skinner s reinforcement unit essay

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Motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, this means “to move”. According to dictionary of management, it can be defined as the forces working on or in a person that trigger the excitement levels, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, non-reflex effort. Determination is one of the most significant areas of research in the field of organizational behaviour. Motivation is done to inspire and encourage people to fulfil their demands. In motivation people are likely to do something mainly because they want to undertake it.

The internal needs and drives bring about tensions, which result in action. In organization, inspiration can be described as the willingness to accomplish high levels effort to organizational goals, conditioned by efforts and ability to fulfill some specific need. There are many theories in motivation, including Hierarcy of Needs Theory, ERG Theory, Two-Factor Theory, Acquired Demands Theory, Method Theories of Motivation, Expectations Theory, Goal-Setting Theory, Self-Efficacy Theory, and Reinforcement Theory. In this paper, the authors will talk about more regarding reinforcement theory which made famous by Burrhus Frederic Skinner, a psychologist, an investor, and Harvard mindset professor who also came from America.

1 . Strengthening Theory

Strengthening theory is a process of framing behaviour by controlling the consequences of the behavior. In strengthening theory a mix of rewards and punishments is employed to reinforce preferred behaviour or extinguish unnecessary behaviour. Any behaviour that emerges a result is called operant behaviour, since the individual functions on his or perhaps her environment. Reinforcement theory concentrates on the relationship between the operant behaviour plus the associated implications, and is at times referred to as operant conditioning exactly where behaviour can be controlled by simply manipulating the consequences.

2 . Reinforcement Strategies There are four strategies of reinforcement which are used in operant conditioning, including positive strengthening, negative encouragement, punishment, and extinction. 1 . Positive Support

Positive Encouragement is done by giving a positive response when an specific shows great and essential behaviour. For example , a director immediately praises an employee pertaining to coming early for work. This will enhance probability of outstanding actions occurring again. Reward is actually a positive enhance, but not necessarily. In the event that and only in case the employees’ behavior improves, reward can said to be a positive reinforcer. Positive encouragement stimulates happening of conduct. It must be observed that more spontaneous the rewards are given, the greater reinforcement worth it has.

This tactic of strengthening has two basic laws and regulations which are the regulation of dependant reinforcement as well as the law of immediate strengthening. The 1st law states that for any reward to have a maximum rewarding value it ought to be delivered only if the desired conduct is displayed. The second law states that the more immediate the delivery a reward after the occurrence of your desirable actions, the greater the reinforcing value of the prize.

There are three process of confident reinforcement, such as: a. Framing is positive reinforcement of successive estimated to the desire behavior. Workers get support from supervisor and employees can try to give the best result to director. b. Constant Reinforcement is usually rewards every time a desired behavior occurs. Personnel will get reward from director for each time they can generate goals intended for the job. c. Intermittent Strengthening is returns behavior only periodically. Personnel will get incentive from supervisor in the spesified time, maybe in the last year or maybe the first 12 months.

2 . Bad Reinforcement Bad Reinforcement took place when a supervisor is rewarding an employee by removing adverse or unwanted consequences. The two positive and negative reinforcement can be used intended for increasing desired or necessary behaviour.

3. Punishment Abuse is done simply by removing great consequences in order to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behaviour at a later date. In other words, consequence means making use of undesirable consequence for demonstrating undesirable behaviour. For example by simply suspending a staff for damaging the organizational guidelines. Punishment may be equalized by positive strengthening from alternate source. Underneath are shown suggestions for abuse:

• Tell the person what is being done right and wrong. • Assure that the consequence given is usually reasonable. • Administer the punishment secretly. • Follow the laws of immediate and contingent encouragement. 4. Annihilation This previous strategy indicates absence of rearrangements. This strategy is intended to lowering the probability of undesired behaviour by removing prize for that sort of behaviour. If an employee no longer receives praise and popularity of his great work, he may feel that his behaviour can be generating simply no fruitful effect. So , annihilation may accidentally lower desired behaviour with the worker alone.

Reinforcement Theory was made by simply B. F Skinner. Just states these employees’ behaviours that lead to positive outcomes will probably be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative effects will not be repeated. Reinforcement theory explains in more detail how a person learns behavior. There are four main strategies used in Operant conditioning such as, positive reinforcement, negative strengthening, punishment, and extinction. Skinner states basically environment must be made ideal to the individuals and that abuse actually brings about frustration and de-motivation.

Therefore , the only way to motivate should be to keep on producing positive changes in the external environment of the organization. Managers can use these approaches in turn, but since one strategy is used continuously it can causes adverse impacts upon employees. Managers who decide to make attempt to stimulate the employees must ensure that they usually do not reward every employees together. They must inform the employees what they are not undertaking correct. They need to tell employees how they can attain positive encouragement. The desired reaction to the above strategy is that managers should negatively reinforce staff behavior that leads to negative outcomes and increase positive behaviors inside the work environment.


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