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What is a knowledge-based system? Something which is built around a understanding base. we. e.

an accumulation knowledge, obtained from a human, and stored in this kind of a way that the system may reason with it. Example: System: What is the person’s name? Customer: George Smith System: Precisely what is the person’s age? Customer: 52 years System: Is a patient male or female? User: Man System: Precisely what are the symptoms? User: Headaches dizziness upset stomach substantial fever System: When performed these symptoms first show up? User: 23/03/2002

System: We conclude the fact that patient contains a viral infection, my advice is that this individual should take two aspirin, drink plenty of substance, get lots of rest. What is knowledge? Knowledge is the kind of information that individuals use to solve problems. Knowledge includes details, concepts, techniques, models, heuristics, etc . Know-how may be: 5. specific or general * exact or fuzzy 5. procedural or declarative Precisely what is an expert program? * A particular kind of knowledge-based system 5. One in which the knowledge, trapped in the knowledge foundation, has been obtained from an expert in a few particular discipline.

Therefore , a professional system can easily, to a certain extent, become a substitute pertaining to the qualified from to whom the knowledge was taken. What is Artificial Cleverness? Artificial Brains (AI) is involved with exploring such areas of human (and other animal) mental activity as: 2. understanding 2. creativity 5. Perception * problem-solving 5. consciousness 5. using vocabulary * Brains by simulating them employing computers. Hence, it is closely associated with such sociable sciences while: * mindset * linguistics * idea Applied Manufactured Intelligence

What is applied AI? Applied AJE is concerned with producing computer software which is “intelligent It is intelligent in that it is based on what we should know about human being reasoning and other mental capabilities We are for that reason talking about a branch of advanced computing , computer technology , rather than cultural science Knowledge engineering The word “knowledge engineering is often used to mean the process of designing, building and installing an expert program or various other knowledge-based system. Some writers use the term to imply just the expertise acquisition stage. Experts

A professional is a skilled practitioner in his/her particular field. More than this, he/she is a highly effective problem-solver and decision-taker in that field. Experts possess three characteristics: * Earning good decisions * Earning those decisions quickly * They are able to cope with a wide range of challenges. Experts and expert devices Note that: The job that an professional system works will generally be regarded as difficult. An experienced system more often than not operates in an extremely narrow field of knowledge. The field expertise is called the knowledge domain from the system.

There are many fields where expert systems can usefully be built. There are also a large number of fields where they can’t. Be aware also that an experienced can usually clarify and rationalize his/her decisions. Reasons for building an Electronic. S. One particular might build an expert system for any or perhaps all of the next reasons: 5. To archive an expert’s knowledge, to insure up against the day the moment he/she leaves, or retires, or drops dead. * To disseminate his or her knowledge, so that it is available in more (possibly many more) spots than the precise location of the expert. 5. To ensure order, regularity of advice/decisions. As a basis for schooling other specialists. Advantages of experienced systems Elizabeth. S. have the following advantages over man experts: * The knowledge is usually permanent * The knowledge is easily replicated * The knowledge is represented clearly, and can be assessed * The program is constant , although human practitioners have negative days, personal computers don’t. 2. Once constructed, running costs are low Disadvantages of expert systems a) Producing an expert program usually costs a great deal of period & cash b) In the past, there has been a high failure price in At the.

S. tasks * The project may well fail during development , most likely throughout the “knowledge acquisition phase. 5. The development may succeed, however the organisation may fail to acknowledge and make use of the finished system. c) A person expert can easily update his or her knowledge in the light of * Sound judgment * Understanding derived from additional domain * Contacts with other experts. A professional system won’t be able to. Choosing a great E. T. project a) Because of cost, and the threat of failure, it is important that Electronic. S. tasks are cautiously chosen. ) The expense has to be justified, inside the light in the possible benefits. c) E. S. technology must be ideal a. the best kind of knowledge is engaged b. Ensure it isn’t a problem which conventional programming could do better. d) Management, plus the participants, must support the project completely. Possible experienced systems , case chronicles For conversation, The following seven problem areas might, or may not, be appropriate for computerisation as professional systems. * A certain third world country includes a large inhabitants, very few skilled doctors, and insufficient methods to train many more.

It is suggested to provide paramedics, who can be trained relatively inexpensively and easily and easily, with medical sets and portable PCs, each PC to get loaded with an experienced system that can advise on the diagnosis and treatment of various common illnesses. * The housing section in a regional English town is overworked, although the personnel turnover is very low. Much of the work employees do requires interviewing customers, and there is a pattern of questioning (which varies into a limited level, depending on the conditions of the client). It is suggested to build an expert system, that will direct the questioning process. A firm of wine importers relies heavily on the chief wine beverages expert, that is skilled by selecting wines that are destined to be well-known, on the basis of all their taste, color, scent etc . She is soon to cease working. It is suggested to build a specialist system which will enable some of several jr wine specialists to do her job. * An education specialist has a severe shortage of main school teachers. It is proposed that the expert system should be developed which can complete the task of teaching The english language and arithmetic to five year old children. * A software company suggests to build a specialist system that may perform book-keeping for little commercial worries. A large maker of diesel-powered electric train locomotives has challenges in rendering enough protection personnel who also are completely skilled to get faults in these (highly complex) locomotives. They propose to generate an expert program which can carry out fault location on such a machine. * A mineral exploitation company wishes to extend the operations, which in turn involve trying to find hitherto undocumented deposits of valuable steel ores. It really is short of trained geologists. That proposes to develop an expert system which can determine a geological site and come to a conclusion about how likely it truly is that there is an experienced mineral first deposit there.

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