psychological ideas and therapeutic interventions
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ic DisorderPsychological Hypotheses and Healing Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorder
The ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a intricate and often confusing disorder. The prominent characteristic of the narcissistic personality is a grandiose feeling of self-importance, but in fact underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a forever fragile low self-esteem. The grandiosity with the narcissist, however , is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize him or her. The narcissist invokes in all of us images in the mythological personality Narcissus who could simply love himself, rebuffing anyone that attempted to feel him. Nevertheless, it is the root sense of inferiority, which can be the real trouble of the narcissist, the grandiosity is just a conceal used to cover the deep feelings of inadequacy.
The narcissist’s grandiose behavior is designed to reaffirm his or her perception of adequacy. Since the narcissist is not capable of asserting his / her own impression of adequacy, the narcissist seeks to be admired simply by others. However , the narcissist’s extremely delicate sense of self really worth does not allow him or her to risk any criticism. Therefore , important emotional relationships with others are prevented. By simultaneously seeking the admiration of others and keeping them far away the narcissist is usually able to maintain the impression of grandiosity no matter how people respond. Therefore, when people reward the narcissist his or her grandiosity will increase, but when criticized the grandiosity will most likely remain unaffected because the narcissist will devalue the criticizing person. talks about six areas of pathological performing, which define the narcissist. In particular, 4 of these narcissistic character characteristics best illustrate the pattern discussed previously mentioned. (1) a narcissistic individual has a standard sense of inferiority, which underlies a preoccupation with fantasies of outstanding achievements, (2) a narcissistic person is unable to trust and count on others and so develops many, shallow relationships to get tributes by others, (3) a narcissistic individual has a shifting morality-always ready to change values to find favor, and (4) a narcissistic person is unable to continue in love, demonstrating an impaired capacity for a committed relationship.
The narcissist who also enters therapy does not think that there is something incorrect with him or her. Typically, the narcissist tries therapy because he or the girl with unable to take care of the grandiosity, which usually protects him or her from the feelings of despair. The narcissist views his or her situation coming not as a direct result a personal maladjustment, rather it can be some factor in the environment which is beyond the narcissist’s control which has caused his or her present situation. Therefore , the narcissist expects the therapist to never ‘cure’ her / him from a problem which they does not perceive to can be found, rather the narcissist needs the specialist to restore the protective feeling of grandiosity. Hence, it is essential for the therapist to get alert to the narcissist’s tries to guide therapy toward healing the injured special part, instead of exploring the fundamental feelings of inferiority and despair.
The most severe form of narcissism involves the perception that no separating exists between your self plus the object. The object is viewed as an extension of the personal, in the sense the fact that narcissist looks at others to be a merged a part of him or her. Generally, the objects, which the narcissist chooses to merge with, represent that aspect of the narcissist’s personality about which feelings of inferiority will be perceived. For example if a narcissist feels less attractive he or she is going to seek to mix with someone who is identified by the narcissist to be attractive. At a rather higher level is out there the narcissist who acknowledges the separateness of the target, however , the narcissist opinions the object because similar to him self or herself in the sense that they can share a similar psychological make-up. In effect the narcissist perceives the object while ‘just just like me’. One of the most evolved narcissistic personality interprets the object being both separate and mentally different, although is unable to appreciate the object as a unique and separate person. The object can be thus regarded as useful only to the degree of its ability to overdraw the phony self (Manfield, 1992).
Pending the perceived demands of the environment a narcissist can develop in a single of two directions. The whose environment supports his / her grandiosity, and demands that she or he be more than possible will develop to be a great exhibitionistic narcissist. Such an person is informed ‘you are superior to others’, but concurrently his or her personal feelings are ignored. As a result, to restore their feelings of adequacy the growing specific will attempt to coerce environmental surroundings into assisting his or her grandiose claims of superiority and perfection. However, if the environment feels endangered by the person’s grandiosity it will attempt to control the individual via expressing this grandiosity. This individual discovers to keep the grandiosity invisible from other folks, and will develop to be a wardrobe narcissist. The closet narcissist will hence only uncover his or her emotions of grandiosity when he or she is confident that this kind of revelations will probably be safe (Manfield, 1992)
Narcissistic defenses are present to some extent in all people, but are especially pervasive in narcissists. These kinds of defenses are more comfortable with protect the narcissist coming from experiencing the emotions of the narcissistic injury. The most pervasive protection mechanism may be the grandiose security. Its function is to regain the narcissist’s inflated perception of him self or himself. Typically the security is applied when an individual punctures the narcissist’s grandiosity by stating something which disrupts the narcissist’s inflated look at of himself or herself. The narcissist will then experience a narcissistic injury a lot like that experienced in childhood and will respond by increasing his or her grandiosity, thus rebuilding his or her wounded self-concept. Accounting allowance is another prevalent defense that is used in similar situations. The moment injured or disappointed the narcissist can respond by devaluing the ‘offending’ person. Devaluation hence restores the wounded ego by providing the narcissist having a feeling of brilliance over the arrest. There are two other immunity process which the narcissist uses. The self-sufficiency protection is used to keep the narcissist emotionally separated from other folks. By keeping himself or himself emotionally separated the narcissist’s grandiosity could exist unchallenged. Finally, the manic defense is utilized when thoughts of worthlessness begin to surface area. To avoid suffering from these thoughts the narcissist will attempt to occupy him self or very little with various actions, so that he or she has no time left to feel the feelings (Manfield, 1992).
The central theme in the Psychodynamic take care of the narcissist revolves around the transference romance which emerges during treatment. In order for the transference romantic relationship to develop the therapist has to be emphatic in understanding the patient’s narcissistic requires. By echoing the narcissist the specialist remains ‘silent’ and ‘invisible’ to the narcissist. In essence the therapist turns into a mirror towards the narcissist to the extent the fact that narcissist derives narcissistic delight from confronting his or her ‘alter ego’.
Once the therapeutic relationship is established, two transference like trends. The reflection transference as well as the idealizing transference, collectively generally known as self-object transference emerge. The mirror transference will happen when the therapist provides a good sense of validation to the narcissist. Call to mind that the narcissistically injured kid failed to acquire validation for what he or she was. The child therefore concluded that there is something wrong along with his or her feelings, causing a severe damage to the child’s self-esteem. Simply by reflecting to the narcissist his or her accomplishments and grandeur the narcissist’s self esteem and internal combination are managed (Manfield, 1992). There are 3 types in the mirror transference phenomenon, every single corresponding to another level of narcissism (as discussed previously). The merger transference will take place in those narcissists who cannot distinguish between the object and the do it yourself. Such narcissists will perceive the therapist to be a digital extension of themselves. The narcissist will expect the therapist being perfectly resonant to him or her, as if the therapist is usually an actual part of him or her. If the therapist ought to even slightly vary from the narcissist’s needs or views, the narcissist will experience a painful breach in the natural self subject function given by the therapist. Such patients will then very likely feel betrayed by the specialist and will reply by withdrawing themselves from the therapist (Manfield, 1992). In the second type of mirror transference, the twin ship or alter ego transference, the narcissist perceives the therapist being psychologically a lot like him or herself. Conceptually the narcissist perceives the therapist and himself or perhaps herself being twins, individual but alike. In the cal king ship transference for the self-object cohesion to be managed, it is necessary to get the narcissist to view the therapist as ‘just just like me’ (Manfield, 1992). The next type of looking glass transference is again known as the mirror transference. In cases like this the narcissist is only considering the specialist to the magnitude that the therapist can echo his or her grandiosity. In this transference relationship the function with the therapist is to bolster the narcissist’s inferior self (Manfield, 1992).
The second do it yourself object transference, the idealizing transference, requires the credit of strength from the object (the therapist) to maintain an indoor sense of cohesion. Simply by idealizing the therapist who the narcissist feels linked, the narcissist by association also raises himself or herself. It really is helpful to contemplate the ‘idealizing’ narcissist while an infant who draws strength from the omnipotence of the caregiver. Thus, in the idealizing transference the specialist symbolizes omnipotence and this in return makes the narcissist feel safeguarded. The idealization of the object can become so important to the narcissist that on many occasions he or she is going to choose to wrong doing himself or herself, rather than blame the therapist (Manfield, 1992). The idealizing transference is a more mature form of transference than the mirror transference mainly because idealization requires a certain amount of internal composition (i. e., separateness through the therapist). Quite often, the narcissist will 1st develop mirror transference, and later when her or his internal composition is sufficiently strong does the idealizing transference develop (Manfield, 1992).
The self-object transference relationships provide a stabilizing result for the narcissist. The supportive therapist thus enables the narcissist to cure his or her current low self-esteem and reinstate the destroyed grandiosity. Yet , healing the latest narcissistic damage does not treat the root initial personal injury and in particular the void of the phony self. To address these issues the therapist must skillfully use the situations if the narcissist becomes uncharacteristically emotional, that is when the narcissist seems injured. It thus turns into crucial that within the context of the transference relationship, the therapist switch the narcissist’s focus towards his or her inner feelings (Manfield, 1992). The prevailing thoughts and opinions amongst Psychodynamic theorists is that the best way to address the narcissist’s present experience is to start using a hands-off form of approach. This could be accomplished by enabling the narcissist ‘take control’ of the sessions, processing the narcissist’s traumas as they unavoidably occur during treatment. Every time a mirror transference develops accidental injuries will take place when the specialist improperly recognizes and/or demonstrates the narcissist’s experiences. Likewise, when an idealizing transference is formed injuries will need the form of some letdown with the specialist which then disrupts the narcissist’s idealization of the therapist. In either case, the narcissist is trying to pay up the harm so that the therapist will not detect it. That remains up to the therapist to identify the particular body that the narcissist will use to protect against the soreness of the damage, and work backwards from there to discover the reason for the personal injury (Manfield, 1992). Once the reason behind the harm is discovered the specialist must carefully explore the problem with the narcissist, such that the person does not experience threatened. The cure of the narcissist than will not come from the self-object transference relationships per se. Rather, the self-object transference function of the specialist is healing only to the extent which it provides an exterior source of support, which permits the narcissist to maintain his / her internal cohesion. For the narcissist being cured, it is necessary for him / her to create their particular structure (the true self). The healing process is hence lengthy, and occurs in small increments whenever the structure supplied by the therapist is accidentally interrupted.
It is important to understand that the Self in analytical mindset takes on a unique meaning as compared to psychodynamic thought (Self is thus made a fortune in analytical writings to distinguish it in the psychodynamic concept of the self). In psychodynamic theory the self is always ego focused, that is the personal is taken to be a articles of the ego. By contrast, in analytical mindset the Do it yourself is the wholeness of the mind, it is the archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of personality. Furthermore, the self is also the of Our god in the mind, and as such it truly is experienced like a transpersonal power, which goes beyond the spirit. The Do it yourself therefore exists before the ego, and the spirit subsequently emerges from the Do it yourself (Monte, 1991). Within the Home we perceive our collective unconscious, which is made up of primordial images, that have been common to most members in the human race from the beginning of existence. These esencial images are termed archetypes, and perform a significant position in the framing of the spirit. Therefore , If the ego checks the mirror of the Personal, what it views is always ‘unrealistic’ because it sees its archetypal image which will never be fit into the ego (Schwartz-Salant, 1982, G. 19)
In the case of the narcissist, it is the shattering of the archetypal image of the mother leading to the narcissistic manifestation. The primordial image of the mother symbolizes paradise, to the extent that the environment of the child is correctly designed to satisfy his or her demands. No mother, however , may realistically match the child’s archetypal expectations. Nevertheless, so long as the mother realistically fulfills the child’s requires he or she will develop ‘normally’. It is just when the mom fails to certainly be a ‘good enough mother’, that the narcissistic condition will take place (Asper, 1993). When the mother-child relationship is damaged the child’s ego does not develop in an ideal way. Instead of form a secure ‘ego-Self axis’ relationship, the children’s ego encounters estrangement in the Self. This Self-estrangement adversely affects the child’s spirit, and thus the narcissist has been said to have a ‘negativized ego’. The negativized spirit than takings to compensate to get the self-estrangement by controlling the personal requirements which are inherent in the self, thus the negativized spirit of the narcissistically disturbed person is characterized by strong immunity process and spirit rigidity. A person with this interference has distanced himself in the painful thoughts of adverse experiences and has become egoistic, egocentric, and narcissistic (Asper, 1993, P. 82).
Since the narcissistic condition is known as a manifestation of self-estrangement, the analytical therapist attempts to heal the rupture inside the ego-self axis bond, that has been created by lack of adequate mothering. To heal this rupture the therapist must convey towards the narcissist through emphatic means that others do care about her / him, that is the therapist must fix the archetype of the great mother by using a maternally caring approach (Asper, 1993). A maternal strategy involves taking note of the narcissist’s needs. Just as a mother can without effort sense her baby’s demands so must the specialist feel and observe what is not really verbally indicated by the narcissist. Such a maternal way allows the narcissist to experience more sympathy towards his or her true emotions and thus slowly but surely the need to pull away into the narcissistic defense goes away (Asper, 1993).
It is difficult pertaining to the individual to seriously be himself or himself because contemporary society offers various rewards to get the individual who also conforms to its guidelines. Such an person becomes antiestablishment because he or she feels that society’s rituals and requirements grant her / him little value and alternatives in the control of his or her personal destiny. To pay such an person takes enjoyment in his or her very own uniqueness (grandiosity), he or she looks forward to what other folks cannot discover and control. Thus, the alienated person sees him self as a puppet cued by simply social circumstances which precise ritualized shows from him. His irritation about the inevitability of this can be counterbalanced by simply one key consolation. This consists of his narcissistic devotion for his own machinery-that is, his own operations and parts (Johnson, 1977, P. 141).
The existential treatment of the narcissist will be based upon the existential tenant that all existing people have the need and prospect of going out off their centeredness to participate in different beings (Monte, 1991, L. 492). The severely in opposition narcissistic individual, however , does not believe in the validity of experience outside the do it yourself. Unlike other folks, the narcissist does not assume that a positive relationship with others can be done. Existentialists as a result believe that the therapist, through emphatic understanding, must create a strong relationship with the narcissist, so that they might see that other folks have emotions too (Johnson, 1977).
The humanistic take care of the narcissist is in basic no not the same as the humanistic treatment of any other client. The humanistic therapist wants the narcissist to rediscover their individuality, that was suppressed by conditions of worth imposed by significant others. In order to accomplish this, the proper environment should be set in remedy, free of any conditions of worth. The narcissist need to feel that whatever he or she truly does is all correct with the specialist. The therapist therefore provides the narcissist unconditional positive view. There is no view of the narcissist, instead the therapist truthfully and caringly tries to find things throughout the eyes of the narcissist. When the narcissist involves accept their true needs he or she will probably be congruent together with the personal do it yourself and the narcissistic front will no longer be needed.
Each of the internal approaches talked about above consists of both strengths and weaknesses, in trying to solve the narcissistic challenge. Nevertheless, the psychodynamic version possesses a major advantage over the other strategies in its capacity to offer the two a comprehensive theory of etiology and reveal description of treatment. Regarding etiology the other approaches suffer from: deficiencies in concrete observational validity (the analytical approach), lack of clarity in taking the importance of narcissism (the existential approach), and lack of continuity in forecasting narcissism (the humanistic approach). The synthetic model of narcissism depends on lots of hypothetical concepts, such as the ordinaire unconscious, that are not maintained any tangible evidence. Simply by emphasizing the narcissist’s inclination to withdraw into the pleasures of the home, existentialists forget the immense enduring which so characterizes the narcissist. Regarding treatment the advantage of the psychodynamic procedure is that this goes beyond the exclusive usage of emphatic means to treat the narcissist. Simply by limiting treatment to fervent understanding the various other approaches do not address the underlying concerns inherent in narcissism. Therefore , the different approaches may shore in the narcissist’s ruined self-esteem in the short run, however it is skeptical if they will be able to transform the narcissist. Possibly the simply weakness in the psychodynamic way lies in the length that it will take to treat narcissism. Recall which a successful psychodynamic treatment needs the therapist to be careful about retaining the narcissist’s delicate self-perception. Only slowly but surely can the psychodynamic therapist immediate the narcissist’s attention on the real actual emotional feelings.
No matter which approach can be utilized in the explanation and treatment of narcissism it is necessary to recognize that the narcissistic person is a sophisticated and complex human being. Deap inside narcissistic persons experience tremendous pain and suffering, for which they try to compensate for by projection from the grandiose front. These people are certainly not character disordered. They are people tortured simply by narcissistic damage and crippled by developing arrests in functioning which rob them of the richness of existence they are worthy of. They are very good people, whom are injuring. They are living and battling the narcissistic style.