management of bark beetles

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Organic enemies

Studies about important natural enemies associated with bark beetles were implemented as per the standard methods followed by Dahlsten and Sophie (1974) and Narendran ain al. (2001) with tiny adjustments.

Hymenopteran parasitoids

For documenting the seasons incidence of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with sound off beetles viz., I. stebbingi, P. key and G. scitus experiments were done during 2015″2016 in Nowpora village (3361. 078 D, 07518. 700 E, level 5920 foot. ) in Anantnag Region, Jammu Kashmir. The samples were gathered for a amount of two years (from April to November 2015 and from April to November 2016). After every month ten divisions (1″8 cm in diameter, 20″50 cm in length) by careful observation had been cut from host trees and shrubs (P. wallichiana) naturally infested with bark beetles. The sample twigs were brought to the lab and stored in showing boxes consisting of glass fitted with white muslin cloth for the feasible emergence of parasitoids(Figures 2″4).. After every 10 days surfaced parasitoids via infested twigs were counted and some limbs were also debarked to examine the activities of parasitoid stages associated with bark beetles. The same treatment was used throughout the year plus the parasitoids accumulated were listed and the amount of a particular species out of the total (i. e., dominance coefficient) was determined. The coefficient of dominance of the parasitoid varieties was determined as follows:

During year 2016, the same sampling procedure was followed as well as the dominance pourcentage (%) was determined in accordance with the above formulation.

Predators

For saving the periodic occurrence of predators connected with bark beetles viz., My spouse and i. stebbingi, P. major and P. scitus, experiments were conducted inside the same previously mentioned study place. The examples were collected for a length of two years (from April to November 2015 and coming from April to November 2016) with the interval of two weeks between the effective sampling circumstances. Since 3 aforementioned bark beetle types occupy various areas of the sponsor tree, three wooden structures (sampling units) were made offered, one for every species. The dimensions of the wooden casings were 0. 06 m2, 0. 10 m2 and 0. 18 m2 for P. scitus, P. main and I. stebbingi respectively. Every fifteen days, a total of thirty samples were considered (ten coming from each species) from greatly infested records, first by simply marking the bark surface area by using wood made frames, in that case by carefully debarking the sample region occupied simply by each kinds (Figs. 3″4). Data of each predator kinds with its affiliated host beetle stage were recorded. The same procedure was followed throughout every season and the predators collected had been listed plus the proportion of any particular species out of the total (i. e., dominance coefficient) was decided as per the above mentioned formula intended for parasitoids pertaining to both years.

Fungal control against sound off beetles

Studies on use of entomopathogenic fungi against bark beetles was followed as per the previous standard methods adopted by Batta (2007) and Jakus and Blanzee (2011)

Pinus wallichiana branches found in the experiments

The natural way infested limbs of L. wallichiana had been collected during 2017(April to November 2017) from a severely infested pine stand located in Nowpora village (3361. 078 In, 07518. seven hundred E, level 5920 feet. ) in Anantnag District, Jammu Kashmir (Figure 1) and forest check stage, Tangmarg (340 03. 797 N, 074024. 948 Electronic, Elevation 7552 feet) in Baramulla District, Jammu Kashmir (Figures 1″3). The infested branches had been selected after observing start barking beetle infestations (Figure 4″5). The test branches were transported for the Animal House, Department of Zoology, University or college of Kashmir in plastic material boxes to get the analysis of fungal treatments against I. stebbingi.

Fungal varieties used in the procedure

The commercial bioprepration of 3 entomopathogenic fungus viz., N. bassiana, Meters. anisopliae and L. lecanii were obtained from Green Lifestyle Biotech Lab, Somanur, Coimbatore, India. Research was performed from April to Nov 2017. A total of 90 branches normally infested with bark beetles, categorized in to five organizations (G1″G5), were used in the try things out for each start barking beetle kinds. Each reproduce represented 3 infested limbs and 6 replicates every experimental treatment were used for every bark beetle species (Table 1). The used insecticide was cyclone (active component: Chlorpyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5%).

The yeast preparation was diluted in water: 1ml biopreparation/1000 milliliters water with four drops of a common detergent as a wetting agent. Each yeast suspension covered 1 . zero × 109 spores of fungi in 1 cubic centimeters. The fungal suspensions were applied having a hand sprayer at 500 ml every log (Table 1). Excessive volumes of fungal suspension systems were employed for effective treatment so that suspension systems would penetrate spontaneously following application. Following 10 days seven branches via three cured replicates in each group were carefully debarked and the percentage mortality of each bark beetle types were determined and in contrast (Table 1). The same process was applied for calculating percentage mortality of each bark beetle species following 20 times of treatment.

Fungal treatment of start barking beetle adults (Petri dish assay)

In this method a total of 15 petri dishes that contains filter paperwork were utilized, three replicates were preserved for each treatment. The treatment options were performed by applying two rapid jetting sprays standard at 1 . 0 milliliters per reproduce using a small calibrated hands sprayer (1 liter capacity) equipped with a nozzle suitable for low-volume squirt application (Batta, 2007). In each petri dish forty five adults of each and every bark beetle species had been introduced ahead of spraying. Similar spray volumes (1 ml per replicate) were utilized in the different treatments (Table 2). The mortality percentage from each treated group was examined after a couple of, 4 and 6 days and nights after treatment. This mortality was demonstrated either by lack of activity of cured adults inside five day period of constant observation or by the presence of mycelial growth within the bodies of dead adults. The beetles were in that case incubated in petri meals under moist conditions for starters week to advertise mycelial growth with the conidia and the conidiophores on their systems.

Photography

Photographs during the field analyze were used by using Canon PowerShot SX60 camera fitted with macro zoom lens (Raynox MSN-505, 37mm). Research of digital images was done by applying ImageJ research software (Version 2006. 02. 01). Intended for morphometric explanation of gathered predators images were extracted from haplotype which has a Leica DFC295 camera placed on a Leica M205A Stereozoom binocular microscopic lense. Multiple images with different central levels had been combined into one image employing Leica Automontage Software (V4. 10). Measurements were also obtained from the type specimens with Leica Automontage Software. All the individuals are deposited in the Art gallery, Department of Zoology, School of Kashmir, Srinagar.

Record analysis

The data received during the present study were tabulated and graphically offered as per the required statistical strategies. Arithmetic indicate, Variance, Selection, Standard Problem and SD (Standard deviation) were accustomed to analyze your data. The correlation between mother’s galleries and fecundity of females was analyzed simply by Karl Pearson’s correlation technique. Head capsule width of various larval instars was used to calculate total larval instars by Dyar’s ratio (Dyar, 1890). Statistical analysis was done by employing SPSS (Version 10. 00).

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