teen pregnancy compared to just a few term

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Teen Motherhood

Pregnancy, Juvenile Detention, Sexually Transmitted Conditions, Nursing House Abuse

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Teen Pregnant state

Compared to just a few decades before, American contemporary society has become even more open and accepting of teen pregnancy. Pregnant teens shall no longer be hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many college and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to treat the developing incidences of teenage pregnant state.

This newspaper evaluates the effectiveness of four various sorts of programs in preventing being pregnant in teenage girls. These programs include sexual education in schools, one-on-one conversations among patient and health care member of staff in a clinical setting, assistance learning courses and finally, junior development applications. Emphasis has on the success of these courses in protecting against pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.

The first part of this conventional paper is an understanding of teenager pregnancy stats, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next section of the paper after that identifies the factors behind the rising costs of being pregnant among black teenagers.

In the third and main part, this conventional paper looks at the diverse applications and plans that are being applied to help end teenage motherhood. The daily news then examines whether or not these programs talk about the unique elements that bring about teen pregnant state in African-American teens.

In the conclusion, this paper states that motherhood rates between black teenagers continue to rise, mainly because these programs do not talk about the particular factors behind pregnancies in this group. Thus, to be able to effectively treat teen pregnant state in dark teenagers, more policies must be enacted to address factors like poverty and school drop-out rates.


Overall, young pregnancies in the United States have declined since 1991. However , studies such as Singh and Darroch (2000) have demostrated that a complete 40% of young girls become pregnant before they switch 20 years older. Furthermore, 25% of sexually active teens contact a sexually transmitted disease every year. Likewise, despite the regular decrease, america still has the highest pregnancy and birth rate among industrialized nations.

Quite a few studies have got looked into the causes for young pregnancy in america. In a longitudinal study, Harding (2003) identified a strong hyperlink between area poverty and a teen’s tendency shed out an excellent source of school, take part in risky sexual behavior and have a teen pregnant state. Teen pregnancies were considerably more common in high-poverty local communities than in all their more well-off counterparts. Harding (2003) found that this causal link remained strong, even though different family members backgrounds were taken in to account.

Different studies, however , believe that familial relations play a strong perform a more robust role than neighborhood poverty. Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) found that African-American children in poor neighborhoods possess a greater possibility of doing early sexual acts, compared to their peers much more affluent people. However , this kind of study also available factors that creates differences in sexual activity within the deprived neighborhoods.

Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) located, for example , that African-American teenagers who delight in strong bonds with their parents were more likely to abstain from early on sexual patterns. This is especially true for teen females and who have close relationships with their moms.

Furthermore, Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) discovered that dark-colored teenage girls who have experienced pregnant state were “significantly less likely” to be residing in intact households. Rather, they often lived in single-parent households. Women who did engage in risky sexual activity and experienced pregnancy also reported more “alienating mother-daughter associations. ” Their mothers had been often significantly less communicative and thus, the daughters felt even more distant relationships.

Furthermore, Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) also posited that girls whom lived with cohabiting adults were 4 times more likely to engage in early on sexual habit. However , this kind of trend was countered among the list of girls who have reported close relationships with their mothers.

The Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) findings contrast with the a conclusion of the Harding (2003) analyze.

Harding (2003) concluded that the poverty within a young teenage girl’s environment was the most effective predictor intended for engaging in early sexual activity and eventual being pregnant.

For Harding, these correlations hold true even when familial ties were taken into consideration. As Harding executed a longitudinal study assessing two test groups, his findings happen to be supported by sturdy research.

Nevertheless , the results of Harding’s study will be challenged once researchers give attention to race. Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) identified that within just poor African-American communities, there were still significant differences in the rates of early sexual activity and young pregnancy.

In these instances, the greatest predictor for pregnancy was the teenage girl’s marriage with her mother. Those who enjoyed close-knit relationships with their mothers were far less likely to become pregnant, even though other factors had been taken into consideration.

Hence, for deprived young black women, the quality of the friends and family unit takes on greater importance, especially if the young lives in a great impoverished area. Strong, close-knit families as a result serve as a buffer, protecting many young adults from the bad influences from other neighborhood. These kinds of close-knot human relationships also come into play even for teens who embark on sexual activity. Moore and Chase-Lansdale (2001) also found that teenage girls with close relationships with their mothers are more likely to practice safe sexual by using contraception and having fewer intimate partners.

To work for all young adults, pregnancy prevention programs hence need to addresses the exceptional factors that provide rise to pregnancy between African-American teenage girls. The next section discusses the primary types of pregnancy and safe-sex applications currently being implemented and evaluates how these kinds of programs interact to the unique requirements of the African-American community.

Applications and guidelines to prevent young pregnancy

There is also a multitude of adolescent pregnancy elimination programs getting implemented in america. Many applications receive open public and federal government funding, while others are privately-financed. These applications can be grouped under 4 main types – education programs, health care, service learning and youth development applications. Following can be described as discussion of these kind of programs, and then an evaluation showing how these programs address the primary predictors of pregnancy for African-American young girls.

Education programs

The majority of these applications focus on training teenagers regarding the safe love-making and HIV prevention. A number of these programs emphasize abstinence while the most dependable method for preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease. A large number of such courses are educated as part of the regular school program. Other is conducted following class hours. Still additional programs are conducted by simply experts and volunteers in juvenile detention centers and homeless shelters.

There is a extensive diversity among the list of types of education courses. Advocates of abstinence-only education, for example , believe contraception education have did not stem the tide of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease among high-school pupils. Napier (1999) argues that abstinence-only applications are the more beneficial solution. Courses such as the Wa, DC-based Close friends, for example , match a teen lady with an adult mentor. Every week one-on-one and group meetings will certainly teach girls self-respect and decision-making skills that will make up the basis of a sexually-abstinent lifestyle. The Best Friends program also emphasizes staying away from drugs and alcohol, that happen to be considered risk factors intended for early sexual activity.

Other urban centers have executed similar courses, such Chicago’s Project Actuality. This program provides a “values-based” curriculum that espouses disuse until relationship as the wise and moral choice. Similar to Best Friends, the Task Reality plan offers individuals weekly group lessons about substance abuse and human libido. In addition , yet , Project Truth also address the “cultural influences” that promote young sexual activity. These kinds of influences consist of television courses and movies that portray adolescent sexual activity as desirable, regular and generally free from consequences (Napier 1999).

Various other programs emphasis more around the prevention feature, instead of simply abstinence. Various HIV education programs highlight using condoms. Most public schools provided more extensive sex and HIV education that proceeded to go beyond abstinence. Different age-appropriate programs are also implemented in middle-schools and high-schools throughout the country. These types of school courses were effective in stalling teenage sexual acts and by extension, teen pregnancy.

Many studies possess reported how these education programs have been completely successful in encouraging abstinence or less dangerous sex. However , an evaluation of the content of the programs demonstrates both celibacy and safe-sex education carry out little to promote stronger family members ties between disadvantaged families. It should be also noted that strong relatives ties among mother and daughter will be the greatest predictor of postponed sexual activity pertaining to African-American teenage girls.

Thus, whilst abstinence- and safe-sex education help to talk about teenage pregnancy, the effectiveness of these kinds of programs happen to be muted when race is taken into consideration.

To begin with, it is unlikely that college districts in poor communities already have strained budgets and may even not have the time for extra courses like sexual intercourse education. Likewise, many African-American teens in low-income local communities are forced to drop out of school due to poverty. For these young adults, school-based applications are useless. Furthermore, many teens who need to job to the increase family salary will not have time for after-school or community education programs.

Even though the education applications have an priceless function, especially in HIV and HELPS prevention, they just do not address the possible lack of strong family members ties. In the end, as seen in the Moore and Chase-Lansdale

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