rates of death and disease
Population from the City of Atlantis on March 30, the year 2003 = 183, 000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January you and Summer 30, 2003 = 52
of lively TB circumstances according to the metropolis register in June 30, 2003 sama dengan 238
The incidence price of active cases of TB for the six-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 90, 000 population per 95, 000 populace per 90, 000 inhabitants per 75, 000 human population
130 per 100, 000 population
183, 000 is usually 183% of 100, 000, so the level per 100, 000 would be 52 divided by 1 . 84… or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of 06 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 95, 000 populace
130 per 100, 1000 population
a hundred and forty four per 75, 000 populace
264 every 100, 000 population
at the. non-e of the above
W – making use of the same math as previously mentioned… except really 238 / 1 . 84 – 129. 3
several. Which of the following is usually an advantage of active cctv surveillance? [ONE POINT]
a. requires less project staff
b. is relatively economical to employ
c. more accurate due to reduced confirming burden to get health care providers
deb. relies on different disease meanings to take into account all circumstances
e. confirming systems may be developed quickly
C – page 32 in the origin material… phase 3.
Query 4 is dependent on the information given below:
In an Asian country with a population of 10 , 000, 000 people, 85, 000 deaths occurred in the past year ending January 31, 2006. These fatalities included 60, 000 fatalities from cholera in 90, 000 individuals that were sick and tired with cholera.
4. The thing that was the case-fatality rate by cholera in 2005? [ONE POINT]
It would be 55%. There are 50, 000 deaths via cholera and this was by a wider pool of 90, 1000. 50, 500 is 57% of 90, 000.
your five. What would be the effect on age-specific incidence costs if girls with hysterectomies were as part of the denominator of calculations, let’s assume that there are some girls in every age group that have had hysterectomies? [ONE POINT]
a. the rates might remain precisely the same
b. the rates could tend to reduce
c. the rates would tend to increase
d. the rates will increase in more mature groups and decrease in youthful groups
elizabeth. it can not be determined whether or not the rates could increase or decrease
Elizabeth – need to know more data. If it is accepted that you have people in each group, the rate variance would vary based on the amount of applicable females in every single group. To learn the rates, the numerator AND the denominator would need to end up being known for each group that is certainly under assessment.
Question 6 is based on the following information:
A colon tumor screening study is being conducted in Nottingham, England. Persons 50 to 75 years old will be screened with the Hemoccult test. From this test, a stool sample is tested pertaining to the presence of blood vessels.
6. In the event the Hemoccult test result is definitely negative, no more testing is performed. If the Hemoccult test consequence is great, the individual could have a second feces sample analyzed with the Hemoccult II test. If this second test also tests positive pertaining to blood, the consumer will be known for more considerable evaluation. Precisely what is the effect upon net sensitivity and net specificity of this method of testing? [ONE POINT]
a. Net sensitivity and net specificity are both increased
b. Net sensitivity can be decreased and net specificity is increased
c. Net sensitivity continues to be the same and net specificity is improved
d. Net sensitivity is usually increased and net specificity is lowered
e. The effect on net sensitivity and net specificity cannot be established from the data
B – https://prezi.com/v4hgmes6tnly/use-of-multiple-tests-two-stage-testing-simultaneous-testing-net-sensitivity-net-specificity/
six. At an preliminary examination in Oxford, Mass., migraine frustration was found in 5 of just one, 000 guys aged 35 to 35 years and in twelve of 1, 1000 women aged 30 to 35 years. The inference that girls have a two times greater risk of producing migraine frustration than perform men from this age group is definitely: [ONE POINT]
b. wrong, because a percentage has been utilized to compare men and female costs
c. incorrect, because of failing to recognize the result of age in the two groups
d. completely wrong, because no data for any comparison or perhaps control group are given
e. incorrect, due to failure to tell apart between incidence and frequency
A – The test is the same size and the age group may be the same size… it is only the incidence charge that is different. As such, it can be indicated the rate is usually doubled.
almost eight. Age-adjusted death rates prefer: [ONE POINT]
a. Appropriate death prices for problems in the assertion of age
n. Determine you see, the number of fatalities that occurred in specific age groups in a human population
c. Accurate death costs for missing age data
d. Compare deaths in persons of the same age group
electronic. Eliminate the effects of differences in the age distributions of populations in comparing fatality rates
Elizabeth – http://health.mo.gov/data/mica/CDP_MICA/AARate.html – People who are old, by classification, are going to perish more often due to their age. Consequently, the rates for each age bracket have to be adjusted to indicate the death rates simply because will ALWAYS be higher for seniors. It enables comparisons between populations which have younger populations and elderly populations.
on the lookout for. The mortality rate by disease By in metropolis A is definitely 75/100, 500 in individuals 65 to 69 years old. The mortality rate through the same disease in metropolis B. can be 150/100, 500 in persons 65 to 69 years old. The inference that disease X is usually two times more prevalent in people 65 to 69 years old in town B. than it is in persons 66 to 69 years old in city A is: [ONE POINT]
w. Incorrect, as a result of failure to distinguish between prevalence and mortality
c. Wrong, because of failure to adjust to get differences in grow older distributions
g. Incorrect, due to failure to distinguish between period and point prevalence
e. Incorrect, just because a proportion is employed when a charge is required to support the inference
B – the two costs are about mortality (death) while the explained inference is approximately PREVALENCE. Obtaining the disease and dying by it won’t be the same thing and thus the inference is broken. It WOULD be accurate, however , to state that the MORTALITY rate was twice as much.
10. For a disease such as pancreatic tumor, which is highly fatal associated with short duration: [ONE POINT]
a. Incidence rates and mortality rates will probably be similar
n. Mortality prices will be higher than incidence rates
c. Incidence prices will be greater than mortality rates
m. Incidence prices will be unrelated to fatality rates
electronic. non-e from the above
A – in the event the disease is usually quick to kill and that is usually what happens, the prices will be very close. For example , of 100 persons get pancreatic cancer and 95 pass away, that is a fatality rate of 95% plus the numerator and denominator are very close together. Yet , what would NOT be seen is those two areas of the portion being disparate. Further, fatality rates can never be greater than incident costs (B), C cannot be true for the reasons already explained and they are absolutely related. A is evidently the correct response.
11. In 1990, there are 5, 500 deaths due to lung diseases in miners aged twenty to 64 years. The expected volume of deaths from this occupational group, based on age-specific death costs from lung diseases in most males older 20 to 64 years, was two, 500 during 1990.
a. What was the standardized fatality ratio (SMR) for chest diseases in miners? [ONE POINT]
SMR is seen deaths above expected… or 2 in this case (5000 as well as 2500)
b. Interpret the value of the SMR: [ONE POINT]
Excess deaths while the value is definitely greater than one.
Concerns 12-15 derive from the information provided below:
A physical examination was used to screen pertaining to breast cancer in 2, 700 women with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the breast and in five, 200 age- and race-matched control girls. The benefits of the physical examination were positive (i. e., a mass was palpated) in 2, 000 cases and in 500 control women, every one of whom revealed no proof of cancer at biopsy.
12. The tenderness of the physical examination was: [ONE POINT]
The Bayesian square that ought to be used in this kind of instance is really as follows
2k – Authentic Positive
500 – Bogus Positive
2300 – Test Positive
seven hundred – False Negative
4700 – Accurate Negative
5400 – Test Negative
34% – T Disease (2700/7900)
66% – T Non-Disease (5200/7900)
Tenderness would be 2k / (2000 + 700) * 75 = 2150 / 2700 * 90 = 74. 07%
13. The specificity of the physical examination was: [ONE POINT]
Specificity can be 4700 / (4700 + 500) 2. 100 sama dengan 90. 38%
14. Good predictive benefit of the physical examination was: [ONE POINT]
PPV would be 2000 / (2000 + 500) 2. 100 sama dengan 2000 / 2500 2. 100 sama dengan 80%
15. The unfavorable predictive value of the physical examination was: