richard layard explained that happiness comes from
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Happiness is described as a good feeling that ranges from Joy to contentment. Everybody would like to be happy. It really is believed that folks who are happy are more effective, productive, have better interactions and better health. We wish to maintain these kinds of feelings whenever we have them. Richard Layard uses the terms ‘outside’ and ‘within’ to describe where joy comes from. ‘Outside’ factors include influences like relationships, social identities and culture. ‘Within’ looks at affects such as biology, thoughts and feelings.
So the ‘outside’ relates to social impacts and ‘within’ relates to personal factors within the individual. This essay aims to find evidence of these multiple influences to be able to explain Rich Layard’s statement. First it will eventually address ‘within’, next it is going to look at the ‘outside’, finishing with a conclusion.
A key biological aspect of joy is linked to a healthy lifestyle and eating the right food. Exercising and eating proper increases the system’s level of hormones, which obviously gives all of us a boost.
Certain foods induce the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin manages mood, urge for food and sleep, and is what produces the feelings of delight and fulfillment within all of us. If we have low levels of appetite reducing hormones we suffer from depression and anxious. Judith Wurtman (1996) (cited in beginning psychology 2011) found an association between lower levels of serotonin and a diet reduced carbohydrates. Persons on high fat, excessive protein, low carbohydrate weight loss plans reported thoughts of despression symptoms anger and tension which were unusually high. Foods that stimulate serotonin contain a chemical substance called tryptophan. Foods just like fish, nuts, beans, ovum, oats and chocolate most contain this kind of mood boosting chemical. Just what exactly we placed in our bodies can affect our level of happiness. When Layard declares happiness comes from ‘within’ he could be drawing on these types of biological elements.
But are some people born using a genetic proneness to be more content than others? Richard Davidson et ing. (2000) (cited in starting psychology 2011) used an EEG to measure in which the brain is active when we are content. It discovered that cheerful people show more activity inside the front in the brain within the left hand-side compared to the right and vice versa when folks are unhappy. Some people obviously use a single side of their brain more than the other, using the left side even more means you might show higher levels of joy regardless of the experiences. This theory was tested in babies and toddlers. Equally left hand-sided babies and toddlers showed less stress when segregated from their mothers and had been better at new conditions than babies and toddlers who were proper hand-sided. This kind of shows some level of delight is genetically inherited again a ‘within’ factor of biological facts to support Layard’s theory.
Davidson teamed up with Jon Kabat-Zin to see if mediation had any kind of effect on the right and kept front head activity. That they carried out a great experiment on a group of underhand workers. The group was divided into two and one group was taught the right way to meditate, the other was told they would start afterwards. Eight weeks later the group who have learned to meditate were significantly happier, coped better with pressure and had greater immunity when ever given a flu vaccination than the group who had not started. In addition, it showed that their amount of brain activity had shifted to the left. Therefore although the brain and how it works is important in just how happiness is definitely produced you may effectively educate your brain to work in a different way by changing its plasticity. (Starting Psychology 2011)
All these biological elements contribute to our level of joy and is what Layard intended by ‘within’ influences. These are generally not the only influences about our joy; relationships and environment play a large part too.
Richard Layard’s (2005) research in to happiness discovered a list of seven factors that promote wellbeing. The list declares family and close relationships would be the number one elements for joy as they are psychologically sustaining. This tells us that the ‘outside’ influences of relationships that Layard refers to are crucial. (Starting Psychology 2011). Interactions start in the womb and continue during life. Early on relationships influence the mental development of kids and a securely attached child is definitely confident, features high self-esteem and understands it is adored and highly valued, creating delight. The findings from Jane Ainsworth (1978) (cited in Starting Psychology 2011) when the girl observed twelve months old babies in her experiment ‘the Strange situation’ confirms this kind of claim. Children played within a room and the reactions were recorded if the parent left and a stranger entered. Securely attached children had been happy to explore and enjoy whilst the parent was present, yet became affected when remaining. They were conveniently comforted when the parent returned, however when a stranger came into the child could not be encouraged and ignored the stranger. Insecurely fastened children were less self-confident in discovering, were indifferent to the occurrence or a shortage of the mother or father and indecisive about whether or not they wanted relaxing or not.
A recent UNICEF report (2007) showed just how significant interactions with friends and family are in producing pleasure in kids. This report was about little one’s wellbeing in twenty-one designed countries, and the UK identified itself at the bottom of the list, behind poorer countries. The real reason for this rank seemed to be low quality relationships with family, good friends and colleagues. It emerged that becoming loved and supported by friends and family was the most critical elements for any happy child years. (Starting Mindset 2011).
In adulthood individuals that manage good communication will be happier than others. Robert Lane (2000) also argued we gain happiness from people’s passion and popularity of us and it is this a sense of being valued that affects our mood. When we are with individuals we exchange positive nonverbal communication. Our body language helps bring about friendly conversation which leads to laughter and happiness. Also several huge studies have shown a link between expressing honor and large feelings of happiness according to Seligman (2005). When we thank someone we not merely make the person feel good this increases the mood. Each one of these examples show evidence of what Layard meant by ‘Outside’ influences upon our happiness. (Starting Psychology 2011).
To conclude many adding to factors make us content. These couple of examples will be biological and social impact on confirming Richard Layard’s view that ‘happiness comes from exterior and within’ It seems that a combination of influences are crucial in causing our overall happiness, there are many other factors that also play a part within our happiness, however it is clear out of this evidence which a person’s neurological state and close personal relationships have an effect on levels of joy.