy), causing human beings to then simply become over weight.


Shubin made the analogy of human advancement to that in the Volkswagen Beetle. He declared the individuals are basically a beefed-up Beetle. All of the improvements made had a side-effect of making the automobile uglier. The maladies in the human body are like that. The examples brought up in the book range from the “hiccup and hernias (Shubin 186). The glottis, the organ creating hiccups in humans, is an evolutionary remnant via when mammals were formerly amphibians. Today instead of staying useful, the glottis has turned into a constant pain in the human’s life. The maladies avoid just connect with the useless parts of the body, but actually those valuable. But in the final, everything inside our body is a consequence of our evolutionary past.


Shubin, Neil. Your Internal Fish: A Journey into the 3. 5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body.

Nyc: Pantheon, 2008. Print.


1 ) Most fish have a plate of bone known as the operculum. The operculumcreates a protect that protects the gills and helps force water above them. Tiktaalik not having this kind of bone revealed that relied on inhaling through its mouth just like other area animals. 2 . Tiktaalik was able to have a “true neck, that could maneuver freely from the body, which can be like additional land pets or animals. 3. The Arctic might be cold and snowy, and Tiktaalik fossil were identified there, although Tiktaalik lived tropical panorama. Therefore , this kind of species by no means had to survive in the cool Arctic to be sure it. Tiktaalik tropical was found in the Artic because of either global climate modify or going continents. Due to the fact that this species existed 375 mil years ago, the climate was different than it is now.


Shubin, Neil. The Inner Seafood: A Voyage into the a few. 5-Billion-Year Great the Human Body.

New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print out.

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