long term obstructive pulmonary disease copd essay

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Persistent obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, non-reversible ailment that makes deep breathing difficult. COPD is characterized by coughing, frequently productive; wheezing; shortness of breath; and chest firmness. The leading cause of COPD is definitely cigarette smoking (National Institutes of Health, 2013).

While eighty-five % of COPD people are or perhaps were smokers, only 10-25 percent of smokers develop COPD, suggesting that a innate predisposition may also be a factor (Warren, 2012). COPD is the third leading reason for death and major reason behind disability in the usa (National Acadamies of Health, 2013).

Pathophysiology of COPD

Two main disease techniques that contribute to COPD happen to be emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The main big difference between emphysema and persistent bronchitis is that in emphysema damage is always to the walls in the air sacs in the lungs and in serious bronchitis the damage is to the lining in the air passage. Both conditions are generally caused by long term exposure to lung issues, the most common which is cigarette smoke. Other normal lung issues contributing to COPD are air pollution, chemical fumes, and dust.

The chest irritants cause inflammation; when ever inflammation is definitely chronic, that causes scarring. Scar tissue in the airways decreases elasticity, surroundings sacs will be destroyed, walls of air passage become solid and swollen, and mucous production improves. The end result of damaged air passage and extra mucous can be decreased gas exchange and reduced lung capacity creating the symptoms of COPD (National Institutes of Health, 2013).

Patient Background Physical Evaluation

Mrs. Williams is a new patient who will be a 56 year old White female. This lady has recently shifted from Minnesota to Arizona ( az ). She has as well as of COPD and periodic allergies which usually she has been treating with Claritin 10mg andAlbuterol MDI 2 puffs PRN. Mrs. Jones was a smoker, smoking two packages per day pertaining to 30 years and quit 2 years ago. Her family history can be non-contributory. Mrs. Jones shows with latest fatigue, deteriorating runny nose area and fruitful cough each day, sneezing, itchy throat, a suffocating feeling with nominal exertion, hearable wheezing, and inability to sleep through the night. This wounderful woman has admitted to using her inhaler more often than approved in an attempt to deal with the deteriorating symptoms. She denies change in the color of her sputum, discolored nose drainage, pain, facial soreness, loss of hunger, and heart problems.

Physical test showed a well-dressed, well-nourished woman who will be cooperative and appropriate. Essential signs will be blood pressure: 128/72, pulse: 88 and frequent, and respirations: 20. Lungs have zwei staaten betreffend basilar wheezing. Heart is definitely regular and without murmurs. Abdominal is very soft and non-tender with intestinal sounds present. It is noted that this lady has dark sectors under both eyes. Current oxygen saturation was 92% on space air at rest. Spirometry outcome was FEV1=45% and FEV1/FVC=65%.

Clinical Diagnosis

It seems that Mrs. Williams is having an exacerbation with her environmental allergies as evidenced by the sneezing, itchy throat, and nasal nose. The Claritin that was doing work in Minnesota can be not working as well with the contaminants unique to Arizona. The dark groups under her eyes are generally evidence of increased allergic reaction generally known as allergic shiners. However , the decreased o2 saturation and spirometry beliefs are more indicative of severe (stage III) COPD, defined by the GOLD standard since FEV1/FVC


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