teenage pregnancy dissertation

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This assignment is going to consist of 4000 words centered around the health issue of teenage pregnancy. I will then discuss the view outside the window from a ‘Biopsychosocial’ perspective, which will contain explanations as to the reasons pregnancy arises amongst young adults. This job will include a portfolio of evidence that we collected from various sources about teen pregnancies. Regarding teenage pregnancy

According to, (UNICEF, 2008) Teenage motherhood is defined as a teenage woman, typically within the ages of 13-19, pregnancy. Teenage being pregnant commonly refers to girls who have not yet come to legal adult life.

In the UK, love-making is permissible for girls of sixteen years or over. Most teenagers will not plan on becoming pregnant at an early age, nevertheless , some do. Nevertheless, becoming pregnant at an early age might cause teenagers extra health risks mainly because their systems are not mature enough, a lot of risks could be high blood pressure and premature infants, which leads to a low labor and birth weight to get the baby. More severe risks can result in still births or loss of life of the mom and baby (Medline As well as, 2013).

Julia Bodeeb also indicated that teen mothers face difficult changes in pregnancy; it is because teenagers usually do not in general search for medical help or treatment during the 3 trimesters of pregnancy which usually potentially could cause complications to the baby in later being pregnant (Bodeeb, 2011) Around 18 million girls give labor and birth every year on the globe. The majority of these types of pregnancies happen to be from much less developed countries. However , in accordance to WHOM (2012) around three million young ladies have unsafe abortions every year, this is because young ladies are scared of telling people that they are pregnant in case they will get judged for example friends not wanting to be around them, relatives telling them to leave home and partners leaving them.

Epidemiological data in Teenage Motherhood

The mass media has a big impact on submitting statistics regarding teenage pregnant state whilst doing either one or maybe more things, adversely criticise that, or big it up. A report by Kmietowicz (2002), demonstrates the prices of young pregnancy happen to be higher in the united kingdom and UNITED STATES. It has been advised that all their education poorly prepares adolescent girls for life within a modern lovemaking society than any other nation does. The United Kingdom is currently near the top of theEuropean stand with 30 births to each 1000 teenage girls, at the bottom with the table were Sweden who less than several births per 1000 teenage girls. The statistics in the content showed that 1 . twenty-five million teens in some from the world’s richest countries can become pregnant and three quarters of any million teenage girls will become moms. Also it states that study carried out by the University of Essex reveals teenage girls who also become pregnant happen to be twice as likely to from lower income stricken people. One study suggests that the blame is caused by which the alter is socio-sexual transformation puts much more pressure on young ladies to experiment with love-making rather than the traditional traditional friends and family values.

By comparison to additional similar sized countries in britain teenagers may pressurise their peers in to experimenting with sexual intercourse; by the use of dialogue, the multimedia and also buying products. This report as well showed it is education which can be failing the teenagers and they should have even more knowledge about what goes on if they don’t take safety measures with regards to secure sex (Kmietowicz, 2002) One of the most worrying statement which has been recently subjected to the public by the media is that. That shows that these one million girls will either themselves suffer complications of pregnancy or that their very own unborn child may suffer from complications of pregnancy. These complications could possibly be life threatening to both mom and bay and could have long lasting effects on the health and well-being of the mother and baby. Many teenage girls become pregnant as they are denied use of contraception because they are either unavailable in that area or you will find deep social problems around contraception (Blair, 2012). It shows that ladies under 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy than women within their 20’s.

Babies born to under 18’s are 60 per cent very likely to die because the girls bodies are too premature to deliver the baby. Despite these types of terrifying characters 20 percent of girls around the world are likely to have their babies before all their 18th birthdays. Most help organisations possess avoided this problem due to tenderness to the girls who have perished or shed their babies and social issues however the characters becoming excessive they now need to promptly investigate in strategies’ to change this kind of (Blair, 2012) Statistics exposed by the government and other resources such as the Office of Overall health, WHO, and national research shows that actually in 1998 the newest Labour governmentproduced strategies’ and plans, and set aside a staggering 340 , 000, 000 budget to minimize relative inequality and poverty which could then reduce the rate in teen motherhood. Still, 12-15 years later on, one of the top growing issues with the English government (Freedoms Consequences, 2009) is that of young pregnancy.

The government states that steady progress is being produced but this only displays when statistics are used and interpreted correctly. The stand showing the rates of teenage motherhood have reduced by 13. 3 percent however searching closer they may have only lowered by your five. 3 percent. The highest rate of reduction in teenage pregnant state was between 1998 and 2009 which was before any real federal government funds came out. When the authorities increased money the declination slowed which can be shown inside the ‘Freedom’s effects report’. As well statistics show that in most Countries in europe teenage pregnancy rates have got steadily decreased since the 1920’s however the United kingdoms’s has stayed very similar with not much fluctuation since 69. Freedom’s Effects (2009) display that among 1998 and 2006 the under 18’s contraception rate has dropped by 13. 3 percent however this is three times higher than Indonesia. Annual research shows that in the united kingdom 41, 768 under 18 year olds became pregnant and four, 399 of the people were under 16’s, most of these pregnancy resulted in illegal abortions though the statistics will always remain a suspicion rather than confirmed.

Around 20 percent of births to girls 18 and below were second births or perhaps sub continuous births to miscarriages and abortions. These figures will be disturbing as further study into these types of figures have shown that a lady from a lesser class backdrop is five times very likely to become pregnant than the usual girl within a higher class background and therefore social exclusion is one of the biggest concerns intended for the government to approach. Teen parents are more likely to come from starving backgrounds although teenagers via high class skills are most likely to look onto school and get high paid jobs. Different figures have demostrated that teenagers are three times more likely to smoke cigarettes throughout their very own pregnancy and 50 percent are much less likely to breastfeed. The long run outcomes are actually more having to worry, over 70 percent of the parents had been or can be lone parents causing a staggering rise in the cost of state benefits. By the age of 30, 22 percent of the parents were also living in lower income, and are more unlikely to have qualifications and 70 percent of these will claim profits support. Forty percent of mothers underthe age of twenty are considered to be living in parents, relatives and friends lodging rather than their own, and per cent education deceased even if these were in the middle of getting qualifications by way of example half method through a yr.

A frightening aspect of these kinds of figures is that teenagers probably move residence, once actually twice or three times while pregnant which can cause health issues for the mother and baby due to tension and tension. All in all many teenage father and mother come from lesser backgrounds, will be single, and end up living in secure lodging in an area that’s repeated with pregnant girls. They then don’t get good education and this decreases their probability of getting great jobs and providing better futures on their own and their children. (Freedom’s Effects, 2009) The graph displaying the costs in young pregnancy demonstrate that the UK have the second highest costs within the UK with the Us which has a greater population charge to start with being the initially. It also displays in the UK include double the amounts of births to adolescent girls than Indonesia, nearly twenty times a lot more than Portugal and 25, 500 more than the Netherlands (Why Chapel, 2013). One more graph displays that the north east have the highest volume of teen pregnancies whilst 40% of the girls are having their infants, an enormous 60 per cent of these young ladies are aborting their infants.

The East have the cheapest amount of teenage pregnancies however simply 2, 500 out of 6000 young ladies are keeping their babies and the relax are terminating their pregnancy (The Poverty Site, 2011). The last chart is a pub chart which will shows a report of fifty five people and their sexual activity. From the group twenty-seven under 16’s had not had sexual intercourse although 5 had been having frequent sexual intercourse. Simply 4 more than 16’s remained absent by intercourse although 19 over 16s had been having regular intercourse (The Poverty Site, 2010). To compare the UK to another country with the similar dimensions are going to provide a clear picture to what diverse countries carry out to solve all their health issues. Therefore , United Kingdom or Germany! The german language schools also receive love-making education classes which give attention to birth control and abstinence (Prenatal Diagnostic and obstetrics, D. D). 4% of young adults in Indonesia actually prepare their pregnancy whereas, 34% do not employ contraception (Pro Familia, 2006).

Germany has also very stringent values that if a teenage girl gets pregnant away from marriage they have two alternatives; keep it and possibly get disowned off relatives and buddies or have a great abortion. Which has a lot of young ladies opting for abortions the prices haveincreased to 60%, nevertheless , pregnant Catholic or Simple teenagers normally go for an abortion. While, Muslim teens generally take the baby complete term (Pro Familia, 2006). Bio-Psycho-Social affects

There are many different influences in a teenager’s life which makes them need to become pregnant at an early age. The Bio-psycho-social version was launched by George Engel inside the 1970’s as he believed that health was down to 3 main factors which are natural, social and psychological (Nursing Theories, 2012) There is one main natural factor that influences teen pregnancy which is the period. The menstrual period usually occurs around the age ranges of almost eight to 13 (Clearblue, 2012). The menstrual cycle sends alerts to your human brain so it is aware when to begin producing human hormones. At the start of your girl’s period her estrogen levels are it is lowest nevertheless starts to maximize throughout her period (Clearblue, 2012). Sociological factors apparently influence teens the most. This is because a lot of teenager include famous function models including Jamie-Lynn Asparagus spears, also teens in today’s contemporary society can watch programmes on television which may influence being pregnant amongst teens such as MTV ’16 and pregnant’ and also the well-known film ‘Juno’ (Media Influences in Adolescent Being pregnant, 2011).

Programs like this have been criticised as ‘glamorising pregnancy’ (Live Scientific research, 2012). A few teenagers are constantly looking for attention and affection and look for love in the wrong areas such as man company, this then enables teenagers for taking it further more and become pregnant (Divine Caroline, 2013). In today’s society in addition, it seems that if a friend gets pregnant then you have to as well! There can be many reasons why a teenage girl might get pregnant but there is one primary judgement about teenage pregnancies, which is that ‘all pregnant teenagers conceive for the rewards and housing’ (Maevarish, 2010). Rosen (1996) thought that lower income was the good reason that teenagers received pregnant for a young age group, what this means is that teenage mothers become pregnant to misuse the welfare system because they do not need to be in low income anymore and need a ‘way out’. In contrast to that Krauthammer (1993) explained that ‘welfare encourages illegitimacy and adolescent pregnancy’.

In the united kingdom, teenage pregnancy seems to be the highest in cities instead of the richest areas enjoys Chelsea. Cities are categorised as built up areas with a variety of companies and a population of more than 1500 people(Urban Area, 2013). This is because teenagers and children cannot afford to fund for good education and also good health care, therefore , in wealthier towns they can afford to do all this thus their child includes a good start at life (Rogers & Evans, 2011). Mental factors are usually a huge impact on teenage pregnancy consisting of abuse and teenagers becoming in care. These impacts can possess dramatic effects on a teen when their particular growing up and still searching for what they want for being in life (Manlove & Welti, 2011) Maltreatment is the main internal factor that happens to teenagers every single day; abuse could be physical such as, rape or perhaps hitting (Patricelli, 2005). Young adults could also be mentally abused by family, good friends or strangers for example informing them all their ‘stupid’ or not liked. This could after that lead to the teenager retaliating and obtaining affection in other places (Cohen, 2011). non-etheless, Klein (1996) argues that a plenty of adolescent girls that became pregnant happen to be and were victims of rape by an adult man. Klein explained; “¦ sixty two percent of 535 teenager mothers had been raped or molested prior to they started to be pregnant Linda Villarosa, (1996) also agreed that individuals were the main reason why teenagers received pregnant.

Villarosa (1996) stated those adolescent pregnancies in which down to intimate exploitation of teenage girls, she also asserted that like a society we do not try and find the real reasons for teenage pregnancy. Another mental influence is usually teenager’s getting in proper care. This can influence teenager pregnancies because the teens may seem like they are certainly not loved because they have been put in care (Teen Ink, D. D). Every time a child can be put into care, they may think that they are certainly not wanted or perhaps loved, consequently , they may find a male to get appreciate from and to truly feel needed. This may later bring about teenage pregnancy. It is also regarded that if the teenager grew up in attention or promote care virtually all children should go into treatment themselves, because of this it is a aggresive cycle which might never end (Child Styles, 2011) Approaches

There are many strategies that are set up to help reduce adolescent pregnancies, included in this are ‘Teenage being pregnant strategy: Further than 2010’; ‘Getting maternity providers right for pregnant teenagers and young fathers’ and so on (Department of Education, 2013) One strategy is the ‘Teenage pregnancy and sexual overall health marketing strategy’. This strategy was introduced in 2009 to help the younger generation feel comfortable discussing aboutsexual wellness such as requesting Chlamydia screening process. This strategy discovered through proof that having better communication, it will decrease sexual health conditions like the Holland. In the Netherlands, they deal with the problem there and then instead of making it wait for a while.

Teenage pregnancy and sexual wellness marketing strategy as well makes advertisements so young adults can watch inside the comfort that belongs to them homes, of course, if they need to get more information they can go to their nearby sexual overall health clinic or perhaps text the free messages service (Department of Overall health, 2009) The sexual wellness charity, Brook, has created a new structure known as ‘Ask Brook’. This service is known as a free of charge and allows young people to text message any queries that they have regarding sexual health or interactions. After sending text messages this support, the young person will receive an answer by a professional sexual health worker inside one time of day. Brook (N. D) is known as a confidential support which will let young people and teenagers to feel at ease with what they inquire the assistance, however , that they state that if perhaps they think someone is danger after they text the service they are going to have to break the confidentiality. This service is a good chance for teenagers and young people to the age of twenty one to ask for advice, even if they don’t want to speak to a health profession in person. It also enables people that originate from deprived backgrounds and whom cannot afford to have mobile phone credit rating to continue to text the service since it is free of charge. (Brook, N. D) Getting maternity services perfect for pregnant teenagers and young fathers was initially introduced by Department of Health in 2008. It was then revised in 2009 when the Department of Health received response from midwives as well as the Fatherhood Start who wished to see even more engagement coming from young dads in pregnancy.

This strategy says that one in fifteen births are to girls under twenty years of age and that young people tend not to get great maternity companies because they are not really taken seriously simply by professionals. In the document it offers information and a guide to get midwives, doctors and maternal support personnel and it also enables these occupations to read so why the Government happen to be focusing on fresh mothers and fathers (Department of Education, 2009). Teenage pregnancy strategy: beyond 2010 presents the expansion that has been manufactured in reducing England’s teenage pregnant state rate between 1998 and 2008; in addition, it shows an assessment the evidence to judge what is being done is community areas and what is successful in lowering the numbers of teenage pregnancies in the UK. This documentincludes information such as, what has changed as 1998, and why adolescent pregnancies matter and what services are better to cope with the issue (Department of Education, 2010) Assisting teenagers who have are pregnant or father and mother ” Sure Start plus National Evaluation was launched by Government in 2001 being a pilot plan for the Teenage pregnancy strategy.

It was introduced to increase health and social effects to get teenage parents and their kids. The examination expected to find what could be discovered from Sure Start Additionally programmes that could be distributed to other programs and related partner companies (Department of Education, 2005). Enabling young people to access birth control method and lovemaking health information and advice is usually ‘the legal and policy framework to get social staff, residential interpersonal a personnel, foster carers and other sociable care practitioners’ (Department of Education, 2013). This project was modified in 2005 from the ‘Teenage Pregnancy Unit (TPU) and Quality Products’ it now gives lovemaking health staff the chance to provide advice and contraception to teenagers that needed it and comprehended the side effects of the contraceptive (Department of Education, 2004). Health inequalities

A overall health inequality is identified as ‘something that puts someone at a disadvantage’ (Marmot, 2005). All health inequalities can be lowered and all happen to be avoidable (Whitehead, 1992). The Government launched and set commitment the NHS prepare, which was brought to tackle overall health inequalities and give a better your life for adults and young people. The NHS Plan has goals which were collection by the Authorities such as ‘Supporting vulnerable people and families’ and also ‘Breaking the pattern of wellness inequalities’, which is mainly about education and giving people a chance to prove themselves; in addition, it try to lessen poverty in great britain which may lessen health inequalities (Nuffield Trust, N. D). Health inequalities consist in any health issue: In accordance to NCB (2013) education is a very likely influence in teenage pregnancy as sexual education is in a low standard and does not show what happens each girl has had the baby by a young age group in detail, it really gives a review on how you obtain pregnancy, safety measures and what happens once you have presented birth just like changing nappies and feeding them.

They don’t find all the info about past due nights, losing friends as well as the risks of death and illness during and after the pregnancy as this is somethingschools usually do not teach those (Independent, 2012). Young girls likewise find that they feel ‘at a loss’ which means that in the event that they do not excel in school and leave with high degrees they will not get a good job having a high salary and therefore will stay in a low place in culture. The only way to get out of this example is to have got a baby and get point out benefits that they can think is actually a large income with only a few outgoings (Why It Matters, 2010). Consequently , education is an inequality because if a teenager would not receive a decent education and knowledge about important subjects such as sex education, also teens would not know what is happening with the body as well as the risks of experiencing unprotected love-making such as sexually transmitted attacks (STI), and in addition pregnancy. However , if a teenage is found to be pregnant and have an STI, it may be very dangerous for the teenager and unborn baby (Baby Center, 2013). Ethnicity and religion happen to be key wellness inequalities as some religions values are not to make use of contraception for that reason safe sex is impossible when being active with the help of a partner.

This is portrayed with Roman Catholicism, their very own belief and the teaching says that you should not really use a barrier in preventing God’s gift of life (Chait, N. D). Relating to Nelson (1982) you must not have sex beyond marriage which is a proven hurdle and in relationship you should not work with contraception as God features chosen you to carry ‘his’ child. In the current society on the other hand teenagers do have sex outside marriage and this has brought on a problem in lack of contraceptive which results in many teenage pregnancy. Other religions that bring about with this teaching will be; Islam because they encourage reproducing life highly and even though it is far from a religious rules it is highly believed you should, like Catholicism, not set a hurdle in the way of what God provides chosen for you personally (BBC, 2009). One more contribution to health inequalities associated into teen pregnancy is definitely location. Should you be from a greater class location your medical treatment will be a great deal better than in a lower class area, it will be possible to see doctors and other health organisations that will be able to present contraception even more easier and quicker compared to a lower school area whom do not have the doctors and organisations since readily available to supply contraception. One more factor in location is country and metropolitan societies.

In accordance to Medline Plus (2013) a countryside location has limited medical resources and may include going to outside of the region which a lot of teenagers may well not know are available, they may likewise worry that theirconfidentiality is limited as their parents or other folks they understand will use precisely the same place, they might not have the money to travel to than urban communities that have many medical organisations such as The Stream which are private and secret and promote this information to young people simpler to access such as in town zones which would not involve excusing yourself to adults and parents intended for going, and are also easier to reach like going for walks or vehicles for you travelling via because they will be better and more repeated (Brook, In. D). Débonnaire (2008) stated that in reducing health inequalities you need to promote six different objectives which are;

‘1. Give every child the very best start in existence

installment payments on your Enable most children, young people and adults to maximise their particular capabilities and have control over all their lives

3. Generate fair work and good work for almost all

5. Ensure healthier standard of living for a lot of

5. Create and develop healthful and eco friendly places and communities

6. Strengthen the part and effects of ill-health prevention. ‘ (Fair Culture, Healthy Lives, 2008)


In summary, teenage pregnant state is common worldwide and is a world issue. Nevertheless , from the data stated over, it can be avoided and decreased with better sex education classes and a lot more media ad this is because teens in today’s culture seem to be considering media and what is new in the media. The approaches I mentioned focus on all areas that can be geared to reduce teenage pregnancy rates in the United Kingdom for free messaging solutions to giving advice to those who need it. The approaches also enable people coming from deprived skills to become involved and query their lovemaking health and sexual acts. Therefore , the Government need to maintain bringing out fresh ideas that may capture the attention of teens in the 21st Century.


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