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Jonestown and its innovator, Jim Williams

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Behind every religious or perhaps social activity is the leader that created it. David “Jim” Warren Jones was the father with the “People’s Temple” turned “Jonestown”. The lifetime of the movement created by Jim Smith started with bright start and deducted with a dark end. It absolutely was filled with impressive expressions of religion and sinister examples of control. One are not able to help to inquire what it is that created the person who started it all and how achieved it arrive at its abrupt end?

Jim Smith was born on, may 13, 1931 in a non-urban area of Randolph County, Indiana.

His mom, Lynetta Putnam Jones, believed she had in fact presented birth to a Messiah, foreshadowing Jones’ future as Reverend of the Householder’s Temple. The girl claims that her dead mother seemed to her in a dream sharing with her that she would endure a child who would proper the errors of the world.[1] To remain her desires for her boy claiming his messiah-ship in she brought up him with Methodist morals.

Nevertheless , due to the economic difficulties of the Great Depression the Jones family had to proceed to nearby Lynn, Indiana where Jim grew up in a shack void of any inside plumbing. With little different to do to ease his scenario, Jim became an avid reader and examined the performs and lifestyle of individuals including Joseph Stalin, Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler.[2]

Right after graduating Secondary school and marrying Marceline Baldwin Jones this individual became a member of the Communist Get together of the USA in 1951. In 60, Indianapolis Democratic Mayor Charles Boswell designated Jones director of the Individual Rights Commission. Jones however was not shy about looking to share his views on the use with the community. Some examples of his significant integrationist theories include Williams helping to incorporate churches, eating places, the telephone company, the police department, a movie theater, an leisure park, as well as the Methodist Medical center in his location.[3] Moreover, contained in his attempts, was a great incident happening after swastikas were painted on the homes of two African American people in the adjacent neighborhood. Jones personally wandered the area, soothing African Americans and therapies white households not to move out. Similarly, he set up variousstings to catch restaurants neglecting to provide African American customers. He likewise wrote to American Nazi leaders in that case proceeded to leak their particular responses for the media. Finally, when Williams had unintentionally been placed in the black ward of a hospital following he had flattened, he declined to be moved and began to make the bed frames, and bare the bed cookware of black patients in the ward. Boswell had advised Jones to keep a low profile, but he ignored these kinds of warning simply by finding fresh outlets intended for his views on local the airwaves and tv set programs. When he was asked to stop his activities, he ignored and was cheered in at a gathering of the NAACP and Downtown League.[4]

Jim Jones became the subject of incredible amounts of critique because of his beliefs.[5] For example , white-owned businesses and local people were very critical of him. Accounts of criminal behaviour and fear inflicted upon Jim Smith include a swastika being added to the Brow, a stick of dynamite being left in a Temple coal stack, and a dead cat being thrown by Jones’ home after a threatening phone call. There is certainly speculation that Jones himself may have been an accomplice to several of these acts.[6]

It is very clear that if these functions were self-perpetuated or certainly not, Jones achieved incredible numbers of opposition in the early years once trying to tone his landscapes and views. He asked the problem to himself showing how to demonstrate his Marxist views. His decision was to get into the house of worship when he had witnessed multiple faith healing ceremonies by a Baptist church.

In 1952, Smith became the student pastor of Sommerset Southside Methodist House of worship. To his surprise, having been not only allowed in the church but was offered a management position inspite of his political views.[7] Jones noticed how the house of worship drew in massive amounts of people regardless of their current social scenario or background. He likewise realized the need these people experienced for some kind of reassurance via whatever oppression they experienced. Jim Roberts would afterwards feed on that weakness this individual saw that individuals to create his Temple.

Williams sought to embody the characteristics that would appeal to the most people looking for comfort. He applied his sights of socialism, integration, and perceived oppression to gather a rather substantial following. One of the ways he embodied these sights, especially of integration, was the creation of his so-called “rainbow family”. Jim and Marceline Roberts adopted several children of at least partial non-Caucasian ancestry. The two adopted 3 children of Korean-American ancestry. They were Lew, Suzanne and Stephanie. Smith had long been encouraging his Temple people to adopt orphans from war ravaged Korea. In 1954, he fantastic wife as well adopted Agnes Jones, in that case 11 years old and partly of Local American ancestry. Suzanne Roberts was used at the age of 6 5 years later. In June late 1950s, the couple had their only biological child, Stephan Gandhi Jones. The few also adopted another son, who was light, named Tim. Tim Jones’ birth mom was a person in the Lenders Temple, was originally known as Timothy Glen Tupper. 2 yrs later, in 1961, the Williams family built history simply by becoming the first white-colored couple in Indiana to look at a black child, who also they called James Warren Jones, Jr.[8] This take action brought Jones’ integrationist sights to complete embodiment. He said to his people that the use had become much more of a personal concern to him and his relatives; that it was a matter of their long term in this world. Williams even translated this term over to the Temple too by mentioning them like a “rainbow family” in their own way.[9]

The People’s Serenidad was were only available in Indianapolis in the mid 1950’s. Some members recall the Temple purported itself to rehearse what it called “apostolic socialism”.[10] After Williams had received a considerable amount of criticism in Indiana for his integrationist sights, he journeyed to Brazil looking for a safe place to move his Temple; this trip was also the very first time that Roberts had been to Guyana. After his return, Jones produced wild says that the world would rapidly be engulfed in a nuclear war. This individual even gone so far as to predict to start a date. This would most happen in July 15, 1967. These kinds of events could inevitably after that create a fresh socialist Eden on earth, and so the Serenidad must go on to be in in order to take part in this wonderful utopia that was going to come. Smith read in esquire publication that the country Redwood Valley of California was to always be safe from elemental war.[11] Due to Jones’ example, the people left all their lives in Indiana behind and the Temple relocated to Redwood Area, California more than 40 years ago. The Temple’s popularity grew and in the early 1970s, the Peoples Temple opened other branches in numerous cities including San Fernando and Bay area. In the mid-1970s

the Temple officially moved its headquarters to San Francisco, CA.[12]

After the Temple’s relocation to San Francisco, it became increasingly more energetic in governmental policies. For example , the People’s Serenidad is acknowledged with a large part inside the mayoral political election of George Moscone in 1975. Due to their attempts, Moscone appointed Jones while the Chief of the Bay area Housing Specialist Commission.[13] Unique to Williams from other characters considered as cult leaders by public is that Jones placed the public support and had exposure to some of the maximum level politicians in the United States at the time. A few of these influential politicians contain Vice President, later on Presidential applicant, Walter Mondale and Initial Lady Rosalynn Carter. In September of 1976 Chief excutive Jerry Dark brown, Lieutenant Chief of the servants Mervyn Dymally, and Assemblyman Willie Darkish, among others, joined a large recommendation dinner, through which Willie Dark brown served while the learn of ceremonies, held in prize of Williams. Brown is definitely quoted because saying, “Let me present to you what you need to see each day when you look in the looking glass in the early morning hours… Allow me to present to you a combination of Matn Luther, Angela Davis, Albert Einstein, and Chairman Mao. “[14]

What was life like inside the Temple that drew in this large number of enthusiasts? For most members the life inside the Temple displayed exactly what they wanted the earth to become. Blacks and White wines were widely worshipping with each other. Jones’ child, Stephan Smith, said “You saw every walk of life”.[15] Everyone had their particular reasons for getting started with the Temple; individuals every single heard their particular message. Another ex-member, Laura Johnston Kohl, stated her view as “People found make a dramatic difference in their lives, to make a dramatic change in the world”.[16] Terri Burford, just one more ex-member, recalls her 1st encounter together with the temple. States

“I got $20 to my name and I was hitchhiking up between Ukiah and Redwood Valley, the place that the Temple was. Somebody chosen me up who was a member of the Brow and he said, ‘You know if you’re looking for a accommodations, a place to sleep, we’ll find some food, We have got the place for you. My spouse and i belong to fantastic church and they feed the hungry, they get care of the sick. Furthermore, the person who have runs this kind of thing is definitely God'”.[17]

This view of Jones while God was more than likely self-perpetuated and his enthusiasts latched to it. Within a recording of a sermon with the Temple Jones says, “Some people find me as the associated with the I actually am… A lot of people see a great deal of God within my body. They see Christ in myself, a wish of Fame. ” Jones also asked his people to refer to his while “Dad” or perhaps “Father”. Associates claimed that Jones a new special gift idea that no-one else possessed, they were captivated me by him.[18] Even outsiders that stopped at the Forehead found their particular kind of refuge. Harvey Dairy, who spoke at personal rallies at the Temple and wrote to Jones after his visit to the Temple: “Rev Rick, It may take myself many per day to come back straight down from the substantial that I come to today. I found something special today. I came across a sense of being that makes up for all the hours and energy put into a battle. I found whatever you wanted myself to find. I actually shall be back again; for I could never keep. ” The mentality so evident by Harvey Milk’s writing has not been unique to him; it absolutely was shared among the members from the temple.[19]

Existence in the Temple was not while perfect as it absolutely was portrayed to be. The trust healings which were central to his ministry that Jones put on were a hoax. The person’s that skilled these healings and claimed to have by no means met Williams had actually set up the whole act. Smith even played on the feelings of new people to strengthen his claims. Shade Fortson, JUNIOR. recounts the process of how these kinds of healings on new members were set up by simply Jones

“We had greeters at the front door and every period one came into the support they would have their name supposedly for the mailing list. But lo and view they personnel workers will take that same identity on the cards. They would pass people’s properties; sometimes that they looked at trash cans, at times they’d topple on the doorways, if they weren’t presently there they’d break a home window and that they had go in. And so when the face came back to church, if perhaps they decided, they would employ that person as one of his recovery services. However basically that was area of the set up to get persons into the space. That he previously some kind of extra special gift that no one otherwise had. “[20]

Save for a few members that played a task in Williams set ups, everyone truly

believed in these healings. “I didn’t know the healings were fake. I supported spiritual treatment and I are not the sole person within the room that believed in it. Many people believed in spiritual healing” explained Tim Carter.[21]

When Explain reporter Marshall Kilduff heard of the People’s Temple selection it his mission to create an exposé on the group. Little did he understand the kinds of testimonies and the number of people he would encounter. What Kilduff would come to find out was with amazing contrast for the humanitarian photo that Roberts had made for his Brow and its people. Ex-members passed in stories of systematic maltreatment within the Forehead. Terri Buford commented

“There were a whole lot of beatings in the Forehead. People who strayed from the route one way and also the other, discussed to an outsider or had a relationship with an outsider or something such as that. Or perhaps did something that was regarded Capitalistic, they will get crushed in front of the cathedral. You couldn’t just get up and keep; people could drag you back in. Presently there wasn’t picking out walking away and stating, ‘this isn’t very tolerable’. You didn’t have got that decision. ” [22]

A number of songs from Forehead services show Jones since saying that individuals who were encountering these beatings were obtaining exactly what they deserved; that they deserved all of it. Jones is on record as telling his supporters that having been “the simply true heterosexual”. Yet, there is certainly at least one accounts of his sexual abuse of a male organ of his congregation ahead of the followers, ostensibly to show the man’s own lgbt tendencies been around. Jones is additionally recorded while laughing throughout the proceedings of the abuse. States that it was some thing he had to do in order to control the group, he deemed it necessary. In his mind and in the heads of the Brow members suffering from this, it had been the idea that the finish justified the means. It absolutely was all with all the goal of any perfect utopian society in mind. Kilduff was taken aback by number of accounts he had received. He reported that in the beginning it was hard to notice who was telling the truth and who was lying but by the end when ever multiple individuals came to him

while using same reports of abuse he may no longer query its capacity. When Kilduff had compiled his studies into the exposé of the decade he tried to go community with that. However , his magazine wouldn’t touch it and none would various other magazines or perhaps newspapers. This is thanks to Jones’ political support from many years of his humanitarian education image. That wasn’t till Nine Western world magazine made the decision to pick up the story that Smith made the decision to uproot his entire Serenidad to the Guyanese land.[23]

In the fall of 1973, Smith and an important Temple affiliate Timothy Stoen prepared an “immediate action” plan in order to respond quickly to a police or multimedia scandal based on the works of the Temple. The plan detailed included many options for escape, one of that has been a “Caribbean missionary post”. For this post, the Serenidad quickly decided to go with Guyana due to its socialist politics and after this researched the Guyanese overall economy and extradition treaties while using United States. In October 1973, the directors of the Individuals Temple voted to pass a resolution to establish a great agricultural quest project there. Former Brow member Harry Carter, who also also visited Guyana together with the migratory group, stated which the reasons for deciding on Guyana were “the Temple’s view of creeping fascism, the identified dominance of multinational organizations on the federal government, and perceived racism in the U. S i9000. government. ” Carter also said the Temple concluded that “Guyana, a predominantly Of india, English-speaking socialist country, would afford dark-colored members of the Temple a peaceful place to live”. This kind of peaceful life for all users but particularly the black associates of the Forehead was central to Jones’ appeal. Later, Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham explained that what may have got attracted Smith was that “he wanted to use cooperatives since the basis to get the establishment of socialism, and maybe his idea of setting up a commune meshed with that”.[24] Jones as well thought it was important that Guyana’s command consisted of a lot of black frontrunners and that the country was small and poor enough for Smith to easily attain influence and official protection just as he previously done in the States.

A preliminary group of roughly 500 members began the development of Jonestown in their fresh Guyanese house. The Forehead encouraged a few of its members to move to Jonestown, officially named the “Peoples Forehead

Farming Project”. Williams and his Serenidad members seen Jonestown while both their own “socialist paradise” and a “sanctuary” in the increasing press scrutiny these people were under expressing, “He believed we’re the purest communists there are”. His wife described Jonestown as “dedicated to live intended for socialism, total economic and racial and social equality. We are in this article living communally”.[25] The comparatively large number of foreign nationals to Guyana overwhelmed the Guyanese government’s comparatively little immigration system. Jones reached an agreement to guarantee that Guyana would grant Temple members’ mass migration. In order to make this happen, he informed officials that Temple members were “skilled and progressive”, he likewise reportedly displayed an envelope that placed a half of one million dollars. He told the officials that he would commit the majority of the church’s assets in Guyana. The Guyanese migrants procedures were corrupted to inhibit the departure of Temple defectors. Just like the emigration policies in the Soviet Union, Cuba, North Korea and also other communist republics that the Temple wished to copy, Jones would not permit users to keep Jonestown. This individual also bribed the officials to hold off processing from the visas of any Brow opponents desperate to visit.[26]

In the summer of 1977, Jones and lots of hundred more Temple members uprooted and moved to Jonestown with the desires of getting away the building pressure from Bay area media research like the exposé from Kilduff. In fact , Williams is reported to have still left the same nighttime that the publisher at Fresh West mag read Williams the article to be published by Kilduff that recounted the allegations by former Serenidad members.[27]

An unprepared Jonestown quickly became overcrowded, buildings fell in to disrepair and weeds encroached on fields after the appearance of Williams and his Forehead members. The people’s lives in Jonestown significantly changed. Just like many socialist countries, divulgaci�n shorts outlining Soviet life given by the Soviet charge as well as documentaries on the complications of the United States guidelines were looked at in place of the entertaining movies that the 1st group of Jonestown members appreciated before Jones’ arrival. School study and night time classes for adults became a discussion period about wave and opponents for Smith. For the first a few months, Temple associates worked

all but eventually a week, by 6: 00 in the morning right up until 6: 00 at night, with only an hour for lunchtime in the midst of this 12 hour day. Luckily In 1978, following Jones’ health took a turn pertaining to the a whole lot worse his partner, Marciline, began managing really Jonestown’s businesses. As a result, the work week was reduced to eight several hours a day pertaining to only five days a week.[28]

Following the day’s work ended, Serenidad members could attend many hours of activities in a main pavilion. Among these actions were classes in socialism. Hugh Fortson, Jr. remembers these several hours of studying simply, “It was always ‘America is going to fall’ and Armageddon can be coming” he said.[29] Jones thought this technique copied those of North Korea’s; 8 hours of work rigtht after 8 several hours of rigorous study. This was combined with the Temple’s practice of gradually disclosing its supporters to mind control and behavior-modification techniques. Smith would typically read news and comments. Jones’ registered readings of the news were part of the most the constant messages over Jonestown’s speaker system to ensure that all members to hear all of them no matter the time. Jones’ news readings typically portrayed the usa as a “capitalist” and “imperialist” villain, in the meantime casting “socialist” leaders within a positive light. Terri Buford recalls, “From 6 each day until twelve at night, we heard him”.[30] Evidence of Rick Jones’ familiarity with what having been doing to his supporters is clear in the comments during an interview about an ensuing custody battle with one defector. Speaking of your child and if he was taken away this individual said, “That he’d become deprogrammed, that his head be taken and used by their particular evil means and whatsoever chemicals to try and drain his mind. “[31]

Among some of the controlling points that Roberts subjected his followers to were the “White Nights”. Mass committing suicide had been previously discussed in simulated events on a regular basis. During at least one such previous White Evening, members drank liquid that Jones mistakenly told these people was toxic. Grace Stoen recalls the type of event. She states

“I can remember we were in a preparing commission meeting and Jim says, ‘You know I truly love you guys. I’ll let you men drink wines. You don’t think I love you. ‘ And so we were most given this wines that was from the

ranch. John said, ‘Has everybody drank their wine beverages? ‘ And several people experienced said, ‘Well, I avoid want virtually any. ‘ Then Jim stated, ‘No every person is going to drink this. ‘ So we all drank it and Rick asks, ‘Has everybody consumed that wine beverages? ‘ Many of us said certainly. He says, ‘Okay, you almost all have 10 minutes to live. “[32]

Laura Johnston Kohl, who had been at that same meeting, completes the accounts by stating, “Jim said, ‘That was poison, mainly because we need to make revolutionary suicide. ‘ We all needed to be totally committed to this kind of cause, period. And you cannot be part method; you can’t take action part method. “[33]

Just one more example of Jones’ controlling characteristics is in his “special privileges”. While Williams banned sexual among Brow members outside of marriage, he himself voraciously engaged in intimate relations with male and female Temple associates. Jones believed that he detested performing homosexual activity and succeeded only for the male temple members’ own very good, purportedly to connect them symbolically with him.[34]

The majority of Jones’ political allies in the States severed their cable connections after Jones’ departure, nevertheless , some did not. Willie Brown spoke in support for a rally at the Individuals Temple in San Francisco. More importantly though for Jones as well as the Temple, Moscone’s office released a press release stating that Jones got broken zero laws during his amount of time in the US.[35]

In the fall of 1977, relatives of Serenidad members in Jonestown shaped a “Concerned Relatives” group. The group ventured to Washington D. C. during winter of ’78 to address their concerns for his or her family in Jonestown. The groups’ initiatives raised the curiosity of Congressman Leo Ryan. There was clearly growing pressure in the States to investigate the Serenidad. On 04 11, 78, the Worried Relatives allocated documents, which include letters and affidavits, that they can en entitled an “Accusation of Human being Rights Violations by Add some opuch. James Warren Jones” towards the Peoples Temple, members with the press and members of Congress. In June 78, escaped Brow member Deborah Layton supplied the group with a further affidavit detailing alleged crimes by the Lenders Temple and substandard living conditions in Jonestown.[36]

In Nov 1978, U. S. Congressman Leo Ryan led a venture to Jonestown to check into allegations of human privileges abuses in the documents distributed by the Concerned Relatives. Ryan’s traveling companion pets included family members of Forehead members, Wear Harris, a great NBC network news reporter, an NBC cameraman and reporters to get various newspaper publishers. The pack arrived in Georgetown upon November 12-15. Then on November 17, Ryan’s abordnung traveled simply by airplane to Jonestown. The delegation still left hurriedly with a number of brow defectors on the afternoon of November 18 after Temple member Add Sly attacked Ryan with a knife. Congressman Ryan great people prevailed in choosing fifteen Someones Temple associates out of Jonestown to the airstrip exactly where their aeroplanes were waiting around. At the time, Roberts had produced no try to prevent their particular departure.[37]

Since members of Ryan’s abordnung boarded two planes on the airstrip, Jones’ “Red Brigade”, his informed guards, found its way to a truck and opened fire around the group of getting away individuals. Simultaneously, one of the expected defectors, Larry Layton, came a system and commenced firing on members of the party that had currently boarded a little Cessna. Between those that the guards murdered were Congressman Ryan; Add Harris, a reporter via NBC; Frank Brown, a cameraman from NBC; San Francisco Examiner shooter Greg Brown; and Brow member Patricia Parks. The ones that managed to endure the attack were future Congresswoman Wendy Speier, then the staff member for Ryan; Rich Dwyer, the Deputy Key of Mission from the U. S. Embassy at Georgetown; Bob Flick, a manufacturer for NBC News; Steve Sung, a great NBC engineer; Tim Reiterman, a S . fransisco Examiner media reporter; Ron Javers, a Bay area Chronicle media reporter; Charles Krause, a Wa Post media reporter; and several defecting Temple members.[38]

Later that same time, 909 occupants of Jonestown, 303 of those children, passed away of obvious cyanide poisoning, mostly in and around the main pavilion. This became the single very best loss of American civilian existence in a unnatural disaster; that may be until the Sept. 2010 11, 2001 attacks.[39] Not any video was taken throughout the mass committing suicide, although the F did retrieve a 45 small audio recording with the suicide in progress. On that tape, Jones tells Serenidad members that the Soviet Union, with which the Forehead had been

negotiating any exodus for years, would not take them after the Serenidad had murdered Ryan and four others at a near by airstrip. Smith justified his actions simply by saying, “So my opinion is that we always be kind to children and stay kind to seniors and take the potion like they used to consume ancient Greece, and step over calmly because we could not doing suicide. It’s a revolutionary action. We can’t go back. They will not leave us alone. They’re now going back to share with more lies which means even more congressmen. And there’s no method, no way we are able to survive. ” Jones and many members contended that the group should commit “revolutionary suicide” by drinking cyanide-laced grape-flavored Flavor Aid. Jones put into his followers’ minds that there was zero hope for whatever anymore. This is their just way out; they could as well undertake it on their conditions. He furthered the pessimism of the circumstance by sharing with them that people were gonna parachute in on them. We were holding going to capture the babies and torture the members. Jones constantly says just how he has tried to prevent this from happening for months, how he has usually had the people’s welfare in mind, and how he never lied to them. He told these people that this was your time to expire, to perish with some dignity. In the forty five minute documenting a member, Christine Miller, compared Jones’ significant proposition toward the beginning of the tape.[40] In accordance to steered clear of Temple members, children were given the beverage first and families had been told to lie down together. Jones was later discovered dead in a deck couch with a self-inflicted gunshot injury to his head. A great autopsy of Jones’ physique also confirmed levels of Pentobarbital, which may have already been lethal to humans who had not produced physiological tolerance. His medicine usage including LSD and marijuana was confirmed by his child, Stephan Roberts and their doctor in Bay area.[41]

Jones could be compared with other radical religious leaders. One of these of these commanders is David Koresch; the best choice of the Heaven’s Gate group situated in Waco, Texas. Their time like a community likewise ended in tragedy. While Koresch had a set world view that he would not have sacrificed for nearly anything in the world, Jones had associated with an contemporary world perspective. His theology could be focused on fit his social motivations. He chosen the areas of religions that he thought would benefit the growth of a socialist contemporary society. He as well viewed him self and his enthusiasts as the purest type of

their particular kind. This kind of purist contemporary society has apocalyptic undertones. The creations that belongs to them utopia would lead to the supreme utopia to come. Roberts and Koresch were also the only individuals allowed access to outside the house information. While previously stated, Jones see the news and discussed the social problems of the day with his followers, nevertheless he was the keeper expertise. Both market leaders spent long periods of time with their supporters conversing of their views on the earth. Also, each leader was granted particular privileges. Koresch and Smith shared all their views of sexual contact; for the members it had been restricted and then for them it was unregulated.

The apocalyptic nature of the Jonestown community is additionally very clear. The most notable is the constant pressure via outsiders. Within their world they were oppressed for beliefs and sought sanctuary with like-minded people. That brought them to Jonestown plus the next example of their apocalyptic nature. The members from the Temple desired only for the purest of societies and they worked hard to achieve that moreover in Guyana. The go on to Guyana was obviously a result not simply of the perceived persecution they were under although also upon Jones’ use social anxiety of the end of the world as a result of nuclear warfare. Most of these situations exemplify the apocalyptic nature in the People’s Temples or wats and Jonestown. In the years following the massacre the view of Jonestown has skewed by a religious group to a cult. The interest and investigation in the so-called cult has also raised. A member in the Concerned Relatives group says, “As rapidly as we packaging a religion a cult, we dismiss this. We no longer have to look into it, what did consider? It doesn’t matter. “[42]


[1] Reiterman, Tom; Jacobs, John, The Untold Story of Rev. Sean Jones great People (Dutton: Raven, 1982) [2] Hall, John 3rd there�s r., Gone from your Promised Land (Transaction marketers, 1987) [3] Wessinger, Catherine, How the Millennium Comes Strongly: From Jonestown to Heaven’s Gate, (Seven Bridges Press, 2000) [4] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold History

[5] Wessinger, Millennium Comes Violently

[6] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Account

[7] Wessinger, Millennium Comes Violently

[8] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Tale

[9] Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Brow – Persons & Situations PBS. org. 8 12 , 2012 [10] Dawson, Lorne L., Cults and new religious motions: a visitor, (Wiley-Blackwell, 2003) [11] See to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[12] Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. (Anchor, 1999)

[13] Jonestown: Life and Death

[14] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Account

[15] Experience to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.

[16] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. eight Dec 2012.

[17] Observe to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.

[18] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[19] Reiterman; Jacobs, Lots of Story

[20] Witness to Jonestown. 08. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[21] Experience to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[22] Witness to Jonestown. 08. Film. almost 8 Dec 2012.

[23] Experience to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.

[24] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Account

[25] Reiterman; Jacobs, Lots of Story

[26] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Story

[27] Observe to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[28] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Tale

[29] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.

[30] Witness to Jonestown. 08. Film. almost 8 Dec 2012.

[31] Observe to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[32] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. eight Dec 2012.

[33] Observe to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.

[34] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Tale

[35] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Story

[36] Reiterman; Jacobs, Untold Account

[37] See to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.

[38] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. almost 8 Dec 2012.

[39] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.

[40] Jones, Jim. Death Tape, Jonestown, 8 12 doze. Speech.

[41] Wessinger, Centuries Comes Strongly

[42] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 December 2012.


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