making decisions essay

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1 . introduction

1 ) 1 Precisely what is Decision Making?

According to James Stoner, “decision making is the procedure for identifying and selecting a alternative to solve a particular problem”. Put simply, decision making is identified as a process to identify problems, create alternative alternatives, select the finest solutions offered and put into practice them. Decision making is an essential aspect of modern day management. It is a primary function of management. A manager’s major task is rational decision making. Logical decision making identifies making decisions based on details, opinions and reasonable factors.

Generally, decisions that are made based on facts and opinions are the best decisions. On the other hand, not all decision makers can make decisions which might be rational. The main reason for this is the limitations which exist in the environment or in the decision machine.

1 . a couple of What is Decision Making Environments?

Every decision is made in a decision environment, which is defined as the collection details, values, alternatives, and preferences available at time of the decision.

A fantastic decision is not only influenced by the experience, expertise and performance, but as well the adequacy and validity of the info obtained which might be related to the company environment (Abu Mansor ou al., 1999). If we may obtain satisfactory information, in other words for us to forecast circumstances that might result from the future. Afterwards, the process of decision making will be easy and accurate. Generally, there are 3 information condition in the process of decision making.

(i) Decision making in certain condition – Able to obtain complete information to aid his making decisions.

(ii) Decision making in unsure condition – Does not have got any information, the manager have to use his experience and discretion to create a decision.

(iii) Decision making in risky condition – Get incomplete data, only provide some insight in forecasting what will take place.

1 . several Types Of Group Decision Making

Generally, there are three main methods of group decision making, which are idea, nominal group technique and Delphi technique.

Brainstorming is a technique that involves a group of people, usually between five to 10, generating suggestions in the form of totally free association. It encourages the generation of ideas as far as possible without any critique. In the early on stage, most ideas no matter good or bad can be accepted without evaluated for the purpose of motivating most members inside the generation of ideas. In fact ideas has become collected, analysis will be made by discussing the huge benefits and disadvantages with the ideas offered.

Nominal group technique is just like brainstorming except that the approach is more organised. This method gathers information by asking visitors to respond to inquiries posed by a moderator, and then asking participants to prioritize the suggestions or suggestions of all group members. The process prevents the domination with the discussion with a single person, encourages most group associates to get involved, and results in a set of prioritized solutions or recommendations that represent the group’s tastes.

Delphi technique, this technique is the modification of the nominal group technique, except that it entails obtaining the thoughts of experts physically segregated from one another and unknown to each other. This insulates group members from the undue impact of others. Generally, the types of concerns handled by this technique are generally not specific in nature or perhaps related to a certain situation in a given period.


installment payments on your 1 Thorough Explanation & Steps

The nominal group technique is a method of making decisions whereby group member propose and examine their ideas individually before sharing them with other group members. The steps involved are as comply with:

Step 1 – Member make up the group in name only and function independently, making ideas for resolving the problem automatically, in silence and in writing. Members do not interact with each other and so the strong personality domination can be avoided. This can be done to provide adequate moment for thinking and reflection, sociable facilitation by seeing other working on a similar task, sufficient time for era of tips. It also inspire individual creativity.

Step 2 – Each member can read out his or her tips to everyone in the group pertaining to sharing. These types of ideas are generally written for the whiteboard to get review and reference by simply all group members. This will increase group members ability to deal with many ideas.

Step 3 – A discussion is organised to evaluate the advantage and disadvantages of every idea. This step provides an opportunity for clarification and elimination of bewilderment, present the logic in back of the idea or disagreement.

Step 4 – After all ideas are reviewed, they are assessed for their value and drawbacks and participating affiliate is required to election on each idea and designate it a rank on such basis as priority of each alternative remedy.

The concept with the highest aggregate ranking is picked as the ultimate solution to the problem.

2 . 2 Application of Nominal Group Technique in a Real-Life Situation The nominal group technique is used effectively for a lot of situations. For example, if it is a nonprofit group that is working a project, many people could possibly be trying to develop the best way to produce donation online for the break season. Somebody may suggest the idea that exhibiting a positive final result for charitable trust through a aesthetic image is a good way to encourage donors. Another person may feel that displaying the kampfstark imagery with the existing trouble will inspire donors. Even now others might propose that demonstrating the work happening is best.

Together with the nominal group technique, many people are then given a chance to condition which is best and so why it is best prior to the votes happen to be in. For instance , someone might feel that by showing good outcomes to get charity will more catch the attention of the donors as it helps a lot of unfortunate people. Some people likewise believe that present social concerns can be proven to improve every person’s sympathy and lend a helping hand to help them. After that, only the most powerful choice will stay; each individual group then rates their inclination numerically. One which ends up maximum overall ultimately is selected.

Second case in point, The Ministry of Health for the federal government of Temasek wanted to examine the State of the delivery services. The analysis staff chosen to use the Nominal Group Technique and brought collectively a diverse group of physician, rural health experts, public health workers, field personnel, and a cross area of clients (from different profits and cultural classes).

In the silent technology of suggestions in writing, each participant to need contribute their ideas about “What are the barriers to receiving satisfactory health care inside our country? ” The ideas generated by participant included no money purchase services, lack of adequate establishments, not enough doctors and not enough trained personnel. 2 . 2 Application of Nominal Group Technique in a Real-Life Situation(CONT) During debate, each participator clarified their very own ideas just like since educated personnel can replace various function with the physician, then simply doctors and trained staff deserve independent consideration. Lastly, each individual will need to prefer the three most critical barriers to receive adequate medical.

The nominal group technique is effective, but it really is certainly not ideal for use in every condition. For instance, it should not be applied when a few members of the group are extremely blunt and others are very shy. It is not necessarily ideal for use if there are a lot of people who work better independently minus clearly expressing their viewpoints except for work done. In general, it may not be taken if there is a problem or account that a very good percentage of group affiliate will not prefer to freely express their concepts. If the group is just observing one another, it can also be an unproductive tool since the trust and comfort levels will be low.

2 . several Nominal Group Technique Positive aspects

By utilizing nominal group technique, there are a great number of advantages. 1st, it can create an oppoturnity for all people to generate a increased number of suggestions than classic group discussion. Because once during classic group conversation, as people in the group express their idea by using turns, at times, an idea that had spontaneously arisen could be lost whilst a member waits to speak. This will restricts the production of suggestions.

Second, it can also diminishes competition and pressure to conform, based on status within the group. For example , once everyone is incredibly active to voice their very own ideas in the group debate, meanwhile someone cannot to provide any tips. Commonly, due to the fact stress and nervous feeling that make these people cannot emphasis and believe properly.

Furthermore, nominal group technique encourage everyone to contribute and prevents people from dominating the discussion. This permits everyone’s opinion to be heard and judged equally. The written generation of concepts encourages the commitment from the member in taking part in the planned actions too. This could eventually support everyone to increase understand the problem by listening all of the group affiliate ideas and opinions carefully.

In addition , voting is unknown, there are possibilities for similar participation of group people and frenzymadness, desperation, hysteria, mania, insanity, delirium, derangement (communication “noise”) inherent in other group methods are minimized. In some condition, some members are try not to propose ideas due to several reason such as friendship, to avoid conflict, afraid of being boycotted and others. Eventually, the discussion may not be made detailed and this affects making decisions. Thus, private voting can solve this issue.

2 . a few Nominal Group Technique Positive aspects (CONT)

Besides, this may also motivates almost all members to get involved mainly because they feeling they are individually affected. Every single of everybody’s ideas will get a sense of priority worries that are symbolized among the group members. This naturally will make people believe that their way of doing something is being given serious attention and respected. They can obtain type from persons of different backgrounds, experiences, and ages which can help to shoes into experience that might or else not be used.

2 . some Nominal Group Technique Down sides

Every single coins have got two sides. Nominal group technique also has weaknesses. Mainly because no spoken interaction is usually allowed, there exists less of the opportunity for highly effective individual to manage the group. The concepts may be sick informed or impractical, it should be explained which the process being carried out can be not being done so in a theoretical sense yet is a practical problem requiring realistic solutions. In many group such an inclination results is important dimensions in the problem hardly ever emerging in the group because some individuals will simply contribute a concept if it is well-developed and entirely thought out.

Since each individual need to identify proportions on his own, aspects which hardly ever would have recently been considered are more inclined to be considered. Within a normal interacting group a few members choose to confine their participation to reacting to the ideas more. Since this is not an option available to the members of nominal group, a greater number of tips will probably be aired than will otherwise always be true. In an interacting group, the sizes identified initial are the most apparent ones and, quite often, the group would not progress over and above them. Inside the nominal group, balanced participation issues a greater breadth of ideas.

As well, the down sides of the nominal group strategy are that it constrains the cross feeding of ideas such as 1 person’s thought does not lead to a spark to fire up the next individual’s idea or perhaps improvement. A good way to overcome this can be to have a second round of idea producing after the initial wave of ideas have been completely submitted. The procedure also critized as being too routine and mechanical in the nature and that is restricts ways to one particular issue domain and discussion point.

2 . 4 Nominal Group Technique Drawbacks (CONT)

The nominal group technique is a good stand-alone technique for simple issues although must be along with other strategy when the issue is more challenging or impacts people outside the sphere of influence inside the group. For example , this technique ideal small group gatherings like fact finding, thought generation and search of problem and solutions, while is certainly not suitable for regimen business, bargaining, problem with predetermined outcomes and settings wherever consensus is required.


Compare to Brainstorming and Delphi technique, I will want to use nominal group strategy decision making technique. This is because the nominal group technique has the actual to reduce the magnitude of group challenges because it represents those attributes that are important for that target to be achieved. It provides intended for balanced engagement. There is no evaluation during the process and so the climate will not be a threatening one. The group is prohibited to place the most obvious factors, therefore , a diversity of suggestions is generally forthcoming. Found in conjuction together with the problem-solving measures, the nominal group technique will result in higher group output as well as even more satisfaction for the participants.

Although Brainstorming decision making method is incredibly time consuming. In a group, affiliate have to listen to others and might spend time repeating their concepts until that they get sufficient attention. Going through the protocol, processing and ordering the ideas can become a complex process. This likewise depends on the amount and order of the made ideas. Additionally , certain team member may rule the discussion. People with the ability to communicate their concepts faster plus more effective gain the general interest of the group. Some kind of leadership can be formed this way within the group, which might help to make others truly feel intimidated. Sometimes, people who are not too skilled for controlling all their non-verbal reactions and might influence the creativity of others using their posture, actions or face expressions. However, attempting to control their non-verbal behaviour may well inhibit their particular creativity.


The Delphi technique requires endured involvement from the members. Member dropout can be, therefore , a risk. The viewpoints and judgements which have been collected throughout the Delphi approach are very subjective in nature. Thus, the extent of accurancy and comprehensiveness in the data may possibly, in some instances, end up being uncertain. Furthermore, if the Delphi technique is conducted through snail mail, the time required for the process could be lengthy, particularly if the panel of qualified members is found in a variety of different countries. If you decide to utilize Delphi procedure with postal mail, you should be prepared to allocate among one to three month for info collection. Additionally, it required abilities in drafted communication. People will easily get confound or misunderstand of the tips if there is a weak crafted communication skills.

In a nut shell, Nominal Group Approach will be my personal first choice in case the situation works.

4. Referrals

Aaron Marquis, Require Media (n. d) Different Techniques in Group

Decision-Making Available: [Retrieved on February 28, 2014]

Carolyn Brahm, Brian L. Kleiner, (1996) “Advantages and drawbacks of group decision- producing approaches”, Group Performance Managing, Vol. a couple of Iss: one particular, pp. 31 – 35 [Retrieved on Drive 3, 2014]

David A. Sample (1984) Nominal Group Technique: An Alternative to Brainstorming Available:

[Retrieved on Drive 2, 2014]

Pak. J. Commer. Soc. Sci (2011) Nominal Group Approach and its Applications in Taking care of Quality in Higher Education Vol. 5 (1), 81-99 Offered:

[Retrieved upon March five, 2014]

Smriti Chand Management (n. d) What are the Advantages and drawbacks of Group Decision Making? – Explained! Readily available: [Retrieved on March your five, 2014]

You may also be interested in the following: half a dozen steps in making decisions, 6 stage decision making method


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