internet2 next generation internet term paper

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History Of The web

Internet Protocol, Generation, Agrupacion, Aeronautics

Excerpt from Term Paper:



The net was developed throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s as being a network or computers competent of keeping global conversation. The original Internet, initially intended as and academic and government tool, offers since come to a global industrial user base. The first Internet features proven an excellent means of disseminating and connecting information to more than a billion dollars users, due to technological developments.

A new wave however , provides occurred in Net technology. Educators and analysts are currently checking out and applying new technology, called Internet2. This new communication wall plug was built to help ease the congestion analysts, government providers and teachers currently face when attempting to access the web. The information superhighway has in fact , become loaded, as an interstate during rush hour. Scientists, educators and authorities officials include invested in a program that will ideally result in a even more technologically advanced superhighway that will allow instantaneous communication for 100 to 1000 moments the speed with the original Net. Researchers have begun utilizing the new technology to make discoveries and share theories with other researchers globally. Some great benefits of the new information superhighway far outweigh the costs associated with setup and development.

It is highly feasible that at some point soon, Internet2 will become commercially available, as a result repeating the situation of congestion and stress. This in turn will more than likely lead to the development of an Internet3 and possibly and Internet4. At the same time, the Internet2 represents the most recent in technological advances, with regards to disseminating data more efficiently and quickly than ever before imagined just before. The benefits and capabilities with this new system are discovered in better detail listed below, as well as the romance of Internet2 to NGi, or Next Generation Internet.

The Internet

The Internet, produced primarily in the early 1970s, revolutionized the way in which in which computer communications occurred. The Internet at the same time introduced the potential of a “world-wide broadcasting” agent; it was developed as a application for distributing information, as a medium for facilitating interaction between individuals and computers “without regard to geographic location” (Leiner, et. al, 2004).

The concept of the web originated through a series of memos written by M. C. L. Licklider of MIT in August of 1962 that mentioned the potential for social interactions that can occur through computer networking (Leiner et. approach, 2004). Licklider referred to the Internet as his “Galactic Network” concept (Leiner, et. approach, 2004). He convinced other folks of the need for the concept. Leonard Kleinrock by MIT after published a paper on packet transitioning theory, which in turn suggested the potential feasibility of communication via packets rather than circuits, the first genuine step toward computer networking (Leiner, et. al, 2004). In 1965 the first computer, the TX-2 in Massachusetts was connected to the Q-32 in A bunch of states via a low speed switch up as a result forming the wide place computer network (Leiner, ou. al, 2004). This computer networking concept was further produced. Later Program Message Cpus or IMP’s were produced, and during the late 1960s the initially host pc was linked (Leiner, et. al, 2004).

The first Internet was referred to as the ARPANET. Sooner or later networking study led to progress the well functioning net. The Internet by itself was depending on the idea that there could be “multiple 3rd party networks of rather irrelavent design” (Leiner, et. approach, 2004). The world wide web now represents an Internetworking architecture (Leiner, et. ‘s, 2004).

Over the last several years the net has grown. What was once a small network of small personal computers connecting generally researchers is continuing to grow into a global network attaching people and organizations around the globe (Dimitrov, d. d. ). As the net has grown and changed, also has its role in society. Together with the advent of scientific advances, the world wide web has become a commercially-based tool, utilized by large agencies and small , by people and federal government entities. It is used for various purposes, including banking and conduction of other personal affairs (Dimitrov, n. g. ). Nowadays there are large systems of a large number of computers that are available for employees whom work remotely; suppliers and business partners have also taken advantage of the ever increasing technology. There are some limits with the program at present. Various have reported the current Internet as very sluggish. Because of the amazing large amount of users and information handed back and forth each and every day, government agencies and researchers have got raised concerns regarding performance. There are also a number of security problems that have been noticed in recent years, that are currently being resolved. Primarily due to advent of actually newer technology and advanced educational and governmental needs, a lastest or Internet 2 have been developed.


The use of the Net has grown exponentially. In mil novecentos e noventa e seis home usage of the Internet topped out for approximately 14 million People in america (Harper, 1997). By the yr 1997 that figure went up to a hundred and fifty million online, with the expected projection at that time for 2150 to reach you billion (Harper, 1997). The Next Generation Internet, also known as Internet two, was created as a “collaborative network of universities” obtaining millions of dollars in federal cash to sanction a more complete partnership amongst industries, escuela and government (Harper, 1997).

NGI or perhaps Next Generation Internet, has become a term that is used simply by governments, businesses and teachers “to describe the future network and the job underway to produce it” (NGI, 2004).

NGI has grown out of the larger and even more crowded Internet, in response for the needs of governments, researchers and educational institutions who are searching for a new way to deliver information accurately, powerfully and efficiently. Internet 2 and NGI have grown out of the prefer to realize this goal. The goal of both fresh Internets is always to develop quicker technologies that will ultimately improve research and communication.

The Internet 2 and NGI combined are a collection of more than 100 universities and high tech firms, using high-speed fiber-optic circuits and advanced software to talk about information through the superhighway (Swartz, 1997). The intention is usually to minimize usage to govt researchers and educators (Swartz, 1997).

Researchers, researchers and Internet designers are attempting to produce a new World wide web that is 100 to 1, 500 times faster than the current system (Swartz, 1997).

The project is sponsored with a number of options. While in office, the Clinton administration set aside more than three hundred , 000, 000 dollars more than a three-year period to help develop NGI, which will would in the end prove beneficial to the government by providing links much faster than the current Internet ability offered (Swartz, 1997).

NGI includes sponsorship from government RD firms including the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Department of Energy, the National Technology Foundation, the National Astronautics and Space Administration as well as the National Company of Requirements and Technology (Swartz, 1997).

The goal of NGI, according to Tom Kalil, the older director to get the Light House National Economic Authorities is as follows: “To create the foundation intended for the sites and applying the 21st century – as DARPA and NSF Net led to the creation from the current Internet” (Swartz, 1997).

The Internet2 along an identical vein, will be developed amongst a effort of hundratrettiofem universities and corporations, and is sponsored among others by the next: Stanford, the University of California for Berkeley, Harvard, Cornell, Yale and the School of Virginia (Swartz, 1997). The goal of this project is at essence, “to create a digital university for students and professors to access literature from libraries thousands of mls apart, to take classes at other campuses and to work together on exploration projects” (Swartz, 1997).

Each one of the universities included contributed $25, 000 initially and an overall total of $500, 000 12 months for the project over a three-year time period (Swartz, 1997). Corporate beneficiaries of the task include APPLE, ATT and MCI, whom together will be contributing much more than $1 million each to help promote the development of the Internet2 (Swartz, 1997).

Whereas NGI is more governed by government agencies, Internet2 is definitely guided by a steering committee made up of users of recruiting universities. NGI and Internet2 are independent projects, although share lots of the common desired goals and aspirations. Both for instance , are looking to provide links to the business web, and both depends upon the regular Internet pertaining to email services and low-level research (Swartz, 1997).

Brief summary of Benefits/Sponsorships/Outcomes NGI/


Connect Universities and National Labs

Run at rates of speed 1, 1000 faster than present

Enable Advanced Social networking and Research

Enable better medical medical diagnosis and technological research

Costs: $300-500 , 000, 000

Financing: Authorities which will bring about $300 , 000, 000 initially

Colleges and Private companies, which will lead millions

Users: Defense Advanced Research Projects Firm

Department of one’s, National Technology Foundation, NASA

National Company of Specifications and Technology

Founded: August 1996

Supply: Swartz, 97; SCV, 97

Summary Outcomes/Benefits/Sponsorships Internet two

Purpose: link university systems

Connect in speeds 95 times faster than the Net for the purpose of study and educational collaboration

Associates: More than 95 universities, and corporations

Price $300 , 000, 000

Financing: Educational institutions paying 500 usd, 000 yearly for three years

Corporations adding to

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