optimization of flower population and weed

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONField tests were conducted at farmer’s field in Udumalpettai of Tiruppur area of Tamil Nadu during kharif 2014 and kharif 2015 to analyze the response of maize hybrid to varied plant densities and weed administration practices beneath irrigated condition. The tests conducted during kharif 2014 and kharif 2015 were laid out in divided plot style replicated 3 times with three plant spaces viz., 45 cm times 30 cm (74. 074 plants per ha), 60 cm by 20 centimeter (83, 333 plants every ha) and 60 centimeter x twenty-five cm (66, 666 vegetation per ha) as key plot treatments and four bud control strategies viz.

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, atrazine @ 0. 55 kg /ha as pre emergence + one hand weeding at 31 DAS, atrazine @ 0. 50 kg /ha because pre emergence + a couple of, 4  D sodium salt snabel-a 0. 75 kg / ha upon 30 DAS, atrazine snabel-a 0. 40 kg /ha as pre emergence + twin wheel hoe weeder weeding upon 30 DIESES and unweeded control while subplot treatments. The overall weather conditions prevailed during the cropping period during the two years of analyze was usual and good for the expansion of maize crop. Observations on weeds such as weed density, comparable density, denseness of major weeds, weed dry weight were registered and marijuana control effectiveness worked out.

Observations in growth variables such as grow height, leaf area index, dry subject production, physical attributes just like CGR, RGR, yield variables viz., cob length, cob girth, range of grain series per cob, number of embryon per line, cob weight, test pounds, grain produce and stover yield had been recorded. Additionally , days necessary for flowering were recorded. The coffee quality parameters just like crude necessary protein and starch content were estimated. Chemical uptake simply by maize at various stages and ground available NPK were also approximated. Economic variables such as low return, net return and BC proportion were worked out for numerous treatment combos. The important inferences from the test are summarized and the results drawn happen to be furnished below: 6. one particular Summary Pot charactersј Weed flora with the experimental field consisted of several species of turf weeds, eight species of wide leaved weeds and one particular species of sedge category. The predominant grassy weeds had been Cynodon dactylon and Echinocloa colonum. Trianthema portulacastrum, Amaranthus viridis and Digera arvensis were the dominant weeds among the wide-ranging leaved weeds. The only sedge present in the experimental discipline was Cyperus rotundus. ј Among the band of weeds, the dominant weed group was broad leaved weeds followed by grasses and sedges at the stages during both the years of study. ј During kharif 2014, among the list of weeds, Trianthema portulacastrum then Amaranthus viridis, Cynodon dactylon, Digera arvensis and Cyperus rotundus had been the major weeds. But , during kharif 2015, the dominant weeds were Trianthema portulacastrum then Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus. ј There been around significant difference in weed dried out weight because of various spacings and bud management methods. ј To find spacings, 62 cm x 25 centimeter (S3) listed lower total weed dried weight then 45 centimeter x 30 cm. Bigger dry excess weight of total weeds was observed while using spacing sixty cm times 20 centimeter at 31, 60 DASJENIGE and at harvesting stages of maize plant. ј Among the weed management practices, weedy check registered higher dried out weight of total weeds compared to various other treatments. Atrazine @ zero. 50 a. i. kilogram ha-1 + one hand filtering on 40 DAS recorded significantly reduce total dry out weight of weeds followed by atrazine @ 0. 55 a. i actually. kg ha-1 + twin wheel hoe weeder filtering at 30 DAS and both were comparable between themselves at 30, 60 DAS with harvest phases of maize crop. ј The treatment mix of the space 60 cm x 25 cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 a. i. kg ha-1 & one hand filtering on 31 DAS noted higher marijuana control efficiency. This was and then the spacing 60 centimeter x twenty-five cm along with atrazine @ zero. 50 a. i. kilogram ha-1 & twin wheel hoe weeding at 35 DAS and 60 centimeter x twenty-five cm along with atrazine @ zero. 50 a. i. kilogram ha-1 +2, 4 D sodium sodium at 31 DAS during both the years. Growth Attributes ј Plant spacing of 60 cm x twenty cm upto 60 DASJENIGE and 62 cm x 25 cm thereafter upto harvest among the list of plant spacings and atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 & one hand filtering on 31 DAS accompanied by atrazine @ 0. 55 kg ha-1 + double wheel hoe weeder weeding at 31 DAS among the list of weed managing practices documented taller plant life. ј Plant spacing of 60 centimeter x twenty-five cm among the list of plant spacings and atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 + one hand filtering on 30 DAS and then atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + twin wheel hoe weeder weeding at 31 DAS, among the list of weed management practices noted higher tea leaf area index and dried out matter development. ј Among the list of plant spacings, the plant space of 70 cm times 25 cm and atrazine @ 0. 50 kilogram ha-1 + one hand weeding on 31 DAS then atrazine @ 0. 55 kg ha-1 + cal king wheel hoe weeding at 30 DIESES recorded larger CGR and RGR. ј Among the flower spacings, flower spacing of 60 cm x 25 cm and atrazine snabel-a 0. 60 kg ha-1 + a singke hand weeding in 30 DASJENIGE followed by atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 & twin steering wheel hoe weeder weeding by 30 DASJENIGE among the pot management practices recorded bigger root length and main dry mass. Yield qualities and yieldј The deliver attributes just like cob span, number of wheat rows / cob, quantity of grains as well as row, cob weight and test fat were larger under the space 60 cm x 25 cm among the list of plant spacings and atrazine @ 0. 50 kilogram ha-1 & one hand filtering on 40 DAS followed by atrazine snabel-a 0. 60 kg ha-1 + twin wheel hoe weeder weeding at 40 DAS among the weed supervision practices. ј With regard to plant spacings, the grain and stover brings were higher under the space of sixty cm times 25 centimeter and among the list of weed administration practices, atrazine @ 0. 50 kilogram ha-1 & one hand weeding on 31 DAS accompanied by atrazine @ 0. 55 kg ha-1 + double wheel hoe weeder weeding at 40 DAS registered higher materials and stover yields. ј With regard to connection effect, during both the years, the treatment mix of the spacing 60 centimeter x 25 cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + one hand filtering on 30 DAS registered higher wheat and stover yield accompanied by the space 60 cm x twenty-five cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kilogram ha-1 + twin steering wheel hoe weeder weeding by 30 DIESES and the space 60 cm x 25 cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 +2, 4 D sodium sodium at 35 DAS. ј Crude protein and starch content had been significantly bigger with the spacing of 62 cm back button 25 cm among the numerous spacings and atrazine snabel-a 0. 50 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding in 30 DIESES followed by atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + twin tire hoe weeder weeding by 30 DIESES among the bud management techniques. ј Herb spacing of 60 by 25 cm among the different spacings and atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding in 30 DAS followed by atrazine @ zero. 50 kg ha-1 & twin wheel hoe filtering at 30 DAS reordered among the marijuana management procedures recorded higher N, P and K uptake at the stages of observation. ј The garden soil available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium had been higher within the plant space of sixty x 25 cm among the various flower spacings and among the weed management procedures, atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding about 30 DIESES followed by atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 + twin wheel hoe weeding at 30 DAS recorded higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium supply. Economicsј Gross return was higher while using spacing sixty cm ” 25cm along with atrazine @ zero. 50 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding on 35 DAS. This was followed by the spacing sixty cm x 25 centimeter along with atrazine snabel-a 0. 40 kg ha-1 + a single twin tyre hoe filtering on 31 DAS during both the years. ј The spacing 70 cm x 25 centimeter along with atrazine snabel-a 0. 55 kg ha-1 + a singke hand weeding in 30 DIESES resulted in larger net return. This was and then the space 60 centimeter ” 25cm along with atrazine snabel-a 0. 60 kg ha-1 + dual wheel hoe weeder filtering at 30 DAS. ј However , with regards to B: C ratio, larger B: C ratio was written with the space 60 cm x twenty-five cm along with atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 + twin steering wheel hoe weeder weeding in 30 DASJENIGE followed by atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 + one hand weeding on 35 DAS. 6th. 2 Results The following conclusions are drawn from the outcomes obtained in the present investigationј The plant spacing of 60 cm x twenty-five cm among the list of plant spacings and and atrazine @ 0. 60 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding about 30 DAS followed by atrazine @ 0. 50 kilogram ha-1 + twin wheel hoe weeder weeding for 30 DAS among the bud management practices recorded reduced weed denseness, weed dried out weight and higher bud control performance. ј The treatment combination of the rose spacing 60 cm times 25 centimeter along with atrazine snabel-a 0. 60 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding on 30 DASJENIGE followed by atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 & twin wheel hoe weeder weeding by 30 DIESES favourably increased the growth, produce attributes and grain yield. ј The interaction a result of plant space and fertilizer levels acquired significant effect on progress and deliver of maize. Higher beliefs of progress and deliver components and higher feed and stover yield were obtained in a grow spacing of 60 centimeter x twenty-five cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + one hand weeding on 30 DAS accompanied by atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + dual wheel hoe weeder filtering at 31 DAS. ј The economical returns had been higher together with the plant spacing of 62 cm x 25 centimeter along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + a singke hand weeding in 30 DASJENIGE. However , bigger B: C ratio was recorded with the spacing 60 centimeter x 25 cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 & twin tyre hoe weeder weeding by 30 DASJENIGE followed by atrazine @ zero. 50 kg ha-1 & one hand weeding on 30 DAS. 6. 3. Recommendationј Higher productivity in Kharif irrigated maize with bigger economic earnings could be obtained with the space 60 cm x twenty-five cm along with atrazine @ zero. 50 kilogram ha-1 & twin tire hoe weeder weeding at 30 DASJENIGE followed by the spacing 70 cm back button 25 cm along with atrazine @ 0. 50 kg ha-1 + a singke hand weeding upon 30 DASJENIGE.

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