Physical Geology Remarks Essay

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Enduring: Chemical alteration and mechanised breakdown of rock and sediment.

* as distance of formation from surface rises, so does susceptibility to enduring

* physical weathering: The physical breakup of rocks.

* chemical substance weathering: The decomposition of rocks and minerals brought on by stability-increasing reactions.

-rate of weathering positively linked to presence or a shortage of high mountains, and thus to plate tectonics

Physical Weathering-Mechanical Processes (water, fire, roots)

* development of joints- mountain moved up after erosion, causes bone injuries

* crystal growth- debris precipitated by seeping groundwater

* ice wedging- frosty seeping water

* effects of heat- rubble dont carry out, spall (outer shell) fractures away

2. plant roots- seeds germinate in cracks

Chemical Weathering-Chemical Reactions (stabilize to area temp)

* carbonic acid- rain + CO2 makes carbonic acid solution, frees H+ (comp. chg.

)

* hydrolysis- water ions substitute mineral ions

-decomposed potassium feldspar, kaolinite replaced

* leaching- normal water removes soluble materials from bedrock/regolith

2. oxidation- post-weathering iron discharge, goethite prod w/ hydration (O)

-intensity of color tells time/severity of enduring

* dissolution- carbonic chemical p dissolves calcite (previously unsoluble)

* common rocks- granites high silica hydrolysis=* clays soluble min.

-basalt oxidizes, limestone dissolves

* conc of stable minerals- immune to attack, @ streambeds/beaches b/c spec. rende. (cw)

2. weathering rinds- light coloured rind encircling a darker core of rock

-composed of stable byproduct of chemical weathering

* exfoliation- spalling from outer mountain shells due to stress during weathering

2. spheroidal weathering- rock propensity to be rounded by weathering

-weathering most reliable w/ *surface area, subdivision

* rock type/structure- minerals: quarts granite resistant

-differential weathering based upon composition composition

* slope- steep =* rapid, gradual =* sluggish

* climate- moisture and heat encourage reactions (chem. react. prev.

snabel-a =* frequency. )

-carbonate rocks (calcite diss. ) in different areas

* time- hundreds/thousands years for a few millimeter

Soils: Fault the regolith that can support rooted vegetation. Formed by weathering of bedrock: vitamin component mixed with organic materials.

* ground horizons: well-known succession of subhorizontal weathered zones

* distinct physical, chemical, and biological features

* each known as dirt profile (parent material =* surface)

* E- gray/white, present in evergreen forests (acidic soil)

2. B- rampacked in clay-based produced by enduring within the distance

* K- only in arid zones (rich in calcium carbonate)

* C- deepest, minor weathered mother or father material, is lacking in distinct houses, yel/brn oxidation process

Soil Types (influence the task, classified simply by chem/phys properties)

* polar soils- well drained, absence well-developed course, weak oxidation

-wetter envts: tundra causes water-logged, organic and natural rich garden soil, A not really B

2. temperature-latitude soils- well-developed rayon, unique to envt

-deciduous Affisols, timeless Spodosols, tremendous mountain Entisols and Inceptisols, prairie Mollisols

* desert soils- no leaching produces solid, impervious level of caliche

* tropical soils- heavy weathering, leaching produces iron-rich laterite

5. rate of soil development: dependent on climate (in regolith, not bedrock (cw)

* mod. Big t.

large R. – rapid, inside 100s years

* low. T. low. R. – millions of years

* paleosols are historic soils noted in mountain as unconformities

* roundabout effects- lake infilling at the rear of dams

2. rate of soil loss- 7% of soil misplaced each 10 years

* control over erosion- ground conserving farming practices, terracing, tree growing

* the world economy- soil is nonrenewable resource

Mass Wasting: The movement of regolith and masses of rock and roll down incline under the move of the law of gravity.

-No Carrier: Gravity is definitely the primary pressure for mass movement. Needs slope.

-perpendicular component of gravity (perpendicular to inclined surface)

-tangential component of gravity (parallel to inclined surface)

5. shear power: internal resistance from movement

-particle cohesion and plant beginnings govern

-capillary attraction is cohesive until saturated (failure)

-landslides sama dengan down incline movement of rock and regolith.

* slope failure- sudden down slope movements of logical masses (rocks) (dry)

* sediment flows- down slope flow of mixtures (sediment, water, and air)

* slump- down/out rotational activity on bent concave up surface

-can be twelve-monthly event, linked w/ large rains or perhaps shock (earthquakes)

-rockfall- abrupt free dropping of detached bedrock coming from a sharp slope

-debris fall- associating regolith and vegetation

-rockslide- sudden movement of separate masses across bedding aircraft

-debris slide- accompanying activity across aircraft of reg. and vegetables.

* talus-body of dust beneath a cliff, decide @ position of oubli

-relative percentage of hues, water, and air

-physical and chemical substance properties with the sediment

5. slurry flows- water over loaded moving mass (soil regolith ) (20-40% water)

-debris flow- coarse * fine sand, poorly fixed, moves along alluvial supporter (m/hr)

-mudflow- highly substance, moves along valley flooring (km/hr)

* granular flows- not drinking water saturated (20%-0% water)

-creep- loose build up that maneuver = colluvium, very slow.

Chapter Several

Weathering: Chemical alteration and mechanical breakdown of rock and sediment.

* depth of air/water penetration

* as distance of creation from area rises, and so does susceptibility to enduring

* physical weathering: The physical separation of rubble.

* chemical substance weathering: The decomposition of rocks and minerals due to stability-increasing chemical reactions.

-rate of weathering efficiently linked to presence or lack of high mountain range, and thus to plate tectonics

Physical Weathering-Mechanical Processes (water, fire, roots)

* advancement joints- mountain moved upwards after chafing, causes cracks

-columnar joint parts in igneous rock

5. crystal growth- salts brought on from seeping groundwater

2. frost wedging- frozen seeping water

* effects of heat- rocks don’t conduct, spall (outer shell) breaks away

* plant roots- seeds germinate in cracks

Chemical substance Weathering-Chemical Reactions (stabilize to surface temp)

* carbonic acid- rainfall + LASER makes carbonic acid, slides open H+ (comp. chg.

)

* hydrolysis- water ions replace vitamin ions

-decomposed potassium feldspar, kaolinite substituted

* leaching- water gets rid of soluble elements from bedrock/regolith

-seeps into water, poor taste

5. oxidation- post-weathering iron discharge, goethite push w/ hydration (O)

-hematite produced w/ dehydration

-intensity of color tells time/severity of weathering

* dissolution- carbonic acid dissolves calcite (previously unsoluble)

Results of Weathering

* common rocks- granites substantial silica hydrolysis=* clays sencillo min.

-basalt oxidizes, limestone dissolves

2. conc of stable minerals- resistant to strike, @ streambeds/beaches b/c spec. grav. (cw)

* enduring rinds- mild colored rind surrounding a darker core of mountain

-composed of solid side product of chemical substance weathering

* exfoliation- spalling off of exterior rock covers caused by anxiety during enduring

* spheroidal weathering- ordinary tendency to become rounded by weathering

-weathering most effective w/ *surface area, subdivision

Factors of Weathering

* rock type/structure- mineral deposits: quarts granite resistant

-differential weathering depending on composition composition

* slope- steep =* rapid, gradual =* slower

* climate- moisture and heat showcase reactions (chem. react. prev.

snabel-a =* frequency. )

-carbonate rocks (calcite diss. ) in different regions

* time- hundreds/thousands years for a few logistik

Soils: The part of the regolith that can support rooted vegetation. Formed by weathering of bedrock: mineral component mixed with organic material.

* garden soil horizons: well-known succession of subhorizontal weathered zones

* distinct physical, chemical, and biological attributes

* collectively known as soil profile (parent material =* surface)

5. O- area organic debris

* IKKE- humus, chemical substance leaching

* E- gray/white, present in classic forests (acidic soil)

2. B- enriched in clay-based produced by enduring within the distance

* K- only in arid areas and specific zones (rich in calcium carbonate)

* C- deepest, slight weathered mother or father material, does not have distinct properties, yel/brn oxidation process

* garden soil forming elements:

* time

* climate- rain temp

* formula of father or mother material

2. vegetation cover

* garden soil organisms

5. topography

Soil Types (influence the process, labeled by chem/phys properties)

2. polar soils- well exhausted, lack well-developed horizons, weakened oxidation

-wetter envts: tundra causes water-logged, organic rich soil, A not W

* temperature-latitude soils- well-developed horizons, one of a kind to envt

-deciduous Affisols, evergreen Spodosols, mountainous Entisols and Inceptisols, prairie Mollisols

* wilderness soils- simply no leaching creates solid, impervious layer of caliche

* tropical soils- heavy enduring, leaching creates iron-rich laterite

Environmental Areas of Soils

5. rate of soil development: dependent on environment (in regolith, not bedrock (cw)

* mod. T.

large R. – rapid, within 100s years

* mod. T. avg. R. – 100, 1000 years

2. low.

T. low. R. – millions of years

* paleosols are ancient soils recorded in rock and roll as unconformities

Soil Erosion

* indirect effects- pond infilling behind dams

2. rate of soil loss- 7% of soil shed each 10 years

* control of erosion- soil conserving farming practices, terracing, tree growing

* the world economy- ground is nonrenewable resource

Phase Eight

Mass Wasting: The movement of regolith and lots more and plenty of ordinary down incline under the take of the law of gravity.

-No Carrier: Gravity is definitely the primary push for mass movement. Requires slope.

2. role of gravity

2. shear stress (as slope +, tc +)

-perpendicular component of gravity (perpendicular to inclined part

holds in place

-tangential element of gravity (parallel to willing surface)

causes to move

5. shear power: internal resistance to movement

-particle cohesion and plant roots govern

5. role of water

-capillary attraction is usually cohesive until saturated (failure)

Mass Throwing away Processes

-landslides = straight down slope movements of rock and/or regolith.

* types of mast wasting

5. slope failure- sudden down slope movement of coherent masses (rocks) (dry)

5. sediment flows- down incline flow of mixtures (sediment, water, and air)

Slope Failure

5. slump- down/out rotational movements on tilted concave up surface

-can be gross annual event, associated w/ large rains or shock (earthquakes)

* declines

-rockfall- immediate free falling of separate bedrock coming from a high slope

-debris fall- enclosed regolith and vegetation

5. slides

-rockslide- sudden.

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