Mcsa Networking Basics Essay
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Introduction Just what network? A network can be explained as two or more personal computers which are associated together to talk about resources. These resources consist of internet access, computer printers, software and files. The ‘heart’ of any network is referred to as the hardware, and its function is to consist of all the application and services which the network and its users depend on.
Figure 1: Example of a basic network The storage space is operated by simply personnel called Network or System Administrators, and it’s their responsibility to ensure the easy running from the network therefore it is working as efficiently as is possible. This is obtained through the use of a fervent operating system referred to as Windows Server 2003 – this gives the network officer complete control over the network functions. Advantages of a network Cost Mainly because networked pcs can discuss the same solutions, costs can be dramatically lowered. For example , if there are ten computers within a room each needing access to a printer – it is much less to course all five computers to a single, shared printer than it is to purchase ten ink jet printers; one for each computer.
Through this example, the saving might also include the cost of ink ink cartridges (you could only need to purchase one set of carts instead of ten). Software are available and set up in a similar cost effective method. Most popular software is able to be bought and installed on a server, and anyone who requires to use it is going to only need to buy a license (the legal rights to use it, usually in the form of a certificate). These kinds of licenses is much cheaper than buying the software for each consumer.
This method also means that it isn’t necessary for an I. T Technician to set up the software on every computer; merely one install around the server is needed. Another advantage to this strategy is if the software requires an update. If it is server structured, only the application on the server would need to become updated. All of the users could benefit from the update as soon as it is often installed. In the event that each end user had a replicate on their laptop, I. To Technicians would need to update every single one.
This could become time consuming, expensive and complicated. The application that this could apply to, involves most Microsoft company software and Anti-virus computer software. Security Secureness is a essential element in virtually any business. Within a network, protection is improved both inside (security inside the network) and externally.
Users are given a username and password to access their data and all the programs, hardware etc they may have been given entry to. When a consumer saves a file, it is preserved to the server and not the computer that he/she is taking care of. If that user desires to retrieve that file, it is possible on any computer for the network, and not merely on the computer that was at first used. This data could be accessed, supervised and supported by the Network Administrator without notice. Each section can have their own ‘identity’ on the hardware, which allows them to have access to data files, applications and resources which usually would be strongly related their requirements.
For example , the Accounts department may need to have access to invoicing application (e. g. Sage and Excel), while Sales may only require computer software to keep an eye on and prediction sales during time (e. g. Excel). Accounts might not exactly want various other departments getting at their computer software due to secureness or confidentiality reasons. Net security is usually tighter to get both users accessing the world wide web, and external threats when a network is to establish.
All the pcs can discuss a single gain access to point to the web, which makes it simpler to monitor internet usage, reduce hacking and other external dangers trying to get data around the network. Another feature which can be applied by system officer is Encryption. Data in a folder/subfolder may be encrypted to prevent unauthorized access to data if other security procedures have been breached. Typically, only system administrators will be presented the ‘recovery key’ in order to decrypt info incase of system failing or different unforeseen conditions.
Disadvantages for the network High-priced to install The first cost of developing a network may be expensive, with hardware like the server, router, cabling, back up equipment, network printers and server software program. Also, devoted personnel has to be hired to keep the machine running efficiently and to deal with any server/network issues. Centralised Data Having all of the data in one place means that data could be dropped in the event of a process failure. Standard backups from the server are really recommended (daily, weekly and monthly) to aid to keep data safe. But if the server falls in between backups then all of the recent info will be dropped.
Reduced Functionality The server’s performance could become reduced as the network expands or perhaps as its workload increases throughout the working day. A server will need to have as much storage and the processor as possible to help minimise the reduction in overall performance. Task 2a Network Topology is the description of how a network is usually laid out, the devices (server, routers, computer printers etc) attached with it as well as the direction which in turn data moves.
A network can be described as possibly Logical Topology (the approach data flows in a network) or as being a Physical Topology (how a network is definitely physically put out) There are six primary topologies, Tour bus, Ring, Celebrity, Extended Star, Hierarchical, and Mesh. Bus Topology This can be both an actual and Reasonable, in a neighborhood network (LAN), each device is linked by a single cable. This kind of single cable is also referred to as the ‘backbone’ of the network. A terminator must be on either aspect of the wire to prevent the data signal by bouncing down again it. The Bus Topology was widespread in early sites using common Co-ax cables.
It was a cost-effective solution intended for networking while only one primary cable was needed. Drawback to this was if this kind of cable failed, the whole network would go straight down. Ring Topology In a Engagement ring Topology (also known as APPLE Ring Token), each computer (node) is definitely connected to the other person in a closed loop.
Each computer has its own one of a kind identity on the network. Once data is definitely transmitted from one node to the other, your data will include the destination’s personality and will move through each node until it reaches the destination. This type of topology has two main down sides; only one computer can transfer data within the network at the same time and if some type of computer fails the whole network will go down. We have a slight deviation to this; the Duel Ring Topology The 2nd ring in the network offers a backup interconnection, so if you have a failure in the network, the secondary connection will keep the network connected.
This is high-priced as more cabling is necessary. Star Topology The most common type is called a Star Topology. Each unit is connected to a dedicated central hub. All of the data within the network flows through the network via the central hub.
These types of networks tend to be small , and as info could be degraded or shed on a significant network. The main advantages for this is that it is easy to setup and straightforward to add new devices for the network. However, if the central centre fails, the entire network falls.
Extended Legend Similar to the Star Topology, but instead personal computers are arranged together and connected to a nearby hub, which in turn is connected to a central hub. This can be widely used in large networks where the network may be in a large building, and each group of computers may represent every single department. You will find more points of failure about this network, but once a local centre fails, then a rest of the network will not be affected. Hierarchical or perhaps Tree Topology This is very being a Ring Topology, but computer systems are mounted on the central hub in layers. As the structure looks different, this kind of still has the key disadvantage of network failure in the event the top system goes down.
Nylon uppers Topology All the above topologies endure the same problem. If 1 device falls flat on the network, the whole network goes down. The only solution is usually to connect every device together and eliminate the need for a server. This is the Mesh Topology and has two key advantages; If a device falls flat, the network will nonetheless work as well as the network doesn’t need to rely on the cu power, bandwidth and many others from a server since it is supplied via each computer system.
The disadvantage for this is the high cost of connecting every single device to each other, so this would not be suitable on the large network. This type of topology is also referred to as Peer-to-Peer while the other topologies are considered to be Client/Server based. A comprise between cost and connectivity is the Partial Linked Topology. Products are attached to more than one client on the network, so in the event that one neglects the network can still operate. This is more cost effective than Fine mesh Topology because less wiring is required.
Job 2b Tips As it stands, the framework of the current network is a Hierarchical or perhaps Tree Topology. The network uses two different switches to connect the Domain Control mechanism to the twenty-four computers. These are generally from two manufacturers; BARULLO and 3Com and this provides 100Mb and 10Mb rates of speed respectively.
This is a disadvantage since one ‘group’ of personal computers has a faster data transfer rate than the various other. The network does not have a disaster recovery program should the Website Controller fail. This has the opportunity of putting the complete network at risk from long term data loss. The network likewise shares a single printer which is attached to the Domain Control mechanism, 10 in the computers will be connected to it through the sluggish 3Com 10Mb switch. Therefore all 24 computers print via the Site Controller (which is currently overloaded) and 12 computers give data for a sluggish rate compared to the rest of the network.
My first recommendation is always to replace both equally switches having a single BARULLO 100Mb twenty four port swap (£631. 99 from MISCO website). This would provide a normal, quicker data speed over the network and permit for the network to expand.
There are a total of 24 personal computers, and this swap would allow a further 24 devices to get added to the network elizabeth. g. further computers, computer printers etc . This could allow the network to broaden whilst keeping a fast data speed. While using new move in place, my own next recommendation would be to substitute the HORSEPOWER Laserjet III (USB connection only) having a newer, network-ready printer like the HP Laserjet 2055DN or perhaps P2030 which in turn costs £319 and £160 from HEWLETT PACKARD website.
By simply replacing that with a new model, stamping could be accomplished quicker, less busy and more expense effectively electronic. g. very reliable printing, even more energy efficient, reduced consumable costs etc . Also, sharing the workload within a faster network is more effective than channelling all the printing requirements with the network to the older sole printer on the slow 10Mb switch with the Domain Control mechanism. This will likewise help reduce the workload for the Domain Controller. While the Domain Controller’s workload can be lowered by the addition of a network-ready printer, other options could be to increase the specifications (e. g higher hard drive space, more storage etc).
Ensuring the control mechanism has the most current software updates will ensure the running performance and improve the network protection. This will help prevent unauthorised access (hacking) towards the network. My personal final advice is put disaster recovery and distant working in the network, By simply regularly stopping up data over a daily/weekly/monthly basis, this will ensure the network can be renewed in case of total data loss. To assist learning in order to prevent college students from inadvertently causing errors/problems within the network, remote doing work should be enabled. User accounts can be easy created in Active Directory though the utilization of a standard theme.
Templates could be set up for both pupils and instructors, so all of the common properties of the accounts are already established. When a fresh user consideration is required, the administrator will simply need to total the areas that require one of a kind values (eg, name, addresses, telephone number, course details etc). Once the users have been produced within the Energetic Directory, they can be placed into Efficiency Units (OU’s).
This will group together users, so from this situation students could be put into OU’s which represent all their course. If the OU’s are established, the users’ configuration settings may be applied through the Group Insurance plan Management Gaming console (GPMC). It keeps hundreds of consumer configuration settings, security alternatives and consumer event logs, all that can be applied as required by the college facilitators. Figure two: Example of the Group Insurance plan Management Gaming console (GPMC) By using Group Policies effectively, the administrator may control and manage just what users can easily and simply cannot do although logged onto the site.
Administrators are able to control how the desktop shows up, the device that are available as well as the ability to set up the task bar etc by utilizing the Computer system setting throughout the ‘User Configuration’ inside the GPMC. This can be useful if the college coverage states that every users should have the Llandrillo College emblem as their wallpapers, and several required icons are in place and users to have access to various courses via the ‘start’ menu. To further improve password protection, administrators can increase the performance of the accounts that users apply to protect their identification on the network.
The password options are available within the ‘Password Policy’ inside the ‘Computer Settings section of the GPMC. These kinds of options range from the ability to recycle old passwords, to apply complexed passwords (eg. more than 6 characters, employing upper, reduce case letters and numbers 0-9). In the example, a programmer has established a unique word electrical generator to create security passwords.
Group plan could be designed so if they log on for the first time, users input the arbitrarily generated pass word and then they need to input their own password by using a complexed pass word. If the customer ever does not remember the security password at any time, administrators are able to totally reset it through the ‘Active Directory site Users & Computers’ instrument. Figure 3: Example of Pass word Policy within GPMC To avoid users from using too much drive space within the network, managers are able to allocate limited disk space to users and by applying requires when this space is nearly used up. Simply by putting this in place, managers can calculate how various users will probably be on the system multiplied by how much hard drive space every single user will be allocated.
This kind of total is definitely the minimum sum of disk space necessary for all users in every new academic year. Administrators will be able to guarantee the machine can bodily hold each of the users data without completely running out or running low of disk space. To achieve this, managers will need to find the given hard drive and apply a quota, limiting users about how much space they can use. Person users can easily have independent entries inside the quota, letting them have a smaller or a increased share of disk space. This would be helpful for tutors who also may need higher disk space to store course material etc . When the network is running, administrators may be required to monitor the networks solutions to ensure that exceeds you demands.
The tool essential is called the ‘Performance Console’ which is located under Management Tools. This tool appears by means of a chart although it features three surfaces as a arrears (Memory: Pages/Second, PhysicalDisk: Normal Disk Line Length and Processor: % Processor Time), additional counter tops can be quickly added or removed consequently. A college officer may add counters to monitor network bandwidth, storage space utilisation (memory, cpu overall performance, disk performance etc).
To aid administrators keep an eye on the machine, counter records and signals can be used. This can allow administrators to proactively determine when program resources operate too low as well as to identify feasible hardware failures/malfunctions. Any one of these problems could cause a degraded performance or perhaps total storage space failure.
Figure 5: Example of the Overall performance Console The school network may be required to support remote users, allowing them to get the college network whilst becoming in a different location for example working from home, coming from another grounds etc . This is often achieved by using a Electronic Private Network (VPN). The consumer will be able to access the college’s network through the use of the internet even though achieving the required security and data security. The network’s firewall must have exceptions to permit authenticated users to access the network even though preventing unauthorised access. As soon as the network is usually running successfully, the next challenge administrators will certainly face can be maintaining the security and the efficiency of the network.
This can be attained by deploying machine updates and hotfixes as anticipated by Microsoft. The storage space can be up to date with the use of ‘Automatic Updates’, that you can get within the ‘All Programs’ menu under the start button. Improvements can be downloaded both straight away or scheduled to download in a certain day/time. This could be designed to download when the network is at it is quietest time (eg 10pm). This would make sure that the update would not effect the overall overall performance during busy periods.
As well, updates pertaining to the users pcs may be necessary. Instead of facilitators physically installing them in each computer within the network, this could be downloaded within the server since an *msi file and automatically set up via a group policy. Therefore the next time users within the network log onto the network, they are going to automatically end up being downloaded & installing the updates from the server with no intervention needed.